Two round loaves of naturally leavened (sourdough) bread.

Sourdough is a dough containing a Lactobacillus culture, usually in symbiotic combination with yeasts. It is one of two principal means of biological leavening in bread baking, along with the use of cultivated forms of yeast (Saccharomyces). It is of particular importance in baking rye-based breads, where yeast does not produce comparable results. In comparison with yeast-based breads, it produces a distinctively tangy or sour taste, mainly because of the lactic acid produced by the lactobacilli; the actual medium, known as "starter" or levain, is essentially an ancestral form of pre-ferment. In English-speaking countries, where wheat-based breads predominate, sourdough is no longer the standard method for bread leavening. It was gradually replaced, first by the use of barm from beermaking, then, after the confirmation of germ theory by Louis Pasteur, by cultured yeasts. However, some form of natural leaven is still used by many specialty bakeries.

Sourdough starter is traditionally made with a small amount of old dough, preferably saved from a prior batch. This is traditionally called mother dough or chef: in more modern usage, seed sour. First generation starter or spontaneous seed may be created by storing new dough in a warm place and allowing sufficient time for it to sour. This small amount of old-dough starter contains the culture, and its weight is increased by additions of new dough and mixing or kneading followed by rest or leavening periods.[1] A small amount of the resulting dough is then saved to use as starter sour for the next batch.[2] As long as this starter culture is fed flour and water weekly, it can stay at room temperature indefinitely.[3][4][5]

Sourdough bread is made by combining the increased amount of starter with another new-dough addition, along with any other desired ingredients to make the final dough. The starter comprises about 20 to 25 percent of the final dough, though particular formulas vary and that ratio may be higher. This final dough may be divided and shaped, then allowed to rise, followed by baking.

It is not uncommon for a baker's starter dough to have years of history, from many hundreds of previous batches. As a result, each bakery's sourdough has a distinct taste. The combination of starter processes, refreshment ratios and rest times, culture and air temperature, humidity, and elevation also makes each batch of sourdough different.


Biology and chemistry of sourdough

Sourdough starter made with flour and water refreshed for 3 or more days

A sourdough starter is a stable symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeast present in a mixture of flour and water. The yeasts Candida milleri or Saccharomyces exiguus usually populate sourdough cultures symbiotically with Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis.[6] Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis was named for its discovery in San Francisco sourdough starters.

Often a starter will consist of basic items such as: water, bread flour, rye flour, and a sourdough starter which can be purchased at certain grocery stores. Once the starter is made, water and flour must be added in time increments over a period of days. Depending on the locale of the bakery and the type of bread being made, the starter can be either a relatively fluid batter or a stiffer dough. Firm starters (such as the Flemish Desem starter) are often more resource-intensive, traditionally being buried in a large container of flour to prevent drying out.

A fresh culture begins with a mixture of flour and water. Fresh flour naturally contains a wide variety of yeast and bacterial spores. When wheat flour contacts water, naturally occurring amylase enzymes break down the starch into disaccharides (sucrose and maltose); maltase converts these sugars into glucose and fructose that yeast can metabolize. The lactobacteria feed mostly on the metabolism products from the yeast.[7] The mixture develops a balanced, symbiotic culture after repeated feedings.

There are several ways to increase the chances of creating a stable culture. Unbleached, unbromated flour contains more microorganisms than more processed flours. Bran-containing (wholemeal) flour provides the greatest variety of organisms and additional minerals, though some cultures use an initial mixture of white flour and rye flour or "seed" the culture using unwashed organic grapes (for the wild yeasts on their skins). Using water from boiled potatoes also increases the leavening power of the bacteria, by providing additional starch. Some bakers recommend un-chlorinated water for feeding cultures. Adding a small quantity of diastatic malt provides maltase and simple sugars to support the yeasts initially.[8]

The flour-water mixture can also be inoculated from a previously maintained culture. The culture is stable because of its ability to prevent colonization by other yeasts and bacteria as a result of its acidity and other anti-bacterial agents. As a result, many sourdough bread varieties tend to be relatively resistant to spoilage and mold.

