- Global cuisines
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- Note: This article is organized by continent, — there may be some link overlap due to varying conventions and models of continental definition.
Global cuisines can be defined as cuisine based upon global, continental, national, state or local regions; essentially as cuisines of the world. Cuisine is a characteristic style of cooking practices and traditions, often associated with a specific culture. Global cuisines may vary based upon food availability and trade, various climates and ecosystems, cooking traditions and practices, and cultural differences. Regional food preparation traditions, customs and ingredients often coalesce to create dishes unique to a particular region, and regional cuisines are often named after the geographic areas or regions they originate from. There have been significant improvements during the last century in food preservation, storage, shipping and production, and today most countries, cities and regions have access to their traditional cuisines and many other global cuisines. New cuisines continue to evolve in contemporary times. For example, fusion cuisine combines elements of various culinary traditions while not being categorized per any one cuisine style, and can pertain to innovations in many contemporary cuisines.
- 1 Africa
- 2 Asia
- 3 Europe
- 4 Middle East
- 5 North America
- 6 Oceania
- 7 South America
- 8 Examples of global cuisines
- 9 See also
- 10 Notes and references
- 11 Sources
- 12 Further reading
- 13 External links
African cuisine is a generalized term collectively referring to the cuisines of Africa. The continent of Africa is the second largest landmass on Earth, and is home to hundreds of different cultural and ethnic groups. This diversity is also reflected in the many local culinary traditions in terms of choice of ingredients, style of preparation and cooking techniques.
Traditionally, the various cuisines of Africa use a combination of locally available fruits, cereal grains and vegetables, as well as milk and meat products. In some parts of the continent, the traditional diet features a preponderance of milk, curd and whey products. In much of Tropical Africa, however, cow's milk is rare and cannot be produced locally (owing to various diseases that affect livestock). Depending on the region, there are also sometimes quite significant differences in the eating and drinking habits and proclivities throughout the continent's many populations: Central Africa, East Africa, the Horn of Africa, North Africa, Southern Africa and West Africa each have their own distinctive dishes, preparation techniques, and consumption mores.
- Algeria is a distinct fusion of Middle Eastern and Mediterranean cuisines.
- Angolan cuisine is the cuisine of Angola, a country in south-central Africa. Because Angola was a Portuguese colony for centuries, Portuguese cuisine has significantly influenced Angolan cuisine, with many foods imported into Angola by the Portuguese.
- Benin cuisine is known in Africa for its and exotic ingredients and flavorful dishes. Beninese cuisine involves lots of fresh meals served with a variety of sauces. Meat is usually quite expensive, and meals are generally light on meat and generous on vegetable fat.
- Botswana is unique but also shares some characteristics with other cuisine of Southern Africa. Examples of Botswana food include Pap, Samp, Vetkoek and Mopane worms. A food unique to Botswana includes seswaa, heavily salted mashed-up meat.
- Burkina Faso is the cuisine of Burkina Faso. It's similar to the cuisines in many parts of West Africa, and is based around staple foods of sorghum, millet, rice, maize, peanuts, potatoes, beans, yams and okra. Grilled meat is common, particularly mutton, goat, beef and fish.
- Burundi - Burundi is situated in Central Africa and has a territory full of mountains, savannas and agricultural fields, with forests in the surrounding of rivers and waters. Agriculture is spread on 80% of the country’s surface and it especially includes coffee, tea, corn, beans and manioc.
- Cameroon is one of the most varied in Africa due to its location on the crossroads between the north, west, and centre of the continent; added to this is the profound influence of French food, a legacy of the colonial era.
- Cape Verde - The Cape Verde diet is mostly based on fish and staple foods like corn and rice. Vegetables available during most of the year are potatoes, onions, tomatoes, manioc, cabbage, kale, and dried beans. Fruits such as banana and papayas are available year-round, while others like mangos and avocados are seasonal.
- Centrafrican (Central African Republic) is the cooking traditions, practices, foods and dishes associated with the Central African Republic. The diet is heavy on staple starches such as millet and sorghum, and utilizes a significant amount of vegetables and sauces.
- Chadian cuisine is the cooking traditions, practices, foods and dishes associated with the Republic of Chad. Chadians utilize a variety of grains, vegetables, fruits and meats. Commonly consumed grains include millet, sorghum and rice as staple foods.
- The Republic of the Congo
- Congolese cuisine (Democratic Republic of the Congo) cuisine varies widely, representing the food of indigenous people. Cassava is generally the staple food usually eaten with other side dishes.
- Djiboutian cuisine
- Egyptian cuisine consists of the local culinary traditions of Egypt. Egyptian cuisine makes heavy use of legumes and vegetables, as Egypt's rich Nile Valley and Delta produce large quantities of high-quality crops.
- Egyptian wine
- Equatorial Guinean cuisine
- Eritrean cuisine is a fusion of Eritrea's native culinary traditions, and the area's long history of trade and social interchanges with other regions and cultures.
- Ethiopian cuisine and Eritrean cuisine characteristically consist of spicy vegetable and meat dishes, usually in the form of wat (or wot), a thick stew, served atop injera, a large sourdough flatbread, which is about 50 centimeters (20 inches) in diameter and made out of fermented teff flour. Ethiopians eat with their right hands, using pieces of injera to pick up bites of entrées and side dishes. Utensils are rarely used with this dish.
- Gabonese cuisine is the cooking traditions, practices, foods and dishes associated with the sovereign state of Gabon. French cuisine is prevalent as a notable influence, and in larger cities various french specialties are available. In rural areas, food staples such as cassava, rice and yams are commonly used.
- Gambian cuisine
- Guinean cuisine
- Guinea-Bissauan cuisine
- Ghanaian cuisine is the cuisine of Ghana. There are diverse traditional dishes from each ethnic group, tribe and clan from the north to the south and from the east to west. Foods also vary according to the season, time of the day and occasion.
- Ivorian (Côte d'Ivoire) is the traditional cuisine of Côte d'Ivoire, or the Ivory Coast, and is is based on tubers, grains, chicken, seafood, fish, fresh fruits, vegetables and spices and is very similar to that of neighboring countries in west Africa. Common staple foods include grains and tubers. Côte d'Ivoire is one of the largest cocoa producers in the world, and also produces palm oil and coffee.
- Kenyan cuisine There is no singular dish that represents all of Kenya. Different communities have their own native foods. Staples are maize and other cereals depending on the region including millet and sorghum eaten with various meats and vegetables. The foods that are universally eaten in Kenya are ugali, sukuma wiki, and nyama choma.
- Lesothoan cuisine
- Liberian cuisine
- Libyan cuisine is the cooking traditions, practices, foods and dishes associated with the country of Libya. The cuisine derives much from the culinary traditions of the Mediterranean and North Africa, with an Italian influence, a legacy from the days when Libya was an Italian colony.
- Malagasy cuisine encompasses the many diverse culinary traditions of the Indian Ocean island of Madagascar.
- Cuisine of Malawi
- Cuisine of Mali
- Cuisine of Mauritania
- Cuisine of Mauritius
- Moroccan cuisine is extremely diverse, thanks to Morocco's interaction with other cultures and nations over the centuries. Moroccan cuisine has been subject to Berber, Moorish, Mediterranean, and Arab influences. The cooks in the royal kitchens of Fez, Meknes, Marrakesh, Rabat and Tetouan refined it over the centuries and created the basis for what is known as Moroccan cuisine today.
- Mozambique - Present for nearly 500 years, the Portuguese greatly impacted the cuisine of Mozambique. Crops such as cassava (a starchy root) and cashew nuts (Mozambique was once the largest producer of these nuts), and pãozinho (pronounced pow-zing-yo; Portuguese-style bread rolls) were brought in by the Portuguese.
- Namibian cuisine is the cuisine of Namibia. It's influenced by cookery practiced by indigenous people of Namibia and Settler cookery introduced during the colonial period by people of German, Afrikaner and British descent.
- The Cuisine of Niger reflects many traditional African cuisines, and a significant amount of spices are used in dishes. Grilled meats, seasonal vegetables, salads and various sauces are some of the foods consumed.
- Nigerian cuisine - Like other West African cuisines, it uses spices, herbs in conjunction with palm oil or groundnut oil to create deeply-flavoured sauces and soups often made very hot with chili peppers. Nigerian feasts are colourful and lavish, while aromatic market and roadside snacks cooked on barbecues or fried in oil are plentiful and varied.
- Rwandan cuisine is based on local staple foods produced by the traditional subsistence-level agriculture and has historically varied between the country's different ethnic groups.
- São Tomé and Príncipe
- Senegalese cuisine has been influenced by nations like France, Portugal, and those of North Africa, and also by many ethnic groups, the largest being the Wolof; Islam, which first penetrated the region in the 11th century; and various European cultures, especially the French, who held the country as a colony until 1960.
- Seychellois cuisine
- Sierra Leonean cuisine refers to the cuisine and eating styles found in the Republic of Sierra Leone, a country in West Africa. Sierra Leonean cuisine includes cassava bread, fried fish, and okra soup.
- Somalian cuisine varies from region to region and is a mixture of native Somali, Ethiopian, Yemeni, Persian, Turkish, Indian and Italian influences.
- South African cuisine is sometimes called "rainbow cuisine", as it has had a variety of multicultural sources and stages. Influences include indigenous practices and settler cookery that immigrants practiced.
- Sudanese cuisine is varied by region, and greatly affected by the cross-cultural influences upon Sudan throughout history. In addition to the influences of the indigenous African peoples, the cuisine was influenced by Arab traders and settlers during the Ottoman Empire, who introduced spices such as red pepper and garlic.
- Cuisine of Swaziland is largely determined by the seasons and the geographical region. Staple foods in Swaziland include sorghum and maize, often served with goat meat, a very popular livestock there.
- Tanzanian cuisine Along the coastal regions (Dar-es-salaam, Tanga, Bagamoyo, Zanzibar & Pemba), spicy foods are common, and there is also much use of coconut milk. Regions in Tanzania's mainland also have their own unique foods.
- Togolese cuisine is the cuisine of the Togolese Republic, a country in Western Africa. It's often a combination of African, French and German cuisines. The cuisine has many sauces and patés, many of which are made from eggplant, tomato, spinach and fish.
