- West Bengal
Infobox Indian Jurisdiction
type = state
state_name = West Bengal
native_name = West Bengal
capital = Kolkata
latd = 22.5697
longd = 88.3697
largest_city = Kolkata (Calcutta)
abbreviation = IN-WB
official_languages = Bengali
legislature_type = Unicameral
legislature_strength = 295
leader_title_1 = Governor
leader_title_2 = Chief Minister
area_total = 88752
area_rank = 13th
area_magnitude = 10
population_year = 2001
population_total = 80221171
population_rank = 4th
population_density = 904
districts = 19
website = www.wbgov.com
locator_position = left
portal = West Bengal
West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ "Poshchim Bônggo" IPA2|poʃtʃim bɔŋgo) is a state in eastern
India. With Bangladesh, which lies on its eastern border, the state forms the ethno-linguistic region of Bengal. To its northeast lie the states of Assamand Sikkimand the country Bhutan, and to its southwest, the state of Orissa. To the west it borders the state of Jharkhandand Bihar, and to the northwest, Nepal.
The region that is now West Bengal was a part of a number of empires and kingdoms during the past two millennia. The
British East India Companycemented their hold on the region following the Battle of Plasseyin 1757 CE, and the city of Kolkata, then Calcutta, served for many years as the capital of British India. A hotbed of the Indian independence movementthrough the early 20th century, Bengalwas divided in 1947 into two separate entities, West Bengal—a state of India, and East Pakistanbelonging to the new nation of Pakistan. Following India's independence in 1947, West Bengal's economic and political systems were dominated for many decades by Marxism, Naxalitemovements and trade unionism, leading to a decline in its industrial sector.
An agriculture-dependent state, West Bengal occupies only 2.7% of the India's land area, though it supports over 7.8% of Indian population, and is the most densely populated state in India.cite web
title= Introduction and Human Development Indices for West Bengal
work= [http://www.undp.org.in/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=124&Itemid=212 West Bengal Human Development Report 2004]
publisher= Development and Planning Department, Government of West Bengal
quote= ] West Bengal has been ruled by the
CPI(M)-led Left Frontfor three decades, making it the world's longest-running democratically-elected communistgovernment. While the state has seen a resurgence in its economy from late 1990s after decades of stagnation, it still faces poverty, political instability and bureaucratic corruption.
Remnants of civilisation in the greater
Bengalregion date back 4,000 years,cite web
url=http://www.orgs.ttu.edu/saofbangladesh/history.htm|title=History of Bangladesh
accessdate=2006-10-26|publisher=Bangladesh Student Association] cite news
publisher=Xinhua |date=2006-March |title=4000-year old settlement unearthed in Bangladesh
url=http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2006-03/12/content_4293312.htm] when the region was settled by Dravidian, Tibeto-Burman and Austro-Asiatic peoples. The exact origin of the word "Bangla" or Bengal is unknown, though it is believed to be derived from the Dravidian-speaking tribe "Bang" that settled in the area around the year 1000
publisher=Library of Congress |url=http://memory.loc.gov/frd/cs/bdtoc.html
chapter=Early History, 1000 B.C.-A.D. 1202 |title=Bangladesh: A country study
editor=James Heitzman and Robert L. Worden |year=1989] After the arrival of
Indo-Aryans, the kingdom of Magadhawas formed in 7th century BCE, consisting of the Biharand Bengalregions. It was one of the four main kingdoms of Indiaat the time of Mahaviraand the Buddha, and consisted of several " Janapadas".cite web
url=http://www.banglapedia.net/HT/S_0221.HTM |title=Settlement in Bengal (Early Period)
last=Sultana |first=Sabiha |accessdate=2007-03-04 |work=
publisher=Asiatic Society of Bangladesh ] During the rule of Maurya dynasty, the Magadha Empire extended over nearly all of
South Asia, including parts of Persia and Afghanistanunder Ashoka the Greatin the 3rd century BCE. One of the earliest foreign references to Bengal is the mention of a land named Gangaridaiby the Greeksaround 100 BCE. The word is speculated to have come from "Gangahrd" (Land with the Gangesin its heart) in reference to an area in Bengal.cite web
last=Chowdhury|first=AM|work=Banglapedia|publisher=Asiatic Society of Bangladesh ]
From the 3rd to the 6th centuries CE, the kingdom of
Magadhaserved as the seat of the Gupta Empire. The first recorded independent king of Bengal was Shashanka, reigning around early 7th century.cite web
publisher=Asiatic Society of Bangladesh] After a period of anarchy, the Buddhist Pala dynasty ruled the region for four hundred years, followed by a shorter reign of the
Hindu Sena dynasty. Islamwas introduced to Bengal in the twelfth century by Sufi missionaries. Subsequent Muslim conquests helped spread Islam throughout the region.cite web
url=http://banglapedia.search.com.bd/HT/I_0103.htm|title=Islam (in Bengal)
accessdate=2006-10-26|work=Banglapedia|publisher=Asiatic Society of Bangladesh] Bakhtiar Khilji, a Turkic general of the
Slave dynastyof Delhi Sultanate, defeated Lakshman Senof the Sena dynasty and conquered large parts of Bengal. Consequently, the region was ruled by dynasties of sultans and feudal lords under the Delhi Sultanate for the next few hundred years. In the sixteenth century, Mughal general Islam Khanconquered Bengal. However, administration by governors appointed by the court of the Mughal Empiregave way to semi-independence of the area under the Nawabs of Murshidabad, who nominally respected the sovereignty of the Mughals in Delhi.
