Two empanadas (empanadillas)
Origin Place of origin Spain Dish details Course served Main course Serving temperature Hot or cold Main ingredient(s) Pastry
Variations Pasty Approximate calories per serving 130 Other information Popular throughout:
An empanada is a stuffed bread or pastry baked or fried in many countries in Latin America, Southern Europe and parts of Southeast Asia. The name comes from the verb empanar, meaning to wrap or coat in bread. Empanada is made by folding a dough or bread patty around the stuffing. The stuffing can consist of a variety of meats, cheese, huitlacoche, vegetables or fruits among others.
Empanadas trace their origins to Galicia, Spain and Portugal. They first appeared in medieval Iberia during the time of the Moorish invasions. A cookbook published in Catalan in 1520, the Libre del Coch by Ruperto de Nola, mentions empanadas filled with seafood among its recipes of Catalan, Italian, French, and Arabian food. In turn, it is believed that empanadas and the similar calzones are both derived from the Arabic meat-filled pies, samosa.
In Galicia and Portugal, an empanada is prepared similar to a large pie which is cut in pieces, making it a portable and hearty meal for working people. The filling of Galician and Portuguese empanada usually includes either tuna, sardines or chorizo, but can instead contain cod fish or pork loin. The meat or fish is commonly in a tomato, garlic and onion sauce inside the bread or pastry casing. Due to the large number of Galician immigrants in Latin America, the empanada gallega has also become popular in that region.
In Sardinia, Italy, the salad cake is named Sa Panada, or Impadas, Sa Panada meaning "meat ball cake".
The dish was carried to Latin America and the Philippines by Spanish colonisers, and to Indonesia by the Portuguese, where they remain very popular to this day. Empanadas in Latin America, the Philippines and Indonesia have various fillings, detailed below.
Argentine empanadas are often served at parties as a starter or main course, or in festivals. Shops specialize in freshly made empanadas, with many flavors and fillings.
The dough is usually of wheat flour and butter with fillings differing from province to province: in some it is mainly chicken in others beef (cubed or ground depending on the region), perhaps spiced with cumin and paprika, while others include onion, boiled egg, olives, or raisins. Empanadas can be baked (Salta style) or fried (Tucuman style). They may also contain ham, fish, humita (sweetcorn with white sauce) or spinach; a fruit filling is used to create a dessert empanada. Empanadas of the interior regions can be spiced with peppers. Many are eaten at celebrations.
In restaurants where several types are served, a repulgue, or pattern, is added to the pastry fold. These patterns indicate the filling. The fill of the Empanada determines the form of the repulgue, for example a cylindrical form would suggest a chocolate prunes filling. In Tucuman, this type of Empanadas was banned, since, in the opinion of the local public, the tender of their taste was too avant-garde.
This province hosts The National Empanada Festival, in the city of Famaillá.
- The only varieties are: beef, mondongo, chicken, with the latter two being the most authentic.
- Preferably cooked in a clay oven in a tray of fat, or in a gas oven
- The empanada Tucumana is hearty - the meat filling being minced into 3 mm pieces, then partially cooked and allowed to cool while it absorbs juices. Cooking is finished along with the final baking.
- In addition to meat, spring onions, pimento and vinegar are added. Potatoes, peas, and olives are rarely used in the Tucuman preparation.
- The dough is simply prepared from flour, water, and lard.
A traditional celebratory meal in Tucumán might include: empanadas, locro Tucumano and meat tamales, and to drink wine from Amaicha del Valle, or Colalao del Valle. Cheese from Tafí del Valle with honey and/or bitter orange syrup as a dessert.
Empanadas from Salta are called salteñas, and are distinct from Tucumán-style empanadas as they are smaller and baked without the addition of fat or oil. Typical fillings include carne suave or picante - beef or spicy beef, cheese, ham, or chicken. The beef versions typically have potato, egg, red pepper, and green onion with the meat.
- Buenos Aires and the city of Buenos Aires - The preferred empanada one is very similar to that of Tucumán but with a greater variety of fillings.
- Jujuy - empanadas Jujeñas are very similar to those from Salta though peas, red peppers and goat meat is more favoured.
- Santiago del Estero tend to commonly use peas, white onion, and hard boiled egg.
- Cordoba- The empanadas from Cordoba are characterized by the use of raisins, potatoes, and sugar. Typically Cordoba makes "empanadas criollas" that contain ground meat, carrots, egg, onion, garlic, olives and raisins.