- Tunisian cuisine is the cuisine of Tunisia, a blend of Mediterranean and desert dwellers' culinary traditions. Its distinctive spicy fieriness comes from neighbouring Mediterranean countries and the many civilizations which have ruled the land now known as Tunisia: Phoenicians, Romans, Arabs, Ottoman Empire, French, and the native Berber people.
- Ugandan cuisine consists of traditional and modern cooking styles, practices, foods and dishes in Uganda, with English, Arab, Asian and especially Indian influences. Like the cuisines of most countries, it varies in complexity, from the most basic, a starchy filler with a sauce of beans or meat, to several-course meals served in upper-class homes and high-end restaurants.
- Western Saharan cuisine
- Zambian cuisine - The Zambian staple diet is based on maize. It is normally eaten as a thick porridge, called Nshima (Nyanja Word), prepared from maize flour commonly known as mealie meal. This may be eaten with a variety of vegetables, beans, meat, fish or sour milk depending on geographical location/origin.
- Zimbabwean cuisine - like in many African countries, the majority of Zimbabweans depend on a few staple foods. "Mealie meal", also known as cornmeal, is used to prepare Sadza or Isitshwala and porridge known asBota or ilambazi.
- Central African cuisine can be considered as traditional because of the remote nature of the region, which remained relatively isolated until the 19th century. Some foods, such as cassava (a food staple in Central Africa), groundnuts (peanuts) and chili peppers were imported from the New World. Plantains are also common in Central African cuisine. Meats, such as crocodile, antelope, monkey and warthog, are sometimes hunted in the forests. Bambra is a porridge made from cooked rice, peanut butter and sugar. A jomba is the bundling of foods in fresh green plantain leaves and then cooking them over hot coals or fire.
- East African cuisine: East Africa is the eastern region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. In the UN scheme of geographic regions, 19 territories constitute Eastern Africa: This is a vast region with many diverse cuisines.
- Horn African cuisine: The Horn of Africa is a peninsula in East Africa that juts hundreds of kilometers into the Arabian Sea and lies along the southern side of the Gulf of Aden. Besides sharing similar geographic features, the countries of the Horn of Africa are, for the most part, linguistically and ethnically linked together. Cuisine in the region involves many cooking techniques and ingredients. The main traditional dishes in Eritrean cuisine are tsebhis (stews) served with injera (flatbread made from teff, wheat, or sorghum), and hilbet (paste made from legumes, mainly lentil, faba beans). Common Ethiopian cuisine consists of various vegetable or meat side dishes and entrées, usually a wat, or thick stew, served atop or scooped with injera, a large sourdough flatbread made of teff flour, the dough of which is fermented for several days before cooking. Somalian cuisine varies from region to region and consists of an exotic mixture of diverse culinary influences. It is a product of Somalia's rich tradition of trade and commerce. Xalwo or halva is a popular confection served during special occasions such as Eid celebrations or wedding receptions.
- North African cuisine includes cuisines from regions along the Mediterranean Sea, inland areas and includes several nations, including Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. In North African cuisine, the most common staple foods are meat, seafood, goat, lamb, beef, dates, almonds, olives, various vegetables and fruit. Because the region is predominantly Muslim, halal meats are usually eaten. The best-known North African/Berber dish abroad is surely couscous.
- South African cuisine is sometimes referred to as "rainbow cuisine" because it's based on multicultural and various indigenous cuisines. Curried dishes are popular with lemon juice in South Africa among people of all ethnic origins; many dishes came to the country with the thousands of Indian labourers brought to South Africa in the nineteenth century. South African cuisine can be defined as cookery practiced by indigenous people of South Africa such as the Khoisan and Xhosa, Zulu- and Sotho-speaking people, and settler cookery that emerged from several waves of immigration introduced during the colonial period by people of Indian and Afrikaner and British descent and their slaves and servants.
- West African cuisine refers to many distinct regional and ethnic cuisines in West African nations, a large geographic area with climates ranging from desert to tropical. Some of the region's indigenous plants, such as hausa groundnuts, pigeon peas and cowpeas provide dietary protein for both people and livestock. Many significant spices, stimulants and medicinal herbs originated in the evergreen and deciduous forests of Western Africa. Ancient Africans domesticated the kola nut and coffee, now used globally in beverages.
- Malagasy cuisine is the cuisine of the island country of Madagascar, located in the Indian Ocean off the southeastern coast of Africa. Madagascans are mostly Malayan Polynesian, along with Africans, Arabs, Indians and Europeans. Rice is a common staple food, and fruits and vegetables are prominent in the cuisine. Pineapples, mangoes, peaches, grapes, avocados and lichee nuts are grown on the island. Meats include chicken, beef and fish, and curry dishes are common. A common food is laoka, a mixture of cooked foods served atop rice. Laoka are most often served in some kind of sauce: in the highlands, this sauce is generally tomato-based, while in coastal areas coconut milk is often added during cooking.
Asia is the world's largest and most populous continent, covers 29.9% of the Earth's total land area, has approximately 4 billion people and hosts 60% of the world's current human population. As such, Asia has numerous cuisines. Asian cuisine styles can be broken down into several regional styles that have roots in the peoples and cultures of those regions. The major types can be roughly defined as East Asian with its origins in Imperial China and now encompassing modern Japan and the Korean peninsula; Southeast Asian which encompasses Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Viet Nam, Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and the Philippines; South Asian derived the states that once made up British India – Burma, India, Sri Lanka and Pakistan as well as several other countries in this region of the continent; Central Asian and Middle Eastern.
- Kazakh cuisine is the cuisine of Kazakhstan. Traditional Kazakh cuisine revolves around mutton and horse meat and as well as various milk products. For hundreds of years Kazakhs were herders who raised fat-tailed sheep, Bactrian camels, and horses, relying on these animals for transportation, clothing, and food.
- Kyrgyz cuisine originating in Kyrgyzstan, is similar in many respects to that of its neighbors, particularly Kazakh cuisine. Traditional Kyrgyz food includes mutton and horse meat, and milk products. The cooking techniques and major ingredients have been strongly influenced by the nation's nomadic way of life.
- Mongolian cuisine refers to the local culinary traditions of Mongolia and Mongolian styled dishes. The extreme continental climate has affected the traditional diet, so the Mongolian cuisine primarily consists of dairy products, meat, and animal fats. Use of vegetables and spices is limited.
- Tajik cuisine, the traditional cuisine of Tajikistan, has much in common with Iranian, Afghan and Uzbek cuisines. Plov, also called osh, is the national dish in Tajikistan, as in other countries in the region. It consists of chunks of mutton, carrots and rice fried in a large cast-iron cauldron similar to a Dutch oven. Green tea is the national drink. Traditional Tajik meals start with a spread of dried fruit, nuts, halwa, and other sweets arrayed on the table in small dishes, and then progress to soup and meat, before finishing with plov.
- Turkmen cuisine, the cuisine of Turkmenistan, is similar to that of the rest of Central Asia. Plov is the staple, everyday food, which is also served at celebrations. Turkmenistan is perhaps most famous for its melons, especially in the former Soviet Union, where it was once the major supplier. Meals are almost always served with Naan, Central Asian flat bread, known locally as "çörek."
- Uzbek cuisine is influenced by local agriculture, as in most nations. There is a great deal of grain farming in Uzbekistan, so breads and noodles are of importance, and Uzbek cuisine has been characterized as "noodle-rich". Mutton is a popular variety of meat due to the abundance of sheep in the country and it is a part of various Uzbek dishes.
Traditional Chinese cuisines include Anhui, Cantonese, Fujian, Hunan, Jiangsu, Shandong, Szechuan, and Zhejiang, all of which are defined and termed per the respective regions within China where they developed. These regional cuisines are sometimes referred to as the "eight culinary traditions of China." A number of different styles contribute to Chinese cuisine, but perhaps the best known and most influential are the Szechuan, Shandong, Jiangsu and Guangdong cuisines. These styles are distinctive from one another due to factors such as available resources, climate, geography, history, cooking techniques and lifestyle. Many Chinese traditional regional cuisines rely on basic methods of food preservation such as drying, salting, pickling and fermentation.
- Eight culinary traditions of China
- Anhui cuisine is derived from the native cooking styles of the Huangshan Mountains region in China and is similar to Jiangsu cuisine. It's is known for the use of wild herbs, from both land and sea, and simple methods of preparation.
- Cantonese cuisine comes from Guangdong Province in southern China Due to Guangdong's location on the southern coast of China, fresh live seafood is prominent in Cantonese cuisine. Canton has long been a trading port and many imported foods and ingredients are used in Cantonese cuisine.
- Fujian cuisine is one of the native Chinese cuisines derived from the native cooking style of the province of Fujian, China. Many diverse seafoods and woodland delicacies are used, including a myriad of fish, shellfish and turtles, along with edible mushrooms and bamboo shoots, provided by the coastal and mountainous regions of Fujian.
- Hunan cuisine, sometimes called Xiang cuisine, consists of the cuisines of the Xiang River region, Dongting Lake and western Hunan Province, in China. The cuisine is well known for its hot spicy flavor, fresh aroma and deep color. Common cooking techniques include stewing, frying, pot-roasting, braising, and smoking. Due to the high agricultural output of the region, ingredients for Hunan dishes are many and varied.
- Jiangsu cuisine is derived from the native cooking styles of the Jiangsu region in China. Food texture is often soft, but not to the point of mushy or falling apart. Other characters includes the strict selection of ingredients according to the seasons, emphasis on the matching colour and shape of each dish and emphasis on using soup to improve the flavor.
- Shandong cuisine in Chinese is more commonly known as Lu cuisine, and is is derived from the native cooking styles of Shandong, an eastern coastal province of China. Possibly Shandong's greatest contribution to Chinese cuisine has been in the area of brewing vinegars. Hundreds of years of experience combined with unique local methods have led to Shandong's prominence as one of the premier regions for vinegar production in China.
- Szechuan cuisine is a style of Chinese cuisine originating in the Sichuan Province of southwestern China famed for bold flavors, particularly the pungency and spiciness resulting from liberal use of garlic and chili peppers, as well as the unique flavor of the Sichuan peppercorn (花椒). Peanuts, sesame paste, and ginger are also prominent ingredients in Szechuan cooking.
