Calcitriol receptor

Calcitriol receptor
Vitamin D (1,25- dihydroxyvitamin D3) receptor

PDB rendering based on 1kb2.
Symbols VDR; NR1I1
External IDs OMIM601769 MGI103076 HomoloGene37297 IUPHAR: NR1I1 GeneCards: VDR Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE VDR 204254 s at tn.png
PBB GE VDR 204253 s at tn.png
PBB GE VDR 204255 s at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 7421 22337
Ensembl ENSG00000111424 ENSMUSG00000022479
UniProt P11473 Q3U0J7
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_000376 NM_009504
RefSeq (protein) NP_000367 NP_033530
Location (UCSC) Chr 12:
46.52 – 46.59 Mb
Chr 15:
97.68 – 97.74 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

The calcitriol receptor, also known as the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and also known as NR1I1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group I, member 1), is a member of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors.[1] Upon activation by vitamin D, the VDR forms a heterodimer with the retinoid-X receptor and binds to hormone response elements on DNA resulting in expression or transrepression of specific geneproducts. In humans, the vitamin D receptor is encoded by the VDR gene.[2]

Glucocorticoids are known to decrease expression of VDR, which is expressed in most tissues of the body and regulate intestinal transport of calcium.



This gene encodes the nuclear hormone receptor for vitamin D3. This receptor also functions as a receptor for the secondary bile acid lithocholic acid. The receptor belongs to the family of trans-acting transcriptional regulatory factors and shows similarity of sequence to the steroid and thyroid hormone receptors.[3]

Downstream targets of this nuclear hormone receptor are involved principally in mineral metabolism though the receptor regulates a variety of other metabolic pathways, such as those involved in the immune response and cancer.[4]

Mutations in this gene are associated with type II vitamin D-resistant rickets. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the initiation codon results in an alternate translation start site three codons downstream. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding the same protein.[5]

The vitamin D receptor plays an important role in regulating the hair cycle. Loss of VDR is associated with hair loss in experimental animals.[6]