- Catamarca, La Rioja - Empanadas Catamarqueñas and Las Riojan tend to have garlic, potatoes, goat meat, onion and olives as the fillings.
- Cuyo (Mendoza, La Rioja, San Luis, San Juan) - Contains ground beef, onions (yellow and/or green), green olives, hard boiled eggs, and various spices (cumin, paprika, oregano, etc.)
- Entre Rios - The empanadas here are often stuffed with milk-soaked rice.
- Corrientes, Misiones, and Formosa - Empanada pastry is occasionally made with manioc flour, and although beef as a filling predominates, fish is not unusual.
- La Pampa - Here empanadas reflect the crossing of various regional influences from Buenos Aires, Cordoba, Mendoza, and Patagonia. So that being so the most frequent empanada fillings can include red peppers, carrots, hard boiled egg, and currants.
- Patagonian provinces (Neuquén, Negro River, Chubut, Santa Cruz and Tierra del Fuego, and Islands of the South Atlantic) the most frequent filling is lamb although in the coastal zones fish and, specially, seafood, is common. In Neuquén the usually condiment is merken.
Bolivian Empanadas are made with beef or chicken, and usually contain potatoes, peas and carrots, as well as a hard boiled egg, an olive, or raisins. They are called salteñas and are moon-shaped pouches of dough customarily seamed along the top of the pastry. Salteñas are very juicy and generally sweeter than the Chilean variety, though there are different levels of spiciness (non sweetness). In the afternoons, fried cheese empanadas are served, sometimes brushed with sugar icing.
Cape Verdean cuisine features the pastel as well. Cape Verdean pastéis are often filled with spicy tuna fish. One particular variety, known as "pastel com o diabo dentro" is particular spicy, and is made with a dough made from sweet potatoes and cornmeal.
Chilean empanadas can have a wide range of fillings, but there are three basic types that are the most popular:
- The first one is baked and filled with pino, a traditional filling consisting of beef, onions, raisins, black olives and hard boiled eggs.
- The second one is usually filled with seafood and fried.
- The third type contains cheese and may be baked or fried, although the latter form is more common.
There are many variations on each of these basic types (e.g.: pino without raisins and olives; all kinds of seafood, like mussel, crab, prawns or locos (abalone); mixed shrimp/cheese; etc.).
Colombian empanadas can be either baked or fried. The ingredients used in the filling can vary according to the region, but it will usually contain components such as salt, rice, beef or ground beef, shredded chicken, boiled potatoes, cheese, hard-boiled eggs, and peas. In the department of Valle del Cauca, they are generally filled with ground meat, yellow potato or Creole potato. They are also served with peas, tomato, cilantro, and many other spices. In the city of Medellín, Chorizo filled empanadas can be easily found, because of the city's love of pork and chorizo meats. In the Caribbean Region empanadas are fried, the pastry is corn-based and fillings include ground meat, shredded chicken and ground costeño cheese. In the Amazonic regions of Colombia, such as the area of the city of Leticia, many sweet empanadas can be found, because of the high demand and high supply of tropical fruits of the region. Many of these empanadas are filled with some sort of jam consisting of these types of tropical fruits, such as lulo, zapote and many more which can all be found in the Amazon regions of Colombia. However, radical variations can also be found (cheese empanadas, chicken-only empanadas, and even Trucha - Trout - empanadas). The pastry is mostly corn-based, although potato flour is also used. In Santander, wheat flour pastry is the most popular with a variety of fillings that may include pineapple and even mushrooms, but the empanadas of ground or puréed manioc (stuffed with rice and shredded chicken or minced meat and, usually, chopped hard boiled egg and cilantro) are a representative traditional food.
Colombian empanadas are usually served with Aji (also called Picante and Ají Pique by some people), a sauce made of cilantro, green onions, red or black pepper, vinegar, salt, and lemon juice and, often, bits of avocado pear. Bottled commercially made hot sauces are also used to add flavor to the empanadas. The sauce is normally prepared with a spicy kick, balancing very well with the nutty, neutral taste of the meat, potato and spices that make up the typical Colombian empanada. Colombian empanadas are also known to contain carrots and chicken. Another variety include Stuffed Potatoes (Papas rellenas) which is a variant that has potato in the pastry instead of maize dough and have round shapes.