- Zhejiang cuisine is derived from the native cooking styles of the Zhejiang region in China. Food made in the Zhejiang style is not greasy, having instead a fresh and soft flavor with a mellow fragrance.
Additional Chinese regional cuisines
- Japanese cuisine is known for its emphasis on seasonality of food (旬, shun). Japanese regional cuisine includes a vast array of regional specialities known as kyōdo ryōri in Japanese, many of them originating from dishes prepared using local ingredients and traditional recipes. Sushi and sashimi are both part of the cuisine of the island nation. The Michelin Guide has awarded Japanese cities by far the most Michelin stars of any country in the world (for example, Tokyo alone has more Michelin stars than Paris, Hong Kong, New York, LA and London combined).
- Okinawan cuisine is the cuisine of the Japanese island of Okinawa. Due to difference in culture, climate, vegetables and other ingredients between Okinawa and mainland Japan, Okinawan cuisine is very different from Japanese cuisine. Okinawan cuisine incorporated influence from Chinese cuisine and Southeast Asian cuisine due to trade. The sweet potato, introduced in Okinawa in 1605, became a staple food in Okinawa from then until the beginning of the 20th century. An article about Okinawan food written by Kikkoman stated that Goya (bitter melon) and Nabera (luffa or towel gourd) were "likely" introduced to Okinawa from Southeast Asia. Since Ryukyu had served as a tributary state to China, Ryukyuan cooks traveled to Fujian Province to learn how to cook Chinese food; Chinese influence seeped into Okinawa in that manner. The same Kikkoman article states that the method of distillation of awamori likely originated from Siam (Thailand) and traveled to Okinawa during the 15th century. After the lord of the Kagoshima Domain invaded the Ryukyus Okinawan cooks traveled to Japan to study Japanese cuisine, causing that influence to seep into Okinawan cuisine.
Korean cuisine originated from ancient prehistoric traditions in the Korean peninsula, evolving through a complex interaction of environmental, political, and cultural trends. Korean cuisine is largely based upon rice, vegetables, and meats. Traditional Korean meals are noted for the number of side dishes (banchan) that accompany steam-cooked short-grain rice. Kimchi is served often, sometimes at every meal. Commonly used ingredients include sesame oil, doenjang (fermented bean paste), soy sauce, salt, garlic, ginger, pepper flakes and gochujang (fermented red chili paste). Korean regional cuisine (Korean: hyangto eumsik, literally "native local foods"), is characterized by local specialties and distinctive styles within Korean cuisine. The divisions reflected historical boundaries of the provinces where these food and culinary traditions were preserved until modern times. Korean barbecue, or gogi gui, refers to the Korean method of grilling beef, pork, chicken, or other types of meat. Such dishes are often prepared at the diner's table on gas or charcoal grills that are built into the center of the table itself.
Russian cuisine is diverse, as Russia is the largest country in the world. Russia's great expansions of territory, influence, and interest during the 16th–18th centuries brought more refined foods and culinary techniques, as well as one of the most refined food countries in the world. It was during this period that smoked meats and fish, pastry cooking, salads and green vegetables, chocolate, ice cream, wines, and liquor were imported from abroad. At least for the urban aristocracy and provincial gentry, this opened the doors for the creative integration of these new foodstuffs with traditional Russian dishes. The result is extremely varied in technique, seasoning, and combination. Traditional and common Russian foods include:
- Blini, a pastry rolled with a variety ingredients
- Borshch, a traditional Russian beet soup
- Ice cream
- Pelmeni, pastry dumplings filled with meatballs
- Pirozhki pastries filled with potato, cabbage, meat or cheese
- Shashlyk, Russian kebabs
- Sour cream
- Russian vodka
South Asian cuisine, also known as Desi cuisine, includes the cuisines from the Indian subcontinent. It has roots in South Asia, including practices taken from the Hindu beliefs practiced by the large population found in the region, alongside influences from neighbouring regions and cultures, particularly from Muslim cultures of the Middle East and Central Asia, such as Persia, the Turkic and Arabic countries.
- Afghan cuisine is largely based upon the nation's chief crops: cereals like wheat, maize, barley and rice. Accompanying these staples are dairy products (yogurt and whey), various nuts, and native vegetables, as well as fresh and dried fruits. Afghanistan is well known for its grapes.
- Bengali cuisine is a style of food preparation originating in Bengal, a region in the eastern South Asia which is now divided between the Indian states of West Bengal, Tripura, and Barak Valley of Assam and the independent country of Bangladesh. Bengali food has inherited a large number of influences, both foreign and South Asian, arising from a historical and strong trade links with many parts of the world.
- Bhutanese cuisine employs a lot of red rice (like brown rice in texture, but with a nutty taste, the only variety of rice that grows at high altitudes), buckwheat, and increasingly maize. The diet in the hills also includes chicken, yak meat, dried beef, pork, pork fat and mutton. When offered food, one says meshu meshu, covering one's mouth with the hands in refusal according to Bhutanese manners, and then gives in on the second or third offer.
- Burmese cuisine has been influenced greatly by China, India and Thailand. However, Burmese cuisine has retained unique preparation techniques and distinct flavours, and there are many regional variations of "standard" dishes. The Burmese eat with their right hand, forming rice into a small ball with only the fingertips and mixing this with various morsels before popping it into their mouths. The Burmese eat a great variety of vegetables and fruits, and all kinds of meat. A very popular vegetable is the danyin thi, which is usually boiled or roasted and dipped in salt, oil and sometimes, cooked coconut fat.
- Indian cuisine
- Maldivian cuisine
- Nepali cuisine
- Newari cuisine
- Pakistani cuisine
- Punjabi cuisine
- Sri Lankan cuisine
- Tamil cuisine
Further information: Outline of Indian cuisines
- Indian cuisine consists of the foods and dishes of India (and to some extent neighboring countries), is characterized by the extensive use of various Indian spices, herbs, vegetables and fruits, and is also known for the widespread practice of vegetarianism in Indian society. Indian regional cuisine is primarily categorized at the regional level, but also at provincial levels. Cuisine differences derive from various local cultures, geographical locations (whether a region is close to the sea, desert or the mountains), and economics. Indian cuisine is also seasonal, and utilizes fresh produce. For further information refer to the List of Indian dishes article.
- Bruneian cuisine is similar to, and heavily influenced by the cuisine of neighboring Malaysia, Singapore, and Indonesia, with additional influences from India, China, Thailand, and Japan.
- Indonesian cuisine is diverse, in part because Indonesia is composed of approximately 6,000 populated islands. Many regional cuisines exist, often based upon cultural and foreign influences. For example, Sumatran cuisine often has Middle Eastern and Indian influences, featuring curried meat and vegetables, while Javanese cuisine and Sundanese cuisine are more indigenous.
- Javanese cuisine is the cuisine of Javanese people. In wider sense, Javanese cuisine might also refer to the cuisine of the whole people of Java Island, Indonesia; which also include Sundanese in West Java, Betawi people in Jakarta and Madurese on Madura Island off East Java.
- Minangkabau cuisine, also known as Padang food, is the cuisine of the Minangkabau people of West Sumatra, Indonesia. It is among the most popular food in Maritime Southeast Asia. It is known across Indonesia as Masakan Padang.
- Sundanese cuisine is the cuisine of Sundanese people of West Java, Indonesia. In Sundanese restaurants, it's common to eat with one's hands. They usually serve kobokan, a bowl of tap water with a slice of lime for handwashing.
- Khmer cuisine is another name for the foods and cuisine widely consumed in Cambodia. The food of Cambodia includes tropical fruits, rice, noodles, drinks, dessert and various soups.
- Lao cuisine is the cuisine of Laos, which is distinct from other Southeast Asian cuisines. Laos shares borders with neighboring countries and as a result, Lao cuisine has strongly influenced the neighboring cuisine of Northeastern Thailand (Isan) and some Lao culinary influences have also reached Cambodia and Northern Thailand (Lanna).
- Malay cuisine is the cuisine of Malay people of Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Brunei and Southern Thailand.
- Malaysian cuisine reflects the multicultural aspects of Malaysia. Various ethnic groups in Malaysia have their own dishes, but many dishes in Malaysia are derived from multiple ethnic influences. Spices, aromatic herbs and roots are all used in Malaysian cuisine.
- Peranakan cuisine combines Chinese cuisine, Malay and other influences into a unique blend.
- Philippine cuisine has evolved over several centuries from its Austronesian origins to a mixed cuisine with many Hispanic, Chinese, American, and other Asian influences adapted to indigenous ingredients and the local palate. For more information refer to: Philippine cuisine; regional specialties.
- Singaporean cuisine is indicative of the ethnic diversity of the culture of Singapore, as a product of centuries of cultural interaction owing to Singapore's strategic location. The food is influenced by the native Malay, the predominant Chinese, Indonesian, Indian and Western traditions (particularly English) since the founding of Singapore by the British in the 19th century.
- Thai cuisine can be described as four regional cuisines corresponding to the four main regions of the country: Northern, Northeastern (or Isan), Central, and Southern. A fifth cuisine is Thai Royal cuisine, based on the palace cuisine of the Ayutthaya kingdom (1351–1767 CE), which was influential upon the cuisine of the Central Thai plains. Each cuisine has similarities to foods and cuisines in neighboring countries and regions, including the Cuisine of Burma, Yunnan cuisine, Lao cuisine, Cambodian cuisine and Malaysian cuisine.
- Vietnamese cuisine is a style of cooking derived from Vietnam. Fish sauce, soy sauce, rice, fresh herbs, fruits and vegetables are commonly used. Vietnamese recipes utilize a diverse range of herbs, including lemongrass, mint, Vietnamese mint, long coriander and Thai basil leaves.
- Armenian cuisine includes the foods and cooking techniques of the Armenian people, the Armenian diaspora and traditional Armenian foods and dishes.
- Armenian wine
- Azerbaijani cuisine is the cuisine of Azerbaijan. Azerbaijani cuisine throughout the centuries has been influenced by the foods of different cultures due to political and economic processes in Azerbaijan. Out of 11 climate zones known in the world, the Azerbaijani climate has nine. This contributes to the fertility of the land, which in its turn results in the richness of the country’s cuisine.
