MLL (gene)

MLL (gene)
Myeloid/lymphoid or mixed-lineage leukemia (trithorax homolog, Drosophila)

PDB rendering based on 2j2s.
External IDs OMIM159555 MGI96995 HomoloGene4338 GeneCards: MLL Gene
EC number
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE MLL 212080 at tn.png
PBB GE MLL 212076 at tn.png
PBB GE MLL 212078 s at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 4297 214162
Ensembl ENSG00000118058 ENSMUSG00000002028
UniProt Q03164 Q5DTR3
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_001197104.1 NM_001081049.1
RefSeq (protein) NP_001184033.1 NP_001074518.1
Location (UCSC) Chr 11:
118.31 – 118.4 Mb
Chr 9:
44.61 – 44.69 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Histone-lysine N-methyltransferase HRX is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MLL (ALL1) gene.[1]

MLL is a histone methyltransferase deemed a positive global regulator of gene transcription. This protein belongs to the group of histone-modifying enzymes comprising transactivation domain 9aaTAD[2] and is involved in the epigenetic maintenance of transcriptional memory.

Rearrangements of the MLL gene are associated with aggressive acute leukemias (ALL).[3] It also may participate in the process of GAD67 downregulation in schizophrenia.[4]



MLL (gene) has been shown to interact with HDAC1,[5] PPP1R15A,[6] Host cell factor C1,[7] MEN1,[7] RBBP5,[7] ASH2L,[7] CREB binding protein,[8][9] WDR5,[7] CTBP1[5] and PPIE.[10]