Calcitriol receptor has been shown to interact with


  1. ^ Moore DD, Kato S, Xie W, Mangelsdorf DJ, Schmidt DR, Xiao R, Kliewer SA (December 2006). "International Union of Pharmacology. LXII. The NR1H and NR1I receptors: constitutive androstane receptor, pregnene X receptor, farnesoid X receptor alpha, farnesoid X receptor beta, liver X receptor alpha, liver X receptor beta, and vitamin D receptor". Pharmacol. Rev. 58 (4): 742–59. doi:10.1124/pr.58.4.6. PMID 17132852. 
  2. ^ Szpirer J, Szpirer C, Riviere M, Levan G, Marynen P, Cassiman JJ, Wiese R, DeLuca HF (September 1991). "The Sp1 transcription factor gene (SP1) and the 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor gene (VDR) are colocalized on human chromosome arm 12q and rat chromosome 7". Genomics 11 (1): 168–73. doi:10.1016/0888-7543(91)90114-T. PMID 1662663. 
  3. ^ Germain P, Staels B, Dacquet C, Spedding M, Laudet V (December 2006). "Overview of nomenclature of nuclear receptors". Pharmacol. Rev. 58 (4): 685–704. doi:10.1124/pr.58.4.2. PMID 17132848. 
  4. ^ Adorini L, Daniel KC, Penna G (2006). "Vitamin D receptor agonists, cancer and the immune system: an intricate relationship". Curr Top Med Chem 6 (12): 1297–301. doi:10.2174/156802606777864890. PMID 16848743. 
  5. ^ "Entrez Gene: VDR vitamin D (1,25- dihydroxyvitamin D3) receptor". 
  6. ^ Luderer HF, Demay MB (July 2010). "The vitamin D receptor, the skin and stem cells". J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 121 (1–2): 314–6. doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2010.01.015. PMID 20138991. 
  7. ^ Guzey M, Takayama S, Reed JC (December 2000). "BAG1L enhances trans-activation function of the vitamin D receptor". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (52): 40749–56. doi:10.1074/jbc.M004977200. PMID 10967105. 
  8. ^ a b c d e Kitagawa H, Fujiki R, Yoshimura K, Mezaki Y, Uematsu Y, Matsui D, Ogawa S, Unno K, Okubo M, Tokita A, Nakagawa T, Ito T, Ishimi Y, Nagasawa H, Matsumoto T, Yanagisawa J, Kato S (June 2003). "The chromatin-remodeling complex WINAC targets a nuclear receptor to promoters and is impaired in Williams syndrome". Cell 113 (7): 905–17. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(03)00436-7. PMID 12837248. 
  9. ^ Zhao G, Simpson RU (2010). "Membrane Localization, Caveolin-3 Association and Rapid Actions of Vitamin D Receptor in Cardiac Myocytes". Steroids 75 (8–9): 555–9. doi:10.1016/j.steroids.2009.12.001. PMC 2885558. PMID 20015453. 
  10. ^ a b Ito M, Yuan CX, Malik S, Gu W, Fondell JD, Yamamura S, Fu ZY, Zhang X, Qin J, Roeder RG (March 1999). "Identity between TRAP and SMCC complexes indicates novel pathways for the function of nuclear receptors and diverse mammalian activators". Mol. Cell 3 (3): 361–70. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(00)80463-3. PMID 10198638. 
  11. ^ a b Tagami T, Lutz WH, Kumar R, Jameson JL (December 1998). "The interaction of the vitamin D receptor with nuclear receptor corepressors and coactivators". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 253 (2): 358–63. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1998.9799. PMID 9878542. 
  12. ^ a b c d Puccetti E, Obradovic D, Beissert T, Bianchini A, Washburn B, Chiaradonna F, Boehrer S, Hoelzer D, Ottmann OG, Pelicci PG, Nervi C, Ruthardt M (December 2002). "AML-associated translocation products block vitamin D(3)-induced differentiation by sequestering the vitamin D(3) receptor". Cancer Res. 62 (23): 7050–8. PMID 12460926. 
  13. ^ Herdick M, Steinmeyer A, Carlberg C (June 2000). "Antagonistic action of a 25-carboxylic ester analogue of 1alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 is mediated by a lack of ligand-induced vitamin D receptor interaction with coactivators". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (22): 16506–12. doi:10.1074/jbc.M910000199. PMID 10748178. 
  14. ^ a b c Zhang C, Baudino TA, Dowd DR, Tokumaru H, Wang W, MacDonald PN (November 2001). "Ternary complexes and cooperative interplay between NCoA-62/Ski-interacting protein and steroid receptor coactivators in vitamin D receptor-mediated transcription". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (44): 40614–20. doi:10.1074/jbc.M106263200. PMID 11514567. 
  15. ^ He B, Wilson EM (March 2003). "Electrostatic Modulation in Steroid Receptor Recruitment of LXXLL and FXXLF Motifs". Mol. Cell. Biol. 23 (6): 2135–50. doi:10.1128/MCB.23.6.2135-2150.2003. PMC 149467. PMID 12612084. 
  16. ^ a b Baudino TA, Kraichely DM, Jefcoat SC, Winchester SK, Partridge NC, MacDonald PN (June 1998). "Isolation and characterization of a novel coactivator protein, NCoA-62, involved in vitamin D-mediated transcription". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (26): 16434–41. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.26.16434. PMID 9632709. 
  17. ^ Vidal M, Ramana CV, Dusso AS (April 2002). "Stat1-Vitamin D Receptor Interactions Antagonize 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D Transcriptional Activity and Enhance Stat1-Mediated Transcription". Mol. Cell. Biol. 22 (8): 2777–87. doi:10.1128/MCB.22.8.2777-2787.2002. PMC 133712. PMID 11909970. 
  18. ^ Ward JO, McConnell MJ, Carlile GW, Pandolfi PP, Licht JD, Freedman LP (December 2001). "The acute promyelocytic leukemia-associated protein, promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger, regulates 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3)-induced monocytic differentiation of U937 cells through a physical interaction with vitamin D(3) receptor". Blood 98 (12): 3290–300. doi:10.1182/blood.V98.12.3290. PMID 11719366. 

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This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.

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