- Azerbaijani wine
- Bahraini cuisine refers to the cuisine of The Kingdom of Bahrain, a small island state near the western shores of the Persian Gulf. Bahrain produces only a small amount of its food requirements due to limited land space, and imports much of its food. Its primary crops are dates, bananas, citrus fruits, pomegranates, mangoes, cucumbers and tomatoes.
- Cypriot cuisine is the cuisine of Cyprus and can be described as a blend of Greek and Turkish cuisines. Greek Cypriot cuisine is another regional Greek cuisine along with Cretan, Ionian, or Attic.
- Georgian cuisine Georgian cuisine refers to the cooking styles and dishes with origins in the nation of Georgia and prepared by Georgian people around the world. Each historical province of Georgia has its own distinct culinary tradition, such as Megrelian, Kakhetian, and Imeretian cuisines.
- Kurdish cuisine consists of a wide variety of foods prepared by the Kurdish people that have got many traditions from their homeland, Kurdistan.
- Kuwaiti cuisine - the national dish of Kuwait known as machboos (Arabic: مكبوس) consists mainly of mutton or chicken placed over or mixed in a large mass of well-cooked and prepared rice.
- Levantine cuisine is the traditional cuisine of the Levant, known in Arabic as the Bilad ash-Sham. This region shared many culinary traditions under the Ottoman Empire which continue to be influential today. It covers the modern states of Syria, Israel, Lebanon, Jordan, Northern Iraq, and parts of southern Turkey near Adana, Gaziantep, and Antakya (the former Vilayet of Aleppo).
- Assyrian cuisine
- Iraqi cuisine, or Mesopotamian cuisine, has a long history going back some 10,000 years - to the Sumerians, Babylonians and Assyrians. Tablets found in ancient ruins in Iraq show recipes prepared in the temples during religious festivals - the first cookbooks in the world.
- Israeli cuisine comprises local dishes by Jews native to Israel and dishes brought to Israel by Jewish immigrants from around the world. Since before the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, and particularly since the late 1970s, an Israeli fusion cuisine has developed.
- Lebanese cuisine includes an abundance of starches, fruits, vegetables, fresh fish and seafood; animal fats are consumed sparingly. Poultry is eaten more often than red meat, and when red meat is eaten it is usually lamb on the coast and goat meat in the mountain regions.
- Palestinian cuisine - cooking styles vary by region and each type of cooking style and the ingredients used are generally based on the climate and location of the particular region and on traditions.
- Syrian cuisine is a diffusion of the cultures of civilizations that settled in Syria, particularly during and after the Islamic era beginning with the Arab Ummayad conquest, then the eventual Persian-influenced Abbasids and ending with the strong influences of Turkish cuisine, resulting from the coming of the Ottoman Turks.
- Persian cuisine - Iranian cuisine is diverse, with each province featuring dishes, culinary traditions and styles distinct to its region.
- Saudi Arabian cuisine- Food staples include lamb, grilled chicken, falafel (deep-fried chickpea balls), shawarma (spit-cooked sliced lamb), mutabbaq and Ful medames. Arabic unleavened bread, or khobz (خبز), is eaten with almost all meals, and is often used as an edible utensil to scoop foods.
- Turkish cuisine is largely the heritage of Ottoman cuisine, which can be described as a fusion and refinement of Central Asian, Middle Eastern and Balkan cuisines. Turkish cuisine has in turn influenced those and other neighbouring cuisines, including that of western Europe.
- Yemeni cuisine - ome common Yemeni dishes include Aseed, Bint AlSahn, Fahsa, Fattah, Fatoot, Hareesh, Jachnun, Karees, Komroh, Manti, Mateet, Mutabbaq, Samak Mofa, Shafut, Shakshouka, Thareed, and Zoam.
European cuisine is a generalized term collectively referring to the cuisines of Europe and other Western countries. European cuisine or Western cuisine includes that of Europe including (depending on the definition) that of Russia, as well as non-indigenous cuisines of North America, Australasia, Oceania, and Latin America, which derive substantial influence from European settlers in those regions. The term is used by East Asians to contrast with Asian styles of cooking. The cuisines of Western countries are diverse by themselves, although there are common characteristics that distinguishes Western cooking from cuisines of Asian countries and others. Compared with traditional cooking of Asian countries, for example, meat is more prominent and substantial in serving-size. Wheat-flour bread has long been the most common sources of starch in this cuisine, along with pasta, dumplings and pastries, although the potato has become a major starch plant in the diet of Europeans and their diaspora since the European colonisation of the Americas.
- Regional cuisines of medieval Europe were the results of differences in climate, seasonal food variations, political administration and religious customs that varied across the continent.
- Armenian cuisine includes the foods and cooking techniques of the Armenian people, the Armenian diaspora and traditional Armenian foods and dishes. The cuisine reflects the history and geography where Armenians have lived as well as incorporating outside influences. The cuisine also reflects the traditional crops and animals grown and raised in areas populated by Armenians.
- Azerbaijani cuisine
- Belarusian cuisine shares the same roots with cuisines of other Eastern and Northern European countries, basing predominantly on meat and various vegetables typical for the region.
- Bulgarian cuisine is a representative of the cuisine of Southeastern Europe. Essentially South Slavic, it shares characteristics with other Balkans cuisines. Owing to the relatively warm climate and diverse geography affording excellent growth conditions for a variety of vegetables, herbs and fruits, Bulgarian cuisine is diverse.
- Caucasian cuisine
- Czech cuisine has both influenced and been influenced by the cuisines of surrounding countries. Many of the fine cakes and pastries that are popular in Central Europe originated in the Czech lands. Czech cuisine is marked by a strong emphasis on meat dishes. Pork is quite common, and beef and chicken are also popular.
- Georgian cuisine refers to the cooking styles and dishes with origins in the nation of Georgia and prepared by Georgian people around the world. The Georgian cuisine is specific to the country, but also contains some influences from the Middle Eastern and European culinary traditions.
- Hungarian cuisine is the cuisine characteristic of the nation of Hungary and its primary ethnic group, the Magyars. Traditional Hungarian dishes are primarily based on meats, seasonal vegetables, fruits, fresh bread, cheeses and honey. Recipes are based on centuries-old traditions of spicing and preparation methods.
- Moldovan cuisine Moldova's fertile soil (chernozem) produces plentiful grapes, fruits, vegetables, cereals, meat and milk products, all of which have found their uses in the national cuisine. The fertile black soil combined with the use of traditional agricultural methods permits growing a wide range of ecologically clean foods in Moldova.
- Polish cuisine is a style of cooking and food preparation originating from Poland. Polish national cuisine shares some similarities with other Central European  and Eastern European traditions as well as French and Italian similarities.
- Romanian cuisine is a diverse blend of different dishes from several traditions with which it has come into contact, but it also maintains its own character. It has been greatly influenced by Ottoman cuisine.
- Russian cuisine
- Slovak cuisine varies slightly, though sometimes dramatically, from region to region, and was influenced by the traditional cuisine of its neighbors. The origins of traditional Slovak cuisine can be traced to times when the majority of the population lived in villages, in self-sustenance, with very limited food imports and exports and with no modern means of food preservation or processing. This gave rise to a cuisine heavily dependent on a number of staple foods that could stand the hot summers and cold winters, including wheat, potatoes, milk and milk products, pork meat, sauerkraut and onion. To a lesser degree beef, poultry, lamb and goat, eggs, a few other local vegetables, fruit and wild mushrooms were traditionally eaten.
- Slovak wine
- In Slovenian cuisine, there are many distinct cuisines in a country, whose main distinguishing feature is a great variety and diversity of land formation, climate, wind movements, humidity, terrain and history. Slovenia is a borderland country, surrounded by Italy, Austria, Hungary, and Croatia, with established and distinct national cuisines. There is a wide variety of meats in different parts of Slovenia. Dandelion) is Slovenian wild lettuce, which has been gathered in the fields for centuries.
- Ukrainian cuisine Ukrainian cuisine has significant diversity, historical traditions and is influenced by Russian, Polish, Turkish and Polish cuisines. Common foods used include meats, vegetables, mushrooms, fruits, berries and herbs. In Ukraine, bread is a staple food, there are many different types of bread, and Ukraine is sometimes referred to as the "breadbasket of Europe." Pickled vegetables are utilized, particularly when fresh vegetables aren't in season. There are about 30 varieties of Ukrainian Borsch soup, a common dish that often includes meat.
- Ukrainian wine
- Crimean Tatar cuisine is primarily the cuisine of the Crimean Tatars, who live on the Crimean Peninsula in Ukraine. The traditional cuisine of the Crimean Tatars derives basically from the same roots as the cuisine of the Volga Tatars, although unlike the Volga Tatars they do not eat horse meat and do not drink mare’s milk (kymyz). However, the Crimean Tatars adopted many Uzbek dishes during their exile in Central Asia since 1944, and these dishes have been absorbed into Crimean Tatar national cuisine after their return to Crimea.
- British cuisine is the specific set of cooking traditions and practices associated with the United Kingdom. British cuisine has been described as "unfussy dishes made with quality local ingredients, matched with simple sauces to accentuate flavour, rather than disguise it." However, British cuisine has absorbed the cultural influence of those that have settled in Britain, producing hybrid dishes, such as the Anglo-Indian chicken tikka masala."
- Scottish cuisine is the specific set of cooking traditions and practices associated with Scotland. It has distinctive attributes and recipes of its own, but shares much with wider European cuisine as a result of foreign and local influences both ancient and modern. Scotland's natural larder of game, dairy, fish, fruit, and vegetables is the integral factor in traditional Scottish cooking. Scotland, with its temperate climate and abundance of indigenous game species, has provided a cornucopia of food for its inhabitants for millennia. The wealth of seafood available on and off the coasts provided the earliest settlers with their sustenance. Agriculture was introduced, with primitive oats quickly becoming the staple.
- Albanian cuisine is uniquely influenced by Turkish, Greek, and Italian cuisines. Every region in Albania has its own unique dishes. Albanian cuisine is characterized by the use of various mediterranean herbs such as oregano, black pepper, mint, basilico, rosemary and more in cooking meat and fish.