In the Cauca department, the pipian empanadas are made with peanuts and a special type of potato called "Papa amarilla" due to its yellow color. In Colombia, empanadas can be easily found on street corners, as it is one of the most famous and popular foods in the general public, followed by Arepa and Pandebono. Many of the empanadas that are found in Colombia were/are homemade, and have been brought down through generations, eventually turning into a national obsession. One of the most famous bakeries in the Republic, more specifically based in Cali, Colombia, called 'El Molino' introduced the Spinach Empanada, which is an empanada filled with both green spinach and cottage or Ricotta cheese. In the poorer areas of Colombia, the producers of these popular empanadas are made with the same spinach, but use Queso Campesino, Queso Paisa of Medellín, or parmasan cheese instead of cottage or Ricotta cheese. Emapandas in Colombia are a favorite in most of the bigger cities, such as Cali, Bogotá, Barranquilla or Medellín.
Costa Rican empanadas are either filled with seasoned meats (pork, beef or chicken) or cheese, beans, cubed potato stew folded and then fried. These empanadas are normally made with corn dough. There is another version made with wheat dough and is typically sweet and baked, filled with guava, pineapple, chiverre or any other jelly or dulce de leche. Another popular version are empanadas that have been made with sweet plantain dough, filled with seasoned beans and cheese, and then fried. During the last years, empanadas filled with gallo pinto are becoming a popular alternative to active people who have few time to eat breakfast.
Cuban empanadas are typically filled with seasoned meats (usually ground beef or chicken), folded into dough, and deep fried. Cubans also sometimes refer to empanadas as empanaditas . Empanadas can also be made with cheese, guayaba, or a mixture of both. It can also be made with fruit such as apple. pears, pumpkins and pineapples.
These are not to be confused with Cuban pastelitos, which are very similar but use a lighter pastry dough and may or may not be fried. Cubans eat empanadas at any meal, but they usually consume them during lunch or as a snack.
Pastechis are typically filled with Gouda cheese, meat, tuna or other fish. The dough is made out of flour, eggs and lard or butter, slightly sweetened. Pastechis are deep fried.
Referred to by Dominicans as "pastelitos" (literal translation: "little pies"), Dominican empanadas are traditionally fried and stuffed with savory fillings, such as cheese or meats (seasoned ground beef, shredded chicken or pork) and garnished with chopped olives, onions, raisins and/or eggs. A variety also exists in which the dough is made from cassava flour (or wheat flour), called catibías. They are often consumed as street food and can be bought from street vendors, but are also made at home as special additions to holiday meals.
Very similar to those of their neighboring country, Colombia, Ecuadorian empanadas are made of corn seasoning or flour. Their components may include peas, potatoes, steamed meat known as carne guisada, or many other varieties of vegetables. The many types of Ecuadorian empanadas include empanadas de arroz (rice empanadas), which are deep fried for added crispiness, and flour empanadas or empanadas de verde which are empanadas made from plantain. Empanadas are also followed by aji (a type of dipping sauce for added flavor), which varies by region. The major components of "aji", or "picante", as it is also known, are cilantro, juices from red peppers (for a spicy kick), lemon, Spanish, red, or green onion, and sometimes chopped tomato. In la costa, or the shore region of Ecuador, aji may contain only onions, chopped tomatoes, and lemon juice. and fruit empanadas; with such fillings as banana, apples, and pumpkin. There is also "empanadas de morocho", morocho is a special grain produced in the country. They are also known for deep fried empanadas made with shredded chicken, onions, olives, hard boiled eggs, and raisins then topped with sugar before serving.
Salvadorians often use the term "empanadas" to mean an appetizer or dessert made of plantains stuffed with sweet cream. The plantains are then lightly fried and served warm with a sprinkle of sugar. They also sometimes include red fried beans.
In Ghana, traditional-style empanadas called "meat pies" are made with a pastry shell and corned beef filling.
In Haiti, a meat-filled pastry similar to the empanada but with a thicker crust called a pate is regularly eaten on festive occasions. It is essentially a meat-filled turnover. The dough is often filled with ground beef, fish, or chicken and topped with spices. The dough is then sealed and baked.
In Indonesia it is known as panada or pastel. The Northern Celebes version, called panada, has thick crust made of fried bread, giving it bread texture and is filled with spicy tuna and chili peppers. The other less spicier version, called pastel, has thin crust makes it more crispy and a fillings typically made of finely diced potatoes, carrot, green onions, chicken, garlic, and white pepper some people added glass noodles. A less common version can also be found, filled with curried chicken and/or potatoes with one quail egg.
Another version of pastel is pastel tutup. it has the same fillings as pastel but in pie form Just like chicken pot pie only with the soft thick crust made of mashed potatoes. pastel tutup is baked instead of fried.