The yeast and bacteria in the culture will cause a wheat-based dough, whose gluten has been developed sufficiently to retain gas, to leaven or rise. Obtaining a satisfactory rise from sourdough, however, is more difficult than with packaged yeast, because the lactobacteria almost always outnumber the yeasts by a factor of between 100:1 and 1000:1, and the acidity of the bacteria inhibit the yeasts' gas production. The acidic conditions, along with the fact that the bacteria also produce enzymes which break down proteins, result in weaker gluten, and a denser finished product.[9]

San Francisco sourdough is generally the same as a Type I sourdough.[10] Type I sourdoughs have a pH range of 3.8 to 4.5 and are fermented in a temperature range of 20 to 30 °C (68 to 86 °F); Saccharomyces exiguus leavens the dough, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis and L. pontis highlight a lactic-acid bacterial flora that includes L. fermentum, L. fructivorans, L. brevis, and L. paralimentarius.[10][11] In Type II sourdoughs Saccharomyces cerevisiae[12] leavens the dough, L. pontis and L. panis highlight the flora.[10][11] These sourdoughs have a pH less than 3.5 and are fermented within a temperature range of 30 to 50 °C (86 to 122 °F) for several days without feedings which reduces the flora's activity.[13][14] This process was adopted by some in industry, in part, due to simplification of the multiple-step build typical of Type I traditional sourdoughs.[15] A primary-culture levain is prepared from a salted wheat-rye dough, the process takes about 54 hours at 27 °C (81 °F) to build to a pH range of 4.4 to 4.6.[16]

Preparing sourdough products

Sourdough starter can be used in two different manners. Traditionally, a certain amount of sourdough starter (20 to 25 percent on average, depending on the water content of the starter) is mixed into the bread dough, and the bread is kneaded and allowed to rise as normal. The process is largely similar to using a pure strain of baker's yeast, although some care must be taken since the rise time of most sourdough starters is usually somewhat longer than the average for typical baker's yeasts. (As a result, many sourdough starters are unsuitable for use in a bread machine.) When using a particularly liquid starter with a high concentration of lactobacillus or acetic acid bacteria, the large amount of lactic and acetic acids produced needs to be managed carefully, since the acid can break down the gluten in the bread dough; this becomes less of a concern in a stiffer starter, where the yeast usually predominates.

The other manner of using sourdough starter is common for making quick breads or foods like pancakes. It involves using baking soda (and sometimes baking powder) to neutralize some or all of the acid in the starter, with the acid-base reaction generating carbon dioxide to provide lift to the dough or batter in a manner very similar to Irish soda bread. This technique is particularly common in kitchens where the starter is intentionally kept off-balance, with a substantially high acid level, and is particularly associated with areas such as Alaska.

History of sourdough

Sourdough bread

Sourdough likely originated in Ancient Egyptian times around 1500 BC and was likely the first form of leavening available to bakers. Sourdough remained the usual form of leavening down into the European Middle Ages[17] until being replaced by barm from the beer brewing process, and then later purpose-cultured yeast.

Bread made from 100 percent rye flour, which is very popular in the northern half of Europe, is usually leavened with sourdough. Baker's yeast is not useful as a leavening agent for rye bread, as rye does not contain enough gluten. The structure of rye bread is based primarily on the starch in the flour, as well as other carbohydrates known as pentosans; however, rye amylase is active at substantially higher temperatures than wheat amylase, causing the structure of the bread to disintegrate as the starches are broken down during cooking. The lowered pH of a sourdough starter therefore inactivates the amylases when heat cannot, allowing the carbohydrates in the bread to gel and set properly.[18] In the southern part of Europe, where baguette and even panettone were originally made with wheat flour and rye flour, sourdough has become less common in recent times; it has been replaced by the faster growing baker's yeast, sometimes supplemented with longer fermentation rests to allow for some bacterial activity to build flavor.

Sourdough was the main bread made in Northern California during the California Gold Rush, and it remains a part of the culture of San Francisco today. The bread became so common that "sourdough" became a general nickname for the gold prospectors. The nickname remains in "Sourdough Sam", the mascot of the San Francisco 49ers. A 'Sourdough' is also a nickname used in the North (Yukon/Alaska) for someone who has spent an entire winter north of the Arctic Circle and refers to their tradition of protecting their Sourdough during the coldest months by keeping it close to their body.[19]

The sourdough tradition was carried into Alaska and the western Canadian territories during the Klondike Gold Rush. Conventional leavenings such as yeast and baking soda were much less reliable in the conditions faced by the prospectors. Experienced miners and other settlers frequently carried a pouch of starter either around their neck or on a belt; these were fiercely guarded to keep from freezing. Ironically, freezing does not kill a sourdough starter; excessive heat does. Old hands came to be called "sourdoughs", a term that is still applied to any Alaskan old-timer.[20]