- Albanian wine
- Bosnian cuisine
- Croatian cuisine
- Cypriot cuisine
- Gibraltarian cuisine
- Greek cuisine
- Italian cuisine
- Macedonian cuisine
- Macedonian wine
- Maltese cuisine
- Montenegrin cuisine
- Portuguese cuisine
- Serbian cuisine
- Slovenian cuisine
- Spanish cuisine
- Turkish cuisine
- In Italian cuisine, each area has its own specialties, primarily at the regional level, but also at provincial levels. The cuisine has an abundance of differences in taste,
and is known to be one of the most popular in the world, with influences abroad. The differences can derive from a bordering country (such as France or Austria), whether a region is close to the sea or the mountains, and economics. Italian cuisine is also seasonal, often incorporating fresh produce. Italian regional cuisines include:
- Spanish cuisine has many diverse regional cuisines based upon differences in geography, culture and climate. It is heavily influenced by seafood available from the waters that surround the country. Spain's extensive history with many cultural influences has led to an array of unique cuisines with literally thousands of recipes and flavors. Regional Spanish cuisines include:
A variety of tapas: appetizers or snacks in Spanish cuisine
- Austrian cuisine is a style of cuisine native to Austria and composed of influences from throughout the former Austro-Hungarian Empire. Regional influences from Italy, Hungary, Germany and the Balkans have had an effect on Austrian cooking, and in turn this fusion of styles was influential throughout the Empire.
- Belgian cuisine
- Belgian wine
- Dutch cuisine
- French cuisine
- German cuisine
- Liechtensteiner cuisine
- Luxembourgian cuisine
- Swiss cuisine
- Regional Dutch cuisines can be distinguished by three geographic regions in The Netherlands, northeastern, western and southern cuisine.
- French regional cuisine is characterized by its extreme diversity and style. Traditionally, each region of France has its own distinctive cuisine. French cuisine styles include Nouvelle cuisine, Haute cuisine and Cuisine classique. In November 2010 the French gastronomy was added by UNESCO to its lists of the world's "intangible cultural heritage".
- German regional cuisine can be divided into Bavarian cuisine (Southern Germany), Lower Saxon cuisine (Northern Germany), Thuringian (Central Germany) and Saxony-Anhalt (Central Germany).
Middle Eastern, or West Asian cuisine is the cuisine of the various countries and peoples of the Middle East (Western Asia). The cuisine of the region is diverse while having a degree of homogeneity. Many Middle Eastern dishes are made with a paste called tahini. Tahini is a sesame paste made with hulled seeds, unlike its Asian counterpart. It is used to make such popular meze, or appetizers, as baba ghanoush and hummus along with pungent dipping sauces served with falafel, keftes or kofta and vegetables. Hummus is made from chickpeas, which are staples of the diet. Some commonly used ingredients include olives and olive oil, lamb, pitas, honey, sesame seeds, dates, sumac, chickpeas, mint and parsley. Some popular dishes include kibbeh and shawarma.
- Arab cuisine of the Persian Gulf - Arab cuisine of the Persian Gulf today is the result of combination of diverse cuisines, incorporating Lebanese, Indian, Chinese, and Persian cooking styles, and many items not originally indigenous to the Persian Gulf region, which were most probably imported on the dhows and the caravans.
- Omani cuisine is generally very simple, with the aid of many spices and marinades to complete a dish, which usually consists of chicken, fish, and mutton. Unlike many other Asian nations, Omani cuisine is not spicy, and varies between regions.
- Afghan cuisine
- Armenian cuisine
- Azerbaijani cuisine
- Assyrian cuisine
- Bahraini cuisine
- Cypriot cuisine
- Emirati cuisine
- Georgian cuisine
- Irani cuisine
- Iraqi cuisine
- Israeli cuisine
- Indian cuisine
- Hyderabadi cuisine
- Jordanian cuisine
- Kurdish cuisine
- Kuwaiti cuisine
- Lebanese cuisine
- Pakistani cuisine
- Palestinian cuisine
- Saudi Arabian cuisine
- Syrian cuisine
- Turkish cuisine
- Yemeni cuisine
- Pakistani regional cuisines can be categorized by Baloch cuisine, Kashmiri cuisine, Pashtun cuisine, Muhajir cuisine, Punjabi cuisine, Lahori cuisine, Mughlai cuisine and Sindhi cuisine.
- Abgoosht, an Iranian stew usually made with lamb and vegetables
- Kabsa, Considered by many as Saudi Arabia's national dish
- Mandi, a traditional Yemeni dish usually made from meat (lamb or chicken), basmati rice, and spices.
- Musakhan, a Palestinian dish of roasted chicken and bread
- Pastırma, a highly seasoned, air-dried cured beef, common in Armenia
- Qabili Palau, Afghanistan's national dish
Fatayer is a meat pie pastry that can alternatively be stuffed with spinach (sabaneq), or cheese (jibnah). It's eaten in Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan and other countries in the Middle East.
Canadian cuisine varies widely from depending on the regions of the nation. The former Canadian prime minister Joe Clark has been paraphrased to have noted: "Canada has a cuisine of cuisines. Not a stew pot, but a smorgasbord." The three earliest cuisines of Canada have First Nations, English, and French roots, with the traditional cuisine of English Canada closely related to British and American cuisine, while the traditional cuisine of French Canada has evolved from French cuisine and the winter provisions of fur traders. With subsequent waves of immigration in the 18th and 19th century from Central, Southern, and Eastern Europe, and also from China, the regional cuisines were subsequently augmented. Common contenders as the Canadian national food include Poutine and Butter tarts. Canada is the world's largest producer of maple syrup, and the sugar maple's leaf has come to symbolize Canada and is depicted on the country's flag.
- Cuisine of Quebec - Quebec is most famous for its tourtières (meat pies), pea soup, baked beans, cretons, ham dishes, maple desserts such as Pouding chômeur and "tire Ste-Catherine" (St. Catherine's taffy).
- Canadian Chinese cuisine
- Cuisine of Toronto reflects Toronto's size and multicultural diversity. Different ethnic neighbourhoods throughout the city focus on specific cuisines,
- Cuisine of the Maritime Provinces - the Maritimes region of Canada has some unique foods; the region has foodstuffs that are indigenous the area and cultural phenomena has brought non-native foods to the area. The region is in Eastern Canada, and comprises three provinces: New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island. On the Atlantic coast, the Maritimes are a subregion of Atlantic Canada. Much of what is local food or regional cuisine there could be found in the foods of the Native Peoples or indigenous people, sometimes called Indians, whose cultures preceded those to be found in the Maritimes today.
Caribbean cuisine is a fusion of African, Amerindian, British, Spanish, French, Dutch, Indian, and Chinese cuisine. These traditions were brought from the many homelands of this region's population.
- Anguillan cuisine
- Cuisine of Antigua and Barbuda
- Cuisine of Aruba
- Cuisine of Barbados
- Cuisine of The Bahamas
- British Virgin Islands cuisine
- Cuban cuisine
- Cuisine of Dominica
- Dominican Republic
- Haitian cuisine
- Jamaican cuisine
- Martinique cuisine
- Cuisine of Montserrat
- Cuisine of Puerto Rico
- St. Kitts and Nevis cuisine
- Guyanan cuisine
- Cuisine of the United States Virgin Islands
Some typical foods in Central American cuisine include maize-based dishes, tortillas, tamales, pupusas, various salsas and other condiments, guacamole, pico de gallo, mole, chimichurri and pebre.
- Belizean cuisine is an amalgamation of all the ethnicities in the nation of Belize, and their respective wide variety of foods. Culinary influences include Mayan, Garifuna, Spanish, Creole, Chinese, British and American. Beans, tortillas, cheese, chicken, rice and seafood are common in the cuisine.
- In Costa Rican cuisine, a common dish is gallo pinto, which is rice and black beans. Tortillas, plantains, fish, beef and chicken are part of the cuisine. Casado is a traditional dish comprised of meat served with tortillas and side items such as black beans and rice, or gallo pinto. Refrescos in Costa Rica refers to cold fruit smoothie beverages made with fruit and milk or water.
- Salvadoran cuisine consists of food from the Maya, Lenca, and Pipil people. The cuisine is also influenced by Spanish cuisine. Empanadas, tamales
and pupasas are widespread, and seafood is common because of San Salvador's extensive coastline.
- Guatemalan cuisine was influenced by the Mayan Empire, Spanish rule and the current modernized country. Guatemala has 22 departments (or divisions), each of which has varying food varieties.
- Honduran cuisine is a fusion of African, Spanish, and indigenous cuisine. Coconut is used in both sweet and savory dishes. Regional specialties include fried fish, tamales, carne asada and baleadas. Common dishes include grilled meats, tortillas, rice and beans. Seafood is common in the Bay Islands and on the Caribbean coast.
- Nicaraguan cuisine is a mixture of Spanish, Creole, Garifuna and indigenous cuisines and foods. When the Spaniards first arrived in Nicaragua they found that the Creole people present had incorporated foods available in the area into their cuisine. Despite the blending and incorporation of pre-Columbian and Spanish influenced cuisine, traditional cuisine changes from the Pacific to the Caribbean coast. While the Pacific coast's main staple revolves around local fruits and corn, the Caribbean coast's cuisine makes use of seafood and the coconut. Traditional Nicaraguan foods include beans, corn, plantains, peppers and yucca.
- Panamanian cuisine is both unique and rich. As a land bridge between two continents, Panama possesses an unusual variety of tropical fruits, vegetables and herbs that are used in native cooking. Panamanian cuisine is a unique mix of African, Caribbean, Spanish and Native American cooking and dishes.
Greenlandic cuisine is traditionally based on meat from marine mammals, game, birds, and fish, and normally contains high levels of protein. Since colonization and the arrival of international trade, the cuisine has been increasingly influenced by Danish and Canadian cuisine. Since the majority of Greenland is covered by permanent glaciers, the sea is the source of most domestically-sourced food. Seafood dishes include various fishes (often smoked), mussels, and shrimp. Ammassat or capelin, a fish in the salmon family is commonly consumed. The national dish of Greenland is suaasat, a traditional Greenlandic soup. It is often made from seal, or from whale, reindeer, or sea birds. The soup often includes onions and potatoes, and is simply seasoned with salt and pepper, or bay leaf. The soup is often thickened with rice, or by soaking barley in the water overnight so that the starches leach into the water. During the summer, meals are often eaten outdoors.