A Jamaican patty or "pattie" is a pastry that contains various fillings and spices baked inside a flaky shell, often tinted golden yellow with an egg yolk mixture or turmeric. It is made like a turnover but is more savory. As its name suggests, it is commonly found in Jamaica, and is also eaten in other areas of the Caribbean, like Costa Rica's Caribbean coast but most notably that of Haiti, in which the pastry is thick and crispy essentially a turnover. It is traditionally filled with seasoned ground beef, however, fillings now include chicken, vegetables, shrimp, lobster, fish, soy, ackee, mixed vegetables or seasoned ground beef with cheese. In Jamaica the patty is often eaten as a full meal especially when paired with bread. It can also be made as bite-sized portions and is then referred to as a cocktail patty.
In Malaysia, curry puff or karipap is considered a Malaysian version of empanadas. Found in many stores, especially at Indian and Malay food stalls. Another Malay version of this snack is known as epok-epok and teh-teh which is smaller than the curry puff. Other varieties of the epok epok are filled with a half boiled egg instead of chicken. Another alternative is tinned sardines.
Manufacturers have developed a version of the curry puff that can be frozen and later reheated by the consumer. These are suitable for the export market and can be produced in volume for shipment to various regions, such as the Middle East, where there is demand. In addition, new fillings have been experimented with, including tuna and black pepper.
In Indian food stalls in Malaysia, it is quite common to find vegetarian curry puffs with potatoes, carrots and onions as fillings. The Malay curry puffs tend to be sweet-savoury while the Indian curry puffs are usually spicy.
The Maldivian Empanada, locally known as Patty is a pastry that contains spicy tuna fillings accompanied by chopped onions, chopped garlic, potato and of course, the Maldives Chilli.
The Chamorro people of Guam and Saipan make an empanada that is filled with ground toasted rice, red chilis, black pepper, garlic and annatto. The pastry is made from masa harina and it is deep fried.
Mexican empanadas can be a dessert or breakfast item and tend to contain a variety of sweetened fillings; these include pumpkin, yams, sweet potato, and cream, as well as a wide variety of fruit fillings. Meat, cheese, and vegetable fillings are less common in some states, but still well-known and eaten fairly regularly. Depending on local preferences and particular recipes the dough can be based on wheat or corn, sometimes with Yuca flour. The state of Hidalgo is famous for its empanadas, or pastes, as they are locally known. These trace their origins from the Cornish pasties imported by British miners.
In Chiapas, empanadas filled with chicken or cheese are popular dishes for breakfast, supper or even as snacks.
In Nigeria, these pastries are commonly referred to as "meat pies". They are usually stuffed with carrots and greens with the meat being either beef or chicken.
Empanadas are usually filled with ground beef but sometimes may also be filled with shredded chicken, white cheese or yellow cheese. They are made of flour or cornmeal and usually deep fried, but can also be baked. In the city of Colon, due to a heavy Caribbean influence, they also fill it with a plantain puree, bake it, and call it "plantain tart" (tarta de platano). They are smaller than their counterparts elsewhere in Latin America and are considered snack, appetizer, or luncheon food.
Paraguayan empanadas are similar to the Argentinian ones. They are usually fried and there are a variety of fillings. The traditional one contains ground beef and hard-boiled eggs. Other types include: jamón y queso (ham and cheese), palmitos (heart of palm), choclo (corn), huevo (egg), mandioca (cassava). The mandioca empanada is commonly referred as pastel mandi'o, and it is unique in this country, usually served in the San Juan festival.
Peruvian empanadas are similar to Argentine empanadas, but slightly smaller. They are usually baked. The most common variety contains ground beef seasoned with cumin, hard-boiled egg, onions, olives, and raisins; the dough is usually sprinkled with icing sugar. They are commonly sprinkled with lime juice before eating. Also very popular are cheese-filled (or cheese-and-ham-filled) ones besides chicken filled one.
Recently, "modern" empanadas, with a variety of filling have appeared, e.g.: chicken-and-mushrooms, shrimp or "ají de gallina".
In southern Perú, similar to Bolivia, there are "Salteñas" (Argentinian empanadas) or "Bolivianas" (very similar to Salteñas).
Filipino empanadas usually contain ground beef or chicken meat, potato, chopped onion, and raisins (somewhat similar to the Cuban "picadillo") in a sweetish wheat flour dough. There are doughy baked versions, as well as flaky fried versions. Often, to lower costs, potatoes are added as a filler.