San Francisco sourdough is the most famous sourdough bread made in the U.S. today. In contrast to sourdough production in other areas of the country, the San Francisco variety has remained in continuous production since 1849, with some bakeries (e.g., Boudin Bakery among others) able to trace their starters back to California's Gold Rush period. It is a white bread characterized by a pronounced sourness (not all varieties are as sour as San Francisco sourdough), so much so that the dominant strain of lactobacillus in sourdough starters was named Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis. Sourdough also became popular because of its ability to combine well with seafoods and soups such as cioppino, clam chowder, and chili.

Sourdough has not enjoyed the popularity it once had since bread became mass-produced. However, many restaurant chains, such as Cracker Barrel, keep it as a menu staple. Manufacturers make up for the lack of yeast and bacterial culture by introducing into their dough an artificially-made mix known as bread improver.

Sourdough breads

Aside from what might be called plain sourdough bread, there are a number of other breads that use similar starters and techniques. Amish Friendship Bread uses a sourdough starter that includes sugar and milk. However, it is further leavened with baking powder and baking soda, making it more of a quick bread. A real Amish sourdough starter for bread is fed with sugar and potato flakes every 3-5 days. The German Pumpernickel is traditionally made from a sourdough starter, although modern pumpernickel loaves often use commercial yeasts, sometimes spiked with citric acid or lactic acid to inactivate the amylases in the rye flour. Also, the Flemish Desem bread is a popular form of whole-wheat sourdough, though cultured in a much less liquid medium.

Other recipes use starters that are not truly natural leavens. The Italian Biga and French Poolish add sourdough-like flavors to breads by allowing the yeast a lengthy half-day or longer fermentation. Unlike a true sourdough, these recipes usually start with commercial yeast, and cultivation of lactobacillus bacteria is generally an incidental effect.

Whole wheat sourdough flatbreads are traditionally eaten in Azerbaijan.[21]

See also


  1. ^ "Manual for army bakers". Washington: Government Printing Office. 1910. p. 22. Retrieved 2011 Aug 13. 
  2. ^ Nanna A. Cross; Corke, Harold; Ingrid De Leyn; Nip, Wai-Kit (2006). 0813801877 Bakery products: science and technology. Oxford: Blackwell. p. 551. ISBN 0-8138-0187-7. 0813801877. Retrieved 2010 June 28. 
  3. ^ S. John Ross. "Sourdough Bread: How To Begin (easy sourdough for the beginner or novice)". Retrieved 2011 June 17. 
  4. ^ Don Holm, Myrtle Holm (1972). The Complete Sourdough Cookbook. Caldwell, Idaho: Caxton Press. p. 40. ISBN 0-87004-223-8. Retrieved 2010 June 28. 
  5. ^ Khachatourians, George G. (1994). Food Biotechnology: Microorganisms. New York: Wiley-Interscience. p. 799. ISBN 0-471-18570-1. Retrieved 2011 Aug 20. 
  6. ^ Gänzle MG, Ehmann M, Hammes WP (July 1998). "Modeling of Growth of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis and Candida milleri in Response to Process Parameters of Sourdough Fermentation". Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64 (7): 2616–23. PMC 106434. PMID 9647838. 
  7. ^ Rosada, Didier (1997) Advanced Sourdough. Minneapolis: National Baking Center.
  8. ^ Reinhart, Peter (1998). Crust & Crumb: Master Formulas For Serious Bakers. Berkeley, Calif: Ten Speed Press. p. 32. ISBN 1-58008-003-0. Retrieved 2010 June 28. 
  9. ^ McGee, Harold (2004). 0684800012 On food and cooking: the science and lore of the kitchen. New York: Scribner. ISBN 0-684-80001-2. 0684800012. Retrieved 2010 June 28. 
  10. ^ a b c Golden, David M.; Jay, James M.; Martin J. Loessner (2005). Modern food microbiology. Berlin: Springer. p. 179. ISBN 0-387-23180-3. Retrieved 2010 June 28. 
  11. ^ a b Arendt EK, Ryan LA, Dal Bello F (April 2007). "Impact of sourdough on the texture of bread" (PDF). Food Microbiol. 24 (2): 165–74. doi:10.1016/ PMID 17008161. Retrieved 2010 June 28. 
  12. ^ Nanna A. Cross; Corke, Harold; Ingrid De Leyn; Nip, Wai-Kit (2006). Bakery products: science and technology. Oxford: Blackwell. p. 370. ISBN 0-8138-0187-7. 
  13. ^ Sadeghi, A. (2008). "The Secrets of Sourdough; A Review of Miraculous Potentials of Sourdough in Bread Shelf Life". Biotechnology(Faisalabad) 7 (3): 413–417. doi:10.3923/biotech.2008.413.417.  edit
  14. ^ Ercolini, Danilo; Cocolin, Luca (2008). Molecular techniques in the microbial ecology of fermented foods. Berlin: Springer. p. 119. ISBN 0-387-74519-X. Retrieved 2010 June 28. 
  15. ^ Yiu H. Hui, Stephanie Clark (2007). Handbook of food products manufacturing. New York: Wiley. p. 364. ISBN 0-470-12524-1. Retrieved 2010 June 28. 
  16. ^ Calvel, Raymond (2001). The taste of bread. Gaithersburg, Md: Aspen Publishers. pp. 89–90. ISBN 0-8342-1646-9. Retrieved 2010 June 28. 
  17. ^ Butler, Sharon; Hieatt, Constance B.; Hosington, Brenda (1996). Pleyn delit: medieval cookery for modern cooks. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-7632-7. Retrieved 2010 June 28. 
  18. ^ Scott, Alan; Daniel Wing (1999). The Bread Builders: Hearth Loaves and Masonry Ovens. White River Junction (VT): Chelsea Green Publishing Company. p. 34. ISBN 1-890132-05-5. Retrieved 2010 June 28. 
  19. ^
  20. ^ Fernald, Anya (November–December 2002). "Sourdough Baking". Slow - The International Herald of Tastes. Retrieved 2010 June 18. 
  21. ^ Forgotten Foods Comparison of the Cuisines of Northern and Southern Azerbaijan by Pirouz Khanlou
  22. ^ "Sourdough - Definition from the Merriam-Webster Dictionary". Retrieved 2010 June 24. 