Mexican food varies by region because of Mexico's large size and diversity, different climates and geography, ethnic differences among the indigenous inhabitants and because different populations were influenced by the Spaniards in varying degrees. The north of Mexico is known for its beef, goat and ostrich production and meat dishes, in particular the well-known arrachera cut. The food staples of Mexican cuisine are typically corn and beans. Corn is used to make masa, a dough for tamales, tortillas, gorditas, and many other corn-based foods. Corn is also eaten fresh, as corn on the cob and as a component of a number of dishes. Squash and peppers also prominent in Mexican cuisine. Honey is an important ingredient in many Mexican dishes, such as the rosca de miel, a bundt-like cake, and in beverages such as balché. Mexican cuisine was added by UNESCO to its lists of the world's "Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity".
Mexico's six regions differ greatly in their cuisines. In the Yucatán, achiote seasoning is commonly used, which is a sweet red sauce with a slight peppery flavor, made from seeds of the tropical annatto plant and sour orange. In contrast, the Oaxacan region is known for its savory tamales, moles, and simple tlayudas, while the mountainous regions of the West (Jalisco, etc.) are known for goat birria (goat in a spicy tomato-based sauce).
Southeastern Mexico is known for its spicy vegetable and chicken-based dishes. The cuisine of Southeastern Mexico has a considerable Caribbean influence due to its location. Seafood is commonly prepared in states that border the Pacific Ocean or the Gulf of Mexico, the latter having a famous reputation for its fish dishes, à la veracruzana.
In pueblos or villages, there are also more exotic dishes, cooked in the Aztec or Mayan style (known as comida prehispánica) with ingredients ranging from iguana to rattlesnake, deer, spider monkey, chapulines, ant eggs, and other kinds of insects.
Recently other cuisines of the world have acquired popularity in Mexico, thus adopting a Mexican fusion. For example, sushi in Mexico is often made with a variety of sauces based on mango or tamarind, and very often served with serrano-chili-blended soy sauce, or complimented with habanero and chipotle peppers.
- Carne asada, thin or thick pieces of meat, usually beef, that is often marinated and served whole or chopped
- Chipotle, a smoke-dried jalapeño chili pepper
- Chocolate: The word chocolate originated in Mexico's Aztec cuisine, derived from the Nahuatl word xocolatl. Chocolate was first drunk rather than eaten. In the past, the Maya civilization grew cacao trees and used the cacao seeds it produced to make a frothy, bitter drink. The drink, called xocoatl, was often flavored with vanilla, chili pepper, and achiote (also known as annatto). Chocolate was also historically used as a form of currency. Today chocolate is used in a wide array of Mexican foods, from savory dishes such as mole to traditional Mexican style hot chocolate and champurrados, both of which are prepared with a molinillo.
American cuisine is a style of food preparation originating from the United States of America. European colonization of the Americas yielded the introduction of a number of ingredients and cooking styles to the latter. The various styles continued expanding well in to the 19th and 20th centuries, proportional to the influx of immigrants from many foreign nations; such influx developed a rich diversity in food preparation throughout the country. Native American cuisine includes all food practices of the indigenous peoples of the Americas. Modern-day native peoples retain a rich body of traditional foods, some of which have become iconic of present-day Native American social gatherings.
- California cuisine is a style of cuisine marked by an interest in fusion (integrating disparate cooking styles and ingredients) and in the use of freshly prepared local ingredients. See also: Cuisine of California.
- Hawaiian cuisine in modern times is a fusion of many cuisines brought by multiethnic immigrants to the Hawaiian Islands, particularly of American, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Polynesian and Portuguese origins, including plant and animal food sources imported from around the world for agricultural use in Hawaii. Many local restaurants serve the ubiquitous plate lunch featuring the Asian staple, two scoops of rice, a simplified version of American macaroni salad (consisting of macaroni noodles and mayonnaise), and a variety of different toppings ranging from the hamburger patty, a fried egg, and gravy of a Loco Moco, Japanese style tonkatsu or the traditional lu'au favorite, kalua pig.
- Louisiana Creole cuisine is a style of cooking originating in Louisiana that blends French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, Greek, Asian Indian, Native American, African, and general Southern cuisine.
- Midwestern U.S. cuisine is a regional cuisine of the American Midwest. It draws its culinary roots most significantly from the cuisines of Central, Northern and Eastern Europe, and is influenced by regionally and locally grown foodstuffs and cultural diversity.
- Cuisine of New England comprises Northeastern U.S. cuisine, including the six states of Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont. The American Indians cuisine became part of the cookery style that the early colonists brought with them.
- The cuisine of New York City comprises many cuisines belonging to various ethnic groups that have entered the United States through the city. Almost all ethnic cuisines are available in New York City, both in and out of their various ethnic neighborhoods.
- Pacific Northwest cuisine is an North American cuisine of the states of Oregon, Washington and Alaska, and the provinces of British Columbia and the southern Yukon. The cuisine reflects the ethnic makeup of the region, with noticeable influence from Asian and Native American traditions.
- The cuisine of the Southern United States is defined as the historical regional culinary form of states generally south of the Mason Dixon Line dividing Pennsylvania from Maryland and Delaware as well as along the Ohio River, and extending west to Texas. See also: Soul food and Cuisine of Kentucky.
- Southwestern U.S. cuisine is food styled after the rustic cooking of the Southwestern United States. It comprises a fusion of recipes for things that might have been eaten by Spanish colonial settlers, cowboys, Native Americans, and Mexicans throughout the post-Columbian era. there is, however, a great diversity in this type of cuisine throughout the Southwestern states.
- The cuisine of the Western United States can be distinct in various ways compared to the rest of the U.S. Those states west of Texas, Kansas, Missouri, and Nebraska would be considered part of this area, as would, in some cases, western parts of adjoining states. The concept of obtaining foods locally is increasingly influential, as is the concept of sustainability. The influence of the Native American cultures of each area, but especially in the Northwest and in Navajo country, is important in the cuisine picture of the Western United States.
Regional foods and cuisines
- California-style pizza
- Carne asada fries
- Chicago-style hot dog
- Chicago-style pizza
- Chinese American cuisine
- Cincinnati chili
- Coney Island hot dog
- Fish fry
- Floribbean cuisine
- Hot dog variations (U.S.)
- Italian-American cuisine
- Italian beef
- Kansas City-style barbecue
- Lobster roll
- Lowcountry cuisine, traditionally associated with the South Carolina Lowcountry and the Georgia coast
- Pig roast, Pig pickin'
- San Francisco burrito
- Maine lobster
- Manhattan clam chowder
- New American cuisine
- New England boiled dinner
- New England clam bake
- New England clam chowder
- New Mexican cuisine (New Mexico)
- New York-style pizza
- Cuisine of Philadelphia
- Philadelphia cheesesteak
- Santa Maria Style BBQ, Santa Barbara County, California
- St. Louis-style barbecue
- St. Louis-style pizza
- White hot
Other than by climate and produce availability, Australian cuisine has been influenced by the tastes of settlers to Australia. The British colonial period established a strong base of interest in Anglo-Celtic style recipes and methods. Later influences developed out of multicultural immigration and included Chinese cuisine, Japanese cuisine, Malaysian cuisine, Thai cuisine, Vietnamese cuisine. Mediterranean cuisine influences from Greek cuisine, Italian cuisine, and Lebanese cuisine influences are strong, also influences from French cuisine, Indian cuisine, Spanish cuisine, and Turkish cuisine, German cuisine, and African cuisine. Regional Australian cuisines commonly use locally grown vegetables based on seasonal availability, and Australia also has large fruit growing regions. The Granny Smith variety of apples first originated in Sydney, Australia in 1868. In the Southern states of Victoria and South Australia, in particular the Barossa Valley, wines and food reflects the region's traditions and heritage. Australia's climate makes barbecues commonplace. Barbecue stalls selling sausages and fried onion on white bread with tomato or barbecue sauce are common.
During colonial times typical English cuisine was the standard in most areas of Tasmania. Tasmania now has a wide range of restaurants, in part due to the arrival of immigrants and changing cultural patterns. There are many vineyards throughout Tasmania, and Tasmanian beer brands such as Boags and Cascade are known and sold in Mainland Australia. King Island off the northwestern coast of Tasmania has a reputation for boutique cheeses and dairy products. Tasmanians are also consumers of seafood, such as crayfish, orange roughy, salmon and oysters, both farmed and wild.
New Zealand cuisine is largely based upon local ingredients and seasonal variations. New Zealand is an island nation with a strong agricultural-based economy, and nationally and regionally grown produce and fresh seafood is prominent. The kumara is a type of sweet potato that's been grown in New Zealand for thousands of years, and is believed to have been imported by early Maori settlers in the mid-1200s. Varieties of kumara include gold, white and red, with red usually the being sweetest. Kiwifruit is a significant part of New Zealand agricultural production. Similar to the cuisine of Australia, the cuisine of New Zealand is a diverse British-based cuisine with Mediterranean and Pacific Rim influences as the country becomes more cosmopolitan. Historical influences came from the Māori culture. New American cuisine, Southeast Asian, East Asian and Indian traditions have become popular since the 1970s.
- ANZAC biscuits are a sweet biscuit popular in Australia and New Zealand, made using rolled oats, flour, desiccated coconut, sugar, butter, golden syrup, bicarbonate of soda and boiling water.
- A Boston bun/Sally lun is a large spiced bun with a thick layer of coconut icing, prevalent in Australia and New Zealand.
- Hāngiis a traditional New Zealand Māori method of cooking food using heated rocks buried in a pit oven.
- Pavlova is a meringue-based dessert.
The Amazonia region of South America provides a plethora of fresh fish and tropical fruits. In Peru the Inca Empire (Tahuantinsuyu) and Incan cuisine contribute to the nation's overall cuisine. Potatoes are common, and also plants such as quinoa. The Pacific Ocean, provides a large amount of seafood. Many plains also are on this continent, which are rich for growing food in abundance. In the Patagonia region south of Chile and Argentina, many people produce lamb and venison. King crab is typically caught at the southern end of the continent. Antarctic krill has just recently been discovered and is now another food source. Tuna and tropical fish are caught all around the continent; Easter Island is a notable area where they are found in abundance. Lobster is also caught in great quantities from Juan Fernández.