Empanadas in the northern Ilocos are very different. Those empanadas are made of a savory filling of green papaya, mung beans and, upon request, chopped Ilocano sausage (Chorizo) and/or an egg yolk. Rather than the soft, sweet dough favoured in the Tagalog region, the dough used to enclose the filling is thin and crisp, mostly because Ilocano empanada uses rice flour, coloured orange with achuete (annatto), and is deep-fried rather than baked.
In Portugal, empadas are a common option for a small meal, found universally in patisseries and often being eaten while drinking coffee. They are usually about the size of a tennis ball, though size and shape changes from place to place or establishment to establishment. The most common fillings are chicken, beef, tuna, codfish and, more recently, mushrooms and vegetables, though this also varies from place to place. They are usually served both hot and cold.
Puerto Rican cuisine has several dishes related to the empanada. The closest to those of neighboring countries is called empanadilla (literally 'little empanada'). The empanadilla is made of flour or cassava flour dough, and lard. The empanadilla is filled with meat (chicken, picadillo, chorizo, turkey, etc.), spinach, pigeon peas with coconut (mostly in dominican neighborhoods), cheese, marinara sauce and mozzarella (known as an empanadilla de pizza or an empanadilla de lasagna), or cheese with fruit. Cassava empanadas are usually filled with seafood. They're very popular beach food and in Cuchifrito stands.
A similar dish is the pastelillo, which uses a higher portion of lard and adds annatto powder in the pastry mix, making it yellow in color, and fried. Common fillings are cheese, guava paste, meat, fish or chicken. They may also be found in the varieties of pizza or lasagna. These should not be confused with another form of pastelillo which uses puff pastry, is filled with either meat or fruit paste (mostly guava) and either left plain or topped with powdered sugar or sugar glaze/honey.
The Puerto Rican empanadilla pastry should not be confused with what is known as an empanada in Puerto Rico, which is a steak, chicken breast or fish fillet breaded in flour and fried, much like schnitzel.
In Spain empanadas are often made from a rather thin, pliant, but resilient wheat pastry, although thicker pastry is not uncommon. The filling varies, but tuna, sardines or chorizo are used most commonly in a tomato puree, garlic and onion sauce. Spanish empanadas are fried in olive oil or baked in the oven. In Galicia, Spain, the empanada can also be prepared similar to a pie, with cod fish or pork loin, the empanada galega (Spanish: empanada gallega). Empanada can be eaten at any time of the day.
Creole cuisine empanadas are commonly eaten in the United States, especially in the South and the Southwest. In Louisiana empanadas are Creole savory meat pies, commonly made in Louisiana by Creoles in South and North Louisiana. They are a half circle flaky crust, filled with seasoned pork, beef, chicken, and cheese. In the southeastern United States, there is a similarly prepared dessert often referred to as "fried pies." They typically consist of a pastry filling made from re-constituted dried fruit such as apples, apricots, peaches or yams. The filling is placed in a dough circle, folded over in half, and then fried.
Among the Spanish and Mexican families that colonized New Mexico, there is a winter tradition of gathering to making sweetmeat empanadas for Christmas. These small empanadas are made with hand-ground cooked pork, sugar, toasted local piñon, cinnamon, cloves, and nutmeg; sealed in tortilla-like dough; then deep-fried in lard until lightly golden brown. Variations include making them from beef, and using different nuts or spices. Gathering the family to make and gift these sweetmeat empanadas is one of many traditional New Mexico foodways that continues to thrive.
Uruguayan empanadas are generally made out of wheat flour and can be fried or baked. There were introduced by the Spanish and Italian settlers in the middle of the 20th century. The most common empanadas are those with beef, but there are also other kinds, such as ham and cheese, olives, fish and spicy stuffing. The most famous sweet empanadas in Uruguay are those that combine dulce de leche, quince and chocolate covered by sugar or apple jam. In some regions even those with sweet meat.
Venezuelan empanadas use corn flour based dough and are fried in oil or lard.
The stuffing varies according to region; most common are white salty cheese, shredded chicken or beef and ground beef.
Other types use fish (shredded school shark or cazón), caraotas or black beans, Llanero white cheese, guiso (meat or chicken stew made with capers, red bell peppers, tomatoes, onions, garlic, olives, panela, red wine, and Worcestershire sauce). Oyster, clams, shrimps and other types of seafood are used as fillings in the coastal areas, especially in Margarita Island. Also, it can be made of fried ripe plantains (tajadas) and white cheese, which has a sweet flavour.