European traders arrived late in the fifteenth century. Their influence grew until the
British East India Companygained taxation rights in Bengal " subah", or province, following the Battle of Plasseyin 1757, when Siraj ud-Daulah, the last independent Nawab, was defeated by the British.cite web
url=http://banglapedia.search.com.bd/HT/S_0411.htm|title=Sirajuddaula|accessdate=2006-10-26| last1 = Chaudhury| first1 = S| last2 = Mohsin| first2 = KM|work=Banglapedia
publisher=Asiatic Society of Bangladesh] The
Bengal Presidencywas established by 1765, eventually including all British territories north of the Central Provinces(now Madhya Pradesh), from the mouths of the Ganges and the Brahmaputrato the Himalayas and the Punjab. The Bengal famine of 1770claimed millions of lives.cite web
title=The Famine of 1770 in Bengal|accessdate=2006-10-26|last=Fiske|first=John
work=The Unseen World, and other essays|publisher=University of Adelaide Library Electronic Texts Collection] Calcutta was named the capital of
British Indiain 1772. The Bengal Renaissanceand Brahmo Samajsocio-cultural reform movements had great impact on the cultural and economic life of Bengal. The failed Indian rebellion of 1857started near Calcutta and resulted in transfer of authority to the British Crown, administered by the Viceroy of India.Harv|Baxter|1997|pp=30–32] Between 1905 and 1911, an abortive attempt was made to divide the province of Bengal into two zones.Harv|Baxter|1997|pp=39–40] Bengal suffered from the Great Bengal famine in 1943 that claimed 3 million lives.cite book
last=Sen |first=Amartya |year=1973 |title=Poverty and Famines
publisher=Oxford University Press |id=ISBN 0-19-828463-2]
Bengal played a major role in the
Indian independence movement, in which revolutionary groups such as Anushilan Samitiand Jugantarwere dominant. Armed attempts against the British Rajfrom Bengal reached a climax when Subhash Chandra Boseled the Indian National Armyfrom Southeast Asiaagainst the British. When India gained independence in 1947, Bengal was partitioned along religious lines. The western part went to India (and was named West Bengal) while the eastern part joined Pakistanas a province called East Bengal(later renamed East Pakistan, giving rise to Bangladeshin 1971).cite web
url=http://banglapedia.search.com.bd/HT/P_0101.htm|title=Partition of Bengal, 1947
publisher=Asiatic Society of Bangladesh] Both West and East Bengal suffered from large refugee influx during the partition in 1947, leading to the political unrests later on. In 1955, the former French enclave of
Chandannagar, which had passed into Indian control after 1950, was integrated into West Bengal; portions of Bihar were subsequently merged with West Bengal.
During the 1960s and 1970s, severe power shortages, strikes and a violent Marxist-Naxalite movement damaged much of the state's infrastructure, leading to a period of economic stagnation. The
Bangladesh Liberation Warof 1971 resulted in the influx of millions of refugees to West Bengal, causing significant strains on its infrastructure.Harv|Bennett|Hindle|1996|pp=63–70] West Bengal politics underwent a major change when the Left Frontwon the 1977 assembly election, defeating the incumbent Indian National Congress. The Left Front, led by CPI(M)has governed for the subsequent three decades.cite news
first = Soutik |last = Biswas |title=Calcutta's colourless campaign
date=2006-04-16 |accessdate=2006-08-26 ]
The state's economic recovery gathered momentum after
economic reforms in Indiawere introduced in the mid-1990s by the central government, aided by election of a new reformist Chief MinisterBuddhadeb Bhattacharya in 2000. As of 2007, armed activists have been organising minor terrorist attacks in some parts of the state,cite web
title=Maoist on Rise in West Bengal|accessdate=2006-09-11|last=Ghosh Roy
Voice of America] cite web
title=Maoist Communist Centre (MCC)|accessdate=2006-09-11|work=Left-wing Extremist group
publisher=South Asia Terrorism Portal] while clashes with the administration are taking place at several sensitive places on the issue of industrial land acquisition.cite news
title=Several hurt in Singur clash
url=http://www.rediff.com/news/2007/jan/28singur.htm |work=rediff News
publisher=Rediff.com India Limited |date=28 January 2007 |accessdate=2007-03-15 ] cite news
title=Red-hand Buddha: 14 killed in Nandigram re-entry bid
url=http://www.telegraphindia.com/1070315/asp/frontpage/story_7519166.asp |publisher=The Telegraph |date=15 March 2007 |accessdate=2007-03-15 ]
Geography and climate
West Bengal is on the eastern bottleneck of India, stretching from the
Himalayas in the north to the Bay of Bengalin the south. The state has a total area of convert|88752|km2|sqmi|0.cite web
url=http://www.indianmirror.com/geography/geo9.html|title=Statistical Facts about India
Darjeeling Himalayan hill regionin the northern extreme of the state belongs to the eastern Himalaya. This region contains Sandakfu(convert|3636|m|ft|0|disp=/)—the highest peak of the state.cite web
title=National Himalayan Sandakphu-Gurdum Trekking Expedition: 2006|accessdate=2006-10-26
publisher=Youth Hostels Association of India: West Bengal State Branch] The narrow
Terai regionseparates this region from the plains, which in turn transitions into the Ganges deltatowards the south. The Rarh regionintervenes between the Ganges delta in the east and the western plateau and high lands. A small coastal region is on the extreme south, while the Sundarbans mangroveforests form a remarkable geographical landmark at the Ganges delta.