- The Cuisine of Argentina may be referred to as a cultural blending of indigenous Mediterranean influences (such as those exerted by Italian-Spanish and Arabic polulations) with the wide scope of livestock and agricultural products which are abundant in the country.
- The Cuisine of Brazil like Brazil itself, varies greatly by region. The natural crops available in each region add to their singularity. Some typical dishes are caruru, which consists of okra, onion, dried shrimp and toasted nuts (peanuts and/or cashews) cooked with palm oil until a spread-like consistency is reached and moqueca capixaba, consisting of slow-cooked fish, tomato, onion and garlic topped with cilantro.
- Brazilian wine
- The Cuisine of Chile stems mainly from the combination of Spanish cuisine with traditional Chilean ingredients, with later influences from other European cuisines, particularly from Germany, Italy, Croatia, France and the Middle East. The food tradition and recipes in Chile stand out due to the varieties in flavors and colors. The country's long coastline and the Chilean peoples' relationship with the sea adds an immense array of ocean products to the variety of the food in Chile. The country's waters are home to unique species of fish and shellfish such as the Chilean sea bass, loco and picoroco.
- The Cuisine of Colombia refers to the cooking traditions and practices of Colombia. Along with other cultural expressions of national identity, Colombian cuisine varies among its many distinct regions. Colombians typically eat three meals a day: a large breakfast, a medium lunch between 12-2, and a light dinner. Colombian coffee is well known for its high standards in taste compared to others.
- The Cuisine of Ecuador is diverse, varying with altitude and associated agricultural conditions. Pork, chicken, beef, and cuy (guinea pig) are popular in the mountain regions and are served with a variety of carbohydrate-rich foods, especially rice, corn and potatoes. A popular street food in mountain regions is hornado, consisting of potatoes served with roasted pig.
- The Cuisine of Paraguay is similar to the cuisines in Uruguay and the Falkland Islands. Meats, vegetables, manioc, maize and fruits are common in Paraguayan cuisine. Barbecuing is both a cooking technique and often a social event, and are known as Asados.
- The Cuisine of Peru reflects local cooking practices and ingredients—and, through immigration, influences from Spanish, Chinese, Italian, West African, and Japanese cuisine. Many traditional foods—such as quinoa, kiwicha, chili peppers, and several roots and tubers have increased in popularity in recent decades, reflecting a revival of interest in native Peruvian foods and culinary techniques.
- The Cuisine of Uruguay is traditionally based on its European roots, in particular, Mediterranean food from Italy, Spain, Portugal and France, but also from countries such as Germany and Britain, along with African and indigenous mixtures. The national drink is the Grappamiel.
- Uruguayan wine
- Cuisine of Venezuela - Due to its location in the world, its diversity of industrial resources and the cultural diversity of the Venezuelan people, Venezuelan cuisine often varies greatly from one region to another; however, its cuisine, traditional as well as modern, has strong ties to its European ancestry.
- Argentine beef: Argentina has the world's second highest consumption rate of beef, at 55 kg (121 lbs.) a year per capita.
- Brazilian cuisine, like Brazil itself, varies greatly by region. Brazil is a large country, with many various types of agriculture and livestock available in different areas.
- Fanesca is a traditional Ecuadorian soup made with many diverse ingredients.
- Feijoada is the most traditional dish in Brazil, a stew of beans with beef and pork, which is also considered by many as Brazil's national dish.
- Kosereva is a common "barreled" candy with a high protein content native to Paraguay, made with the hardened skin of the sour orange ("apepú", in Guarani language) and cooked in black molasses, resulting in a bittersweet and acidic taste.
Examples of global cuisines
- Comfort food
- Conveyor belt sushi
- Culinary arts
- Farmers market
- Food cart
- Food festival
- Gourmet Museum and Library
- International English food terms
- List of street foods around the world
- Fusion cuisine
- National dish
- New American cuisine
- Night market
- Outline of cuisines
- Sandwiches That You Will Like, a 2002 PBS documentary
- Slow Food
- Street food
- Street market
Notes and references
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- ^ "Cuisine." (definition). Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc. Dictionary.com. Accessed July 2011.
- ^ "Cuisine." Thefreedictionary.com. Accessed June 2011.
- ^ a b "The American Food Revolutions: Cuisines in America." Eldrbarry.net. Accessed June 2011.
- ^ "Rediscover the flavors and traditions of true American cuisine!" Whatscookingamerica.net. Accessed June 2011.
- ^ a b "Humans." Solarnavigator.net. Accessed June 2011.
- ^ Lindsey, Robert (1985-08-18)). "California Grows Her Own Cuisine.". New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E02E0DD1F38F93BA2575BC0A963948260&sec=travel&pagewanted=print.
- ^ Adebayo Oyebade, Culture and Customs of Angola (2007). Greenwood, p. 109.
- ^ a b c "Beninese Cuisine." Wikia Recipes Wiki. Accessed June 2011.
- ^ "Oxfam's Cool Planet - Food in Burkina Faso". Oxfam. http://www.oxfam.org.uk/coolplanet/ontheline/explore/journey/burkina/food.htm. Retrieved 2008-05-21.
- ^ Marchais, p. 99
- ^ a b c d "Central African Republic." Foodspring.com. Accessed June 2011.
- ^ a b c d "Chadian Cuisine.. Wikia recipes wiki. Accessed June 2011.
- ^ a b c Javins, Marie. "Eating and Drinking in Ethiopia." Gonomad.com. Accessed July 2011.
- ^ "Gabon." Worldtraveltips.net. Accessed June 2011.
- ^ a b "Ivorian Cuisine.". Wikia Recipes Wiki. Accessed June 2011.
- ^ H.O. Anthonio & M. Isoun: "Nigerian Cookbook." Macmillan, Lagos, 1982.
- ^ Adekunle, p.81
- ^ "Food habits of rural Swazi households". http://www.up.ac.za/saafecs/vol28/kgaphola.pdf.
- ^ "Swaziland Food and Drink". http://www.journeys2africa.com/j2a/travelguides/swaziland/tg-Swazi-Food.cfm.
- ^ "Sharing the Secrets of Togo's Cuisine." Madison.com. Accessed July 2011.
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- ^ Kaufman, Les. "Catastrophic Change in Species-Rich Freshwater Ecosystems." Bioscience Vol. 42, No. 11. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1312084
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- ^ United Nations Statistics Division – Standard Country and Area Codes Classifications
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- ^ a b c "Madagascar." African Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania. Accessed July 2011.
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- ^ Tokyo is Michelin's biggest star From The Times November 20, 2007
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- ^ 향토음식 Nate Korean-English Dictionary
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- ^ "Cuisine of Brunei". ifood.tv. http://www.ifood.tv/blog/cuisine_of_brunei. Retrieved 2010-09-30.
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- ^ Stung Treng
- ^ Regional Thai Cuisines
- ^ "Malaysian Food." Malaysianfood.net. Accessed July 2011.
- ^ "What is Malay Food?" Malaysianfood.net. Accessed July 2011.
- ^ "Philippine Cuisine." Balitapinoy.net. Accessed July 2011.
- ^ Alejandro, Reynaldo (1985). The Philippine cookbook. New York, New York: Penguin. pp. 256. ISBN 9780399511448. http://books.google.com/books?id=HUaDoUF0tRwC&lpg=PA13&dq=%22Philippine%20Cuisine%22%20influences&pg=PA12#v=onepage&q=%22Philippine%20Cuisine%22%20influences&f=false. Retrieved June 30, 2011.
- ^ Civitello, Linda (2011). Cuisine and Culture: A History of Food and People. John Wiley and Sons. p. 263. ISBN 9781118098752. http://books.google.com/books?id=KwtE4v_qS4EC&lpg=PT263&dq=%22Philippine%20Cuisine%22%20influences&pg=PT263#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved June 30, 2011.
- ^ Philippines Country Study Guide. Int'l Business Publications. 2007. p. 111. ISBN 9781433039706. http://books.google.com/books?id=J8VkaWS6xiMC&lpg=PA111&dq=%22Philippine%20Cuisine%22%20influences&pg=PA111#v=onepage&q=%22Philippine%20Cuisine%22%20influences&f=false. Retrieved June 30, 2011.
- ^ a b c d "Singapore Food." Singaporefoodhistory.com. Accessed July 2011.
- ^ a b c "Modern Thai" (food). Sabaiaz.com. Accessed July 2011.
- ^ Climate zones of Azerbaijan
- ^ a b Cuisine in Bahrain. Allo' Expat Bahrain (Website). Accessed April 2011.
- ^ a b http://www.thingsasian.com/stories-photos/3592 Foods of Iraq: Enshrined With A Long History. Habeeb Salloum.
- ^ Gold, Rozanne A Region's Tastes Commingle in Israel (July 20, 1994) in The New York Times Retrieved 2010–02–14
- ^ a b "Food in Saudi Arabia". Food in Every Country (website). Accessed May 2010.
- ^ Nur İlkin - A Taste of Turkish cuisine
- ^ Aarssen, Jeroen; Backus, Ad (2000). Colloquial Turkish. Routledge. p. 71. ISBN 978-0415157469. http://books.google.com/?id=7yR_icdtJ7sC&pg=PA71&dq=cuisine. Retrieved 2009-04-15.
- ^ a b "European Cuisine." Europeword.com. Accessed July 2011.
- ^ Leung Man-tao (February 12, 2007), "Eating and Cultural Stereotypes", Eat and Travel Weekly, no. 312, p. 76. Hong Kong
- ^ Kwan Shuk-yan (1988). Selected Occidental Cookeries and Delicacies, p. 23. Hong Kong: Food Paradise Pub. Co.
- ^ Lin Ch'ing (1977). First Steps to European Cooking, p. 5. Hong Kong: Wan Li Pub. Co.
- ^ Weiss, Melitta Adamson (2004). "Food in medieval times." Greenwood Press. Google Books. Accessed July 2011.
- ^ Weiss, Melitta Adamson (2004). "Food in medieval times." (abstract). Greenwood Press. Google Books. Accessed July 2011.
