Cauca Department

Cauca Department
Department of Cauca
Departamento del Cauca
—  Department  —


Coat of arms
Motto: Por el Derecho a la Diferencia
(Spanish: For the Right to a Difference)
Cauca shown in red
Coordinates: 2°27′N 76°37′W / 2.45°N 76.617°W / 2.45; -76.617Coordinates: 2°27′N 76°37′W / 2.45°N 76.617°W / 2.45; -76.617
Country  Colombia
Region Andean Region
Established June 15, 1857
Capital Popayán
 – Governor Juan José Chaux Mosquera (Colombian Liberal Party)
 – Total 29,308 km2 (11,315.9 sq mi)
Area rank 13
Population (2005)[1]
 – Total 1,244,886
 – Rank 11
 – Density 42.5/km2 (110/sq mi)
Time zone UTC-05
ISO 3166 code CO-CAU
Municipalities 41
Website [1]

Cauca is a Department of Colombia. Located in the south-western part of the country, facing the Pacific Ocean to the west, the Valle del Cauca Department to the north, Tolima Department to the northeast, Huila Department to the east and the Nariño Department to the south, covering a total area of 29,308 km², the 13th largest in Colombia. Its capital is the city of Popayán. The offshore island of Malpelo belongs to the department. It is located in the southwest of the country near the Andean (between 00°58'54"N and 03°19'04"N latitude, 75°47'36"W and 77°57'05"W longitude). The area includes 2.56% of the country. Cauca is considered the 'epicentre' of the Colombian armed conflict as of 2011.[2]


Administrative Division

Departments bordering Cauca; boundary intersections indicated in red.

Cauca department is divided into 38 municipalities, 99 districts, 474 police posts and numerous villages and populated places. The municipalities are grouped into 27 circles and 29 notaries notary, a circle-based registration in Popayán and eight sectional offices based in Bolívar, Caloto, Puerto Tejada, Santander de Quilichao, Patia, Guapi and Silvia, makes up the judicial district, Popayán, with 8 seats judicial circuit in Popayán, Bolívar, Caloto, Guapi, Patia, Puerto Tejada, Santander de Quilichao and Silvia. The department makes up the constituency of Cauca.


The relief of the territory of the department of Cauca belongs to the Andean system at the macro level seven distinguishing morphological units: the Pacific plate, western cordillera, Central cordillera, highlands of Popayán, Macizo Colombiano, Valle del Patia and the sector of the Amazon basin. The Pacific plate comprises two sectors, the alluvial coastal belt or platform characterized by low, covered with mangrove forest, swampy, both the quantity of rivers, estuaries and reaching the Pacific coast, such as being subjected the ebb and flow of tides, the other area is the actual plain of hills comprising the western slopes of the western cordillera.

The western cordillera in the Cauca extends from southwest to northeast, among the most important accidents is the blade of Napí, the hills of Guaduas, Munchique and Naya and the Cauca River Valley. The central mountain range crosses from south to north of the department, relevant accidents are Sotará volcano, Petacas Nevado del Huila and in the departmental boundary.

The highlands of Popayán, sandwiched between the Western and Central Cordilleras, is seen as an accident within the plateau the hill La Tetilla. The Colombian Massif shared with the department of Huila, among the most representative accidents are the Páramo del buey, the volcanoes of Cutanga and Puracé, the peak of Paletará and the Sierra Nevada of Coconucos. Patia Valley, framed by the Central and Western mountain ranges, where the river runs north-south Patia, extends to the department of Nariño. The Amazon Basin, corresponds to the so-called Bota Caucana, through which the Caquetá river.

Colombian Massif

The Colombian Massif, also called the Nudo de Almaguer, is a mountainous group of "Andes colombianos" covering the departments of Cauca, Huila and Nariño in the south is the Nudo de los Pastos and emerge north central and eastern mountain ranges. The Colombian Massif is a strategic national and international level, given its significance for water production, biodiversity and ecosystems, an area that represents a special conformation of the regions with more potential for development in Colombia, but also, major problems that can lead to accelerated degradation process. It is very important to the Colombian Massif and the national government has no resources specified destination to prevent further deterioration of the region. That was the reason that motivated me to submit a bill for the Colombian Massif is regarded as cultural heritage, environment and ecology of the country, so that monies are included annually in the General Budget of the nation to advance plans integrated management of basins of major rivers are born there, in addition to resolving the land tenure conflict, the disadvantages on roads, education, health, the missing energy, to prevent livestock extend further progress, and definitely have a tool that allows us to solve in the first instance to a region of many needs and even the state should receive significant royalties for being the area that brings more water into the country.


The Cauca river system, consists of five major basins: Alto Cauca, Pacific, Alto Magdalena, Patia and Caqueta, Alto Cauca, formed by the Cauca River and its tributaries Palo, Guengué, Negro, Teta, Desbaratado, and Quilichao, Mondomo, Ovejas, Pescador, Robles, Piedras, Sucio, Palacé, Cofre, Honda, Cajibío, Piendamó, Tunia, Molino, Timbío and Blanco.

The Pacific Rim, made up mainly by rivers Guapi, Timbiquí, Saija and Micay. Alto Magdalena, the main source of the Paez River drainage is that the rivers San Vicente, Moras, ulluco, Negro y Negro de Narvaez, and streams Toez, Símbola, Salado, Gualcar, Gallo, Macana, Honda and Totumo. Patia basin, consists of the Patia River and its tributary rivers Guachinoco, Ismita, Bojoleo, El Guaba, Sambingo and Mayo.

Caquetá basin, consists of the Caquetá River where the rivers Cusiyaco, Cascabelito, Verdeyaco, Mandiyaco, Fragua, Cascabel, Curiaco and Pacayaco. Gorgonilla and Gorgona islands and located in the Pacific Ocean, belong to the territory Cauca.


The Cauca economy is based primarily on agriculture and livestock production, forestry, fishing and trade. Agriculture has been developed and modernized in the northern department, with main crops are sugar cane, cane panela, conventional maize, rice, corn tech, banana, agave, yucca, potatoes, coconut, sorghum, cocoa, groundnut and palm.

In the Pacific region is extracted gold, silver and platinum. Other non-precious minerals that are exploited are sulfur, asbestos, limestone, talc, gypsum and coal. The manufacturing industry is located in Popayán, Santander de Quilichao, Puerto Tejada with factories of food, beverages, dairy products, paper, packaging, wood processing, sugar industry and paper processing for export. The main centers of commercial activity are Popayán, Santander de Quilichao, Patia, Puerto Tejada, Piendamó and Corinto.

Crime and armed conflict

Cauca is considered one of the most violent departments in Colombia. Over 4000 intentional homicides were committed here in 2010.[3] In 2010 and 2011 Cauca has been one of the regions most affected by the ongoing Colombian armed conflict. Between September and November 2010 over 75 policemen and soldiers have been killed by guerrillas of the FARC-EP.[4][5][6] The Cauca region is also important for the cultivation of coca, which makes it even more of a hot spot as guerrillas, paramilitaries and state forces battle for control over drug routes to the pacific coast.[7] According to press reports the FARC and ELN have transformed the department into a 'fortress', effectively launching attacks against security forces on a daily basis.[8]


See also

Quintana and Mondomo are also part of el departamento del Cauca


External links

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

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