  1. ^ Ziemin-van der Poel S (January 1992). "Identification of a gene, MLL, that spans the breakpoint in 11q23 translocations associated with human leukemias". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 88 (23): 10735–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.88.23.10735. PMC 53005. PMID 1720549. 
  2. ^ Piskacek S, Gregor M, Nemethova M, Grabner M, Kovarik P, Piskacek M (June 2007). "Nine-amino-acid transactivation domain: establishment and prediction utilities". Genomics 89 (6): 756–68. doi:10.1016/j.ygeno.2007.02.003. PMID 17467953. ; Piskacek M (November 2009). "Common Transactivation Motif 9aaTAD recruits multiple general co-activators TAF9, MED15, CBP and p300". Nature Precedings: Prepublication research and preliminary findings. doi:10.1038/npre.2009.3488.2. ; Piskacek M (November 2009). "9aaTADs mimic DNA to interact with a pseudo-DNA Binding Domain KIX of Med15 (Molecular Chameleons)". Nature Preceedings: Prepublication research and preliminary findings. doi:10.1038/npre.2009.3939.1. ; Goto NK, Zor T, Martinez-Yamout M, Dyson HJ, Wright PE (November 2002). "Cooperativity in transcription factor binding to the coactivator CREB-binding protein (CBP). The mixed lineage leukemia protein (MLL) activation domain binds to an allosteric site on the KIX domain". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (45): 43168–74. doi:10.1074/jbc.M207660200. PMID 12205094. ; Prasad R, Yano T, Sorio C, Nakamura T, Rallapalli R, Gu Y, Leshkowitz D, Croce CM, Canaani E (December 1995). "Domains with transcriptional regulatory activity within the ALL1 and AF4 proteins involved in acute leukemia". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92 (26): 12160–4. doi:10.1073/pnas.92.26.12160. PMC 40316. PMID 8618864. ; Ernst P, Wang J, Huang M, Goodman RH, Korsmeyer SJ (April 2001). "MLL and CREB Bind Cooperatively to the Nuclear Coactivator CREB-Binding Protein". Mol. Cell. Biol. 21 (7): 2249–58. doi:10.1128/MCB.21.7.2249-2258.2001. PMC 86859. PMID 11259575. 
  3. ^ Guenther MG, Jenner RG, Chevalier B, Nakamura T, Croce CM, Canaani E, Young RA (June 2005). "Global and Hox-specific roles for the MLL1 methyltransferase". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102 (24): 8603–8. doi:10.1073/pnas.0503072102. PMC 1150839. PMID 15941828. 
  4. ^ Huang HS, Matevossian A, Whittle C, Kim SY, Schumacher A, Baker SP, Akbarian S (October 2007). "Prefrontal dysfunction in schizophrenia involves mixed-lineage leukemia 1-regulated histone methylation at GABAergic gene promoters". J. Neurosci. 27 (42): 11254–62. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3272-07.2007. PMID 17942719. 
  5. ^ a b Xia, Zhen-Biao; Anderson Melanie, Diaz Manuel O, Zeleznik-Le Nancy J (July 2003). "MLL repression domain interacts with histone deacetylases, the polycomb group proteins HPC2 and BMI-1, and the corepressor C-terminal-binding protein". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (United States) 100 (14): 8342–7. doi:10.1073/pnas.1436338100. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 166231. PMID 12829790. 
  6. ^ Adler, H T; Chinery R, Wu D Y, Kussick S J, Payne J M, Fornace A J, Tkachuk D C (October 1999). "Leukemic HRX Fusion Proteins Inhibit GADD34-Induced Apoptosis and Associate with the GADD34 and hSNF5/INI1 Proteins". Mol. Cell. Biol. (UNITED STATES) 19 (10): 7050–60. ISSN 0270-7306. PMC 84700. PMID 10490642. 
  7. ^ a b c d e Yokoyama, Akihiko; Wang Zhong, Wysocka Joanna, Sanyal Mrinmoy, Aufiero Deborah J, Kitabayashi Issay, Herr Winship, Cleary Michael L (July 2004). "Leukemia Proto-Oncoprotein MLL Forms a SET1-Like Histone Methyltransferase Complex with Menin To Regulate Hox Gene Expression". Mol. Cell. Biol. (United States) 24 (13): 5639–49. doi:10.1128/MCB.24.13.5639-5649.2004. ISSN 0270-7306. PMC 480881. PMID 15199122. 
  8. ^ Goto, Natalie K; Zor Tsaffrir, Martinez-Yamout Maria, Dyson H Jane, Wright Peter E (November 2002). "Cooperativity in transcription factor binding to the coactivator CREB-binding protein (CBP). The mixed lineage leukemia protein (MLL) activation domain binds to an allosteric site on the KIX domain". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 277 (45): 43168–74. doi:10.1074/jbc.M207660200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 12205094. 
  9. ^ Ernst, P; Wang J, Huang M, Goodman R H, Korsmeyer S J (April 2001). "MLL and CREB Bind Cooperatively to the Nuclear Coactivator CREB-Binding Protein". Mol. Cell. Biol. (United States) 21 (7): 2249–58. doi:10.1128/MCB.21.7.2249-2258.2001. ISSN 0270-7306. PMC 86859. PMID 11259575. 
  10. ^ Fair, K; Anderson M, Bulanova E, Mi H, Tropschug M, Diaz M O (May 2001). "Protein Interactions of the MLL PHD Fingers Modulate MLL Target Gene Regulation in Human Cells". Mol. Cell. Biol. (United States) 21 (10): 3589–97. doi:10.1128/MCB.21.10.3589-3597.2001. ISSN 0270-7306. PMC 100280. PMID 11313484. 

Further reading

  • Marschalek R, Nilson I, Löchner K et al. (1998). "The structure of the human ALL-1/MLL/HRX gene". Leuk. Lymphoma 27 (5–6): 417–28. doi:10.3109/10428199709058308. PMID 9477123. 
  • Eguchi M, Eguchi-Ishimae M, Greaves M (2004). "The role of the MLL gene in infant leukemia". Int. J. Hematol. 78 (5): 390–401. doi:10.1007/BF02983811. PMID 14704031. 
  • Daser A, Rabbitts TH (2004). "Extending the repertoire of the mixed-lineage leukemia gene MLL in leukemogenesis". Genes Dev. 18 (9): 965–74. doi:10.1101/gad.1195504. PMID 15132992. 
  • Li ZY, Liu DP, Liang CC (2005). "New insight into the molecular mechanisms of MLL-associated leukemia". Leukemia 19 (2): 183–90. doi:10.1038/sj.leu.2403602. PMID 15618964. 
  • Douet-Guilbert N, Morel F, Le Bris MJ et al. (2005). "Rearrangement of MLL in a patient with congenital acute monoblastic leukemia and granulocytic sarcoma associated with a t(1;11)(p36;q23) translocation". Leuk. Lymphoma 46 (1): 143–6. doi:10.1080/104281904000010783. PMID 15621793. 

External links

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