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  • sourdough — [sour′dō΄] n. 1. Dial. leaven 2. a) fermenting dough saved from one baking to be used for producing fermentation in a later one, thus avoiding the need for fresh yeast b) bread made with such dough: in full sourdough bread 3. a prospector or… …   English World dictionary

  • sourdough — c.1300, fermented dough, from SOUR (Cf. sour) + DOUGH (Cf. dough). The meaning Arctic prospector or pioneer is from 1898 Yukon gold rush, from the practice of saving a lump of fermented dough as leaven for raising bread baked during the winter …   Etymology dictionary

  • sourdough — ► NOUN 1) leaven for making bread, consisting of fermenting dough, originally that left over from a previous baking. 2) bread made using such leaven …   English terms dictionary

  • sourdough — /soweur doh , sow euhr /, n. 1. leaven, esp. fermented dough retained from one baking and used, rather than fresh yeast, to start the next. 2. a prospector or pioneer, esp. in Alaska or Canada. 3. any longtime resident, esp. in Alaska or Canada.… …   Universalium

  • sourdough — noun Date: 14th century 1. a leaven consisting of dough in which fermentation is active 2. [from the use of sourdough for making bread in prospectors camps] a veteran inhabitant and especially an old time prospector of Alaska or northwestern… …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • sourdough — noun Sourdough is used before these nouns: ↑bread …   Collocations dictionary

  • Sourdough — An old, mean person. Don t pay any attention to Fred, he s a sourdough …   Dictionary of american slang

  • Sourdough — An old, mean person. Don t pay any attention to Fred, he s a sourdough …   Dictionary of american slang

  • sourdough — noun (U) AmE uncooked dough (=bead mixture) that is left to ferment 1 before being used to make bread: sourdough bread …   Longman dictionary of contemporary English

  • sourdough — raugas statusas Aprobuotas sritis duonos ir miltiniai gaminiai apibrėžtis Skystas ar tirštas pusgaminis, kuriame iš ankstesnės gamybos raugo arba pradinio raugo patekę mikroorganizmai (pvz., pieno rūgšties bakterijos, mielės) yra aktyvūs arba… …   Lithuanian dictionary (lietuvių žodynas)

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