- ^ "Poland's cuisine, influenced by its German, Austrian, Hungarian, Russian, and other conquerors over the centuries, is not the most distinctive, varied, or subtle in the world, but it has an earthy character of its own." [in:] Melvil Dewey, Richard Rogers Bowker, L. Pylodet. Library journal: t. 110, 1985; "Polish cuisine displays its German-Austrian history in its sausages, particularly the garlicky kielbasa (or kolbasz), and its smoked meats. Similarly, Transylvania's old. [...] As a result of these enforced alliances, Polish cuisine adopted German-style smoked meats and pastries and learned to produce desserts that rivaled those of the Viennese." [in:] The Ethnic Food Lover's Companion by Eve Zibart, p. 114
- ^ 'Like Ukrainians, Russians and Poles, Belarusians are still fond of borsch with a very large dollop of sour cream (smyetana) and it is particularly warming and nourishing in the depths of winter. " [in:] Belarus, 2nd: The Bradt Travel Guide by Nigel Roberts, 2
- ^ a b c d e "Cuisine – Flavors and Colors of Ukrainian Culture." Ukraine.com. Accessed July 2011.
- ^ a b "Ukraine National Food, Meals and Cookery." Ukrainetrek.com. Accessed July 2011.
- ^ UKTV. "British cuisine". uktv.co.uk. http://uktv.co.uk/food/item/aid/532951. Retrieved 2008-05-23.
- ^ "Robin Cook's chicken tikka masala speech". London: The Guardian. 2002-02-25. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2001/apr/19/race.britishidentity. Retrieved 2001-04-19.
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- ^ Public House Britannica.com; Subscription Required. Retrieved 03-07-08.
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- ^ Home Cooking: Traditional Irish Stew
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- ^ "Cooking World » The most popular cuisines of the world (Part 1)". Cooking-advices.com. 2007-06-25. http://www.cooking-advices.com/in/77. Retrieved 2010-04-24.
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- ^ "Taramosalata." Ultimate-guide-to-greek-food.com. Accessed August 2011.
- ^ Austrian cuisine
- ^ Culinary Influences
- ^ "The Cuisine of Holland" Buzzle.com. Accessed July 2011.
- ^ "French Country Cooking." French-country-decor-guide.com. Accessed July 2011.
- ^ "Bon appétit: Your meal is certified by the UN." The Dallas Morning News. Accessed July 2011.
- ^ "Celebrations, healing techniques, crafts and culinary arts added to the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage." United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Accessed July 2011.
- ^ "German Regional Food Specialties." Food-links.com. Accessed July 2011.
- ^ a b c "The Middle East: Background.", Globalgourmet.com. Accessed January 2007.
- ^ Tahini: The Taste of Healthy Middle Eastern Cuisine, The New York Times, October 19, 2009. Last visited January 29, 2010.
- ^ Daisy Martinez (2010). Daisy: Morning, Noon and Night: Bringing Your Family Together with Everyday Latin Dishes (Hardvocer ed.). Atria. p. 336. ISBN 1439157537. http://www.google.com/search?tbm=bks&tbo=1&q=%22which+started+out+as+kibbeh%2C+a+dish+that+is+Arabic+in+origin%22&btnG=Search+Books.
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- ^ Pandi, George (2008-04-05), "Let's eat Canadian, but is there really a national dish?", The Gazette (Montreal), http://www.canada.com/montrealgazette/columnists/story.html?id=6ad83058-3f7b-4403-8aa8-dce47b16884e Also published as "Canadian cuisine a smorgasbord of regional flavours"
- ^ Trillin, Calvin (2009-11-23), "Canadian Journal, "Funny Food,"", The New Yorker: 68–70
- ^ Wong, Grace (2010-10-02), Canada's national dish: 740 calories – and worth every bite?, CNN, http://articles.cnn.com/2010-10-02/world/canada.poutine_1_dish-cheese-curds-foie?_s=PM:WORLD
- ^ Sufrin, Jon (2010-04-22), "Is poutine Canada’s national food? Two arguments for, two against", Toronto Life, http://www.torontolife.com/daily/daily-dish/aprons-icons/2010/04/22/is-poutine-canadas-national-food-two-arguments-for-two-against/
- ^ Baird, Elizabeth (2009-06-30), "Does Canada Have a National Dish?", Canadian Living, http://www.canadianliving.com/blogs/food/2009/06/30/does-canada-have-a-national-dish/
- ^ DeMONTIS, RITA (2010-06-21), "Canadians butter up to this tart", Toronto Sun, http://www.torontosun.com/life/eat/2010/03/04/13112421.html
- ^ "Maple Syrup." Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs. Accessed July 2011.
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- ^ a b c d e f "Cuisine." (Caribbean.) Bahamabreeze.com. Accessed July 2011.
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- ^ a b c "Guatemala." Foodbycountry.com. Accessed July 2011.
- ^ a b c "Belize Food and Drink." Gocentralamerica.about.com. Accessed July 2011.
- ^ a b c d "Costa Rica Food and Drink." Gocentralamerica.about.com. Accessed July 2011.
- ^ a b "El Salvador Food and Drink." Gocentralamerica.about.com. Accessed July 2011.
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- ^ a b "Nicaragua Food and Drink." Gocentralamerica.about.com. Accessed July 2011.
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- ^ Sweet Potato, Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research
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- ^ Kleivan, "Greenland Eskimo," 522
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- ^ "Guide to Traditional Mexican Cooking." Flavoursofmexico.net. Accessed July 2011.
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- ^ "The birth of California cuisine is generally traced back to Alice Waters in the 1970s and her restaurant Chez Panisse. Waters introduced the idea of using natural, locally grown fresh ingredients to produce her dishes. California cuisine is... local, based like most traditional regional cooking on available ingredients including abundant seafood. Fresh vegetables, lightly cooked, and fresh fruits, berries, and herbs characterize the cuisine generally, but California cooking is also in fact a fusion of cooking from around the world." Benjamin F. Shearer Culture and Customs of the United States Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007 ISBN 0313338779, 440, page 212
- ^ a b c d Beggs, Cindy, Gipson, Bridget, Shaw, Sherrie. "Cajun and Creole Cuisine." University of West Florida. Accessed July 2011.
- ^ Crook, Nathan C. "Foods That Matter: Constructing Place and Community at Food Festivals in Northwest Ohio." (abstract). The Ohio Library and Information Network. Accessed July 2011.
- ^ "Michigan/Great Lakes Region." Community Based Food and Farming. Sustainable Agriculture and Food Systems at Michigan State University. Accessed July 2011.
- ^ A taste of Seattle: A Pacific Northwest culinary pilgrimage Janis Cooke Newman, San Francisco Chronicle, 10-21-01
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- ^ a b "New Zealand's culinary culture." Newzealand.com. Accessed July 2011.
- ^ a b "Iconic Australian & New Zealand Foods." Australianfood.about.com. Accessed July 2011.
- ^ "About New Zealand Kiwifruit Growers, Inc.. New Zealand Kiwifruit Growers, Inc.. Accessed July 2011.
- ^ "Amazonian Cuisine." Brazil-travel-guide.com. Accessed July 2011.
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- ^ "Culture of Colombia". Advameg, inc.. http://www.everyculture.com/Bo-Co/Colombia.html. Retrieved 2011-02-17.
- ^ a b Cuisine of Paraguay, Uruguay and the Falkland Islands, Guarani and European Influences. Gosouthamerica.about.com. Accessed July 2011.
- ^ a b "Paraguay, the Country of Cassava." Consumer.es. Accessed July 2011. (Spanish)
- ^ MercoPress. Uruguay: world’s leading consumer of beef with 58.2 kilos per capita per annum.
- ^ a b Zeldes, Leah A. (February 3, 2010). "Eat this! Hearty Brazilian feijoada, just in time for Carnival!". Dining Chicago. Chicago's Restaurant & Entertainment Guide, Inc.. http://blog.diningchicago.com/2010/02/03/eat-this-hearty-brazilian-feijoada-just-in-time-for-carnival/. Retrieved February 5, 2010.
- Adekunle, Julius (2007). Culture and Customs of Rwanda. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0313331774. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=g0FC40EQujwC&pg=PA81.
- Albala, Ken (2011.) Food Cultures of the World Encyclopedia Greenwood. ISBN 9780313376269
- Zobel, Myron (1962.) "Global cuisine: being the unique recipes of the 84 top restaurants of the world." Patron Press.
- California Culinary Academy (2001). In the World Kitchen: Global Cuisine from California Culinary Academy. Bay Books (CA). ISBN 1579595065.
- MacVeigh, Jeremy (2008). International Cuisine. Delmar Cengage Learning; 1st edition. ISBN 1418049654.
- Nenes, Michael F; Robbins, Joe (2008). International Cuisine. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley, John & Sons; 1st edition. ISBN 0470052406.
- Scarparto, Rosario (2000.) "New global cuisine: the perspective of postmodern gastronomy studies." Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology.
African cuisine National cuisines
- Burkina Faso
- Cape Verde
- Centrafrican (Central African Republic)
- The Republic of the Congo
- The Democratic Republic of the Congo
- Ivorian (Côte d'Ivoire)
- Nigerien (Niger)
- Sierra Leone
- South Africa
Ethnic and regional cuisines American cuisine Historical Regional Ethnic Miscellanea Asian cuisine Sovereign
- Burma (Myanmar)
- People's Republic of China
- East Timor (Timor-Leste)
- North Korea
- South Korea
- Saudi Arabia
- Sri Lanka
- United Arab Emirates
States with limited
European cuisine Sovereign
- Bosnia and Herzegovina
- Czech Republic
- San Marino
- United Kingdom
- Northern Ireland
- Vatican City
States with limited
- Nagorno-Karabakh Republic
- Northern Cyprus
- South Ossetia
and other territories
- Faroe Islands
- Jan Mayen
- Isle of Man
Cuisine of the Mediterranean Northern Africa Southern Europe European regions Western Asia Middle Eastern cuisine North American cuisine Sovereign states Dependencies and
South American cuisine Sovereign states Dependencies and
- Falkland Islands
- French Guiana
- Latin American cuisine
Central America Caribbean South America
- Dependencies not included.
- 1 Defined as a semi-autonomous territory.
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