An empanada filled with meat, black beans (Venezuelan-style), and fried ripe plantains (tajadas) is called empanada de pabellón, after Venezuela's national dish, the pabellón criollo.
When the empanada is cut open after deep frying, and doctored with added fillings, it is called empanada operada, a term which refers to a surgical intervention (operación in Spanish).
The empanadas can be eaten at any time of the day (but it's usually consumed as a breakfast) and is frequently served with Guasacaca and/or hot sauce.
In order to distinguish the types of empanadas in Venezuela, it is common to call Empanada Chilena the one that is made with a wheat flour based dough (or pastry) and baked, as Venezuelan empanadas are made with a corn flour based dough.
The Virgin Islands version of empanadas are called patés. They are served as a snack or street food. Filled with beef, chicken, saltfish, conch, lobster or vegetables, pates are made with flour and are usually fried.
Many other world cuisines have dishes very similar to the empanada. These include:
- Bánh xếp and other types of bánh from Vietnam
- Börek and Pogača, from Turkey and areas of the former Ottoman Empire
- Bridie, baked pastry filled with spiced beef and onions, from Forfar, Scotland.
- Calzone and panzerotti from Italy
- Curry puff from Malaysia and countries with Malay populations
- Gujia from India filled with sugared coconut, nuts & sweet but no meat.
- Kajjikaya from Andhra Pradesh, India. Similar to fried empanadas filled with sweetened dried coconut.
- Khuushuur, from Mongolia, commonly made with mutton or beef, or whitefish when within the vicinity of Lake Khuvsgul
- Kibbeh, from Lebanon/Levant, with lamb meat encased in bulgur dough
- Jamaican patty
- Jiaozi from China, also called mandu in Korea and gyōza in Japan
- Karanji from Maharashtra, India. Same idea, but filled with fried & sugared coconut.
- Knish, a dish associated with Ashkenazi Jews
- Deep-fried momo from Tibet, Nepal and North East India
- Natchitoches Meat Pie, fried or baked pastry turnover filled with ground beef, pork, onion, garlic and spices
- Cornish Pasty, baked pastry filled with beef and potato, from Cornwall, England.
- Pierogi, bierock and runza from Slavic countries and the midwest United States
- Pīragi/Pīrādziņi from Latvia
- Pirozhki, from Russia and nearby countries
- Samosa from South Asia
- Scovardă (mainly used in the plural "scoverzi") from Romania, especially Transylvania. Fried in a pan and usually filled with various types of cheese, with or without dill.
- Stromboli (which is Italian American) and Hot Pockets, prepared, mass-marketed food from the United States
- Strudel, from Germany and areas of the former Habsburg empire
- ^ "Historia de la empanada criolla". Dra. Susana Barberis. http://www.produccion-animal.com.ar/temas_historia/76-empanadas.pdf. Retrieved 8 of July of 2010.
- ^ Penelope Casas (1982), The Foods and Wines of Spain, Alfred A. Knopf, New York 1982 (p. 52)
- ^ "Breve historia de la alimentación en Argentina". Liliana Agrasar. http://www.fac.org.ar/fec/foros/cardtran/gral/Historia.htm. Retrieved 8 of July of 2010.
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- ^ Lady Brighid ni Chiarain.. "An English translation of Ruperto de Nola's "Libre del Coch"". Stefan's Florilegium, http://www.florilegium.org. http://www.florilegium.org/?http%3A//www.florilegium.org/files/FOOD-MANUSCRIPTS/Guisados1-art.html. Retrieved January 31, 2011.
- ^ Clifford A. Wright (1999), A Mediterranean Feast, William Morrow, New York (p. 573)
- ^ Hamilton, Cherie. 'Cuisines of Portuguese Encounters' Hippocrene Books. 2001.
- ^ Chamorro empanada recipe,
- ^ Ian Ocampo Flora (April 23, 2010). "Vigan Empanada and the gastronomic treats of Ilocos". http://www.sunstar.com.ph. http://www.sunstar.com.ph/pampanga/vigan-empanada-and-gastronomic-treats-ilocos. Retrieved 30 December 2010.
- ^ "Vigan Empanada". http://www.fliptravels.com.+Apr 29, 2010. http://www.fliptravels.com/tag/vigan-empanada/. Retrieved 30 December 2010.
- ^ yam reference
- ^ yam reference
- ^ yam empanada receipe
- ^ http://tutube.nalip.org/_Empanada-Day-Gathering-Generations/video/710695/18188.html
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