Gangesis the main river, which divides in West Bengal. One branch enters Bangladesh as the "Padma" or "Pôdda", while the other flows through West Bengal as the Bhagirathi Riverand Hooghly River. The Teesta, Torsa, Jaldhakaand Mahananda rivers are in the northern hilly region. The western plateau region has rivers such as the Damodar, Ajay and Kangsabati. The Ganges delta and the Sundarbans area have numerous rivers and creeks. Pollution of the Ganges from indiscriminate waste dumped into the river is a major problem.cite web
title=Alarming rise in bacterial percentage in Ganga waters|accessdate=2006-10-29
date=4 August 2006|publisher=The Hindu Business Line] At least nine districts in the state suffer from
arsenic contamination of groundwater, and an estimated 8.7 million people drink water containing arsenic above the World Health Organisationrecommended limit of 10 µg/L.cite web
title=Groundwater Arsenic Contamination Status in West Bengal
work=Groundwater Arsenic Contamination in West Bengal - India (17 Years Study)
publisher=School of Environmental Studies, Jadavpur University]
West Bengal's climate varies from tropical
savannahin the southern portions to humid subtropical in the north. The main seasons are summer, rainy season, a short autumn, and winter. While the summer in the delta region is noted for excessive humidity, the western highlands experience a dry summer like northern India, with the highest day temperature ranging from convert|38|°C|°F|0|lk=on to convert|45|°C|°F|0.cite web
work=West Bengal: Land
publisher=Suni System (P) Ltd] At nights, a cool southerly breeze carries moisture from the Bay of Bengal. In early summer brief
squalls and thunderstorms known as "Kalbaisakhi", or Nor'westers, often occur.cite web
title=kal Baisakhi|accessdate=2006-09-05|work=Glossary of Meteorology
publisher=American Meteorological Society] Monsoons bring rain to the whole state from June to September. West Bengal receives the Bay of Bengal branch of the Indian ocean monsoon that moves in a northwest direction. Winter (December–January) is mild over the plains with average minimum temperatures of convert|15|°C|°F|0. A cold and dry northern wind blows in the winter, substantially lowering the humidity level. However, the Darjeeling Himalayan Hill region experiences a harsh winter, with occasional snowfall at places.
Government and politics
West Bengal is governed through a
parliamentary systemof representative democracy, a feature the state shares with other Indian states. Universal suffrageis granted to residents. There are three branches of government. The legislature, the West Bengal Legislative Assembly, consists of elected members and special office bearers such as the Speaker and Deputy Speaker, that are elected by the members. Assembly meetings are presided over by the Speaker or the Deputy Speaker in the Speaker's absence. The judiciaryis composed of the Calcutta High Courtand a system of lower courts. Executive authority is vested in the Council of Ministers headed by the Chief Minister, although the titular head of government is the Governor. The Governor is the head of stateappointed by the President of India. The leader of the party or coalition with a majority in the Legislative Assembly is appointed as the Chief Minister by the Governor, and the Council of Ministers are appointed by the Governor on the advice of the Chief Minister. The Council of Ministers reports to the Legislative Assembly. The Assembly is unicameralwith 295 Members of the Legislative Assembly, or MLAs,cite web
title=West Bengal Legislative Assembly|accessdate=2006-10-28|work=Legislative Bodies in India|publisher=National Informatics Centre ] cite web
archivedate=2006-08-18|title=Election Database|accessdate=2006-08-26|publisher=Election Commission of India] including one nominated from the
Anglo-Indiancommunity. Terms of office run for 5 years, unless the Assembly is dissolved prior to the completion of the term. Auxiliary authorities known as " panchayats", for which local body elections are regularly held, govern local affairs. The state contributes 42 seats to Lok Sabhaand 16 seats to Rajya Sabhaof the Indian Parliament.cite web
work=India Together|publisher=Civil Society Information Exchange Pvt. Ltd]
The main players in the regional politics are the
Left Frontalliance (led by the Communist Party of India (Marxist)or CPI(M)), the All India Trinamool Congress, the Indian National Congress, and other major parties. Following the West Bengal State Assembly Election in 2006, the Left Front coalition under Buddhadeb Bhattacharyaof the CPI(M) was elected to power. West Bengal has been ruled by the Left Front for the past 30 years, making it the world's longest-running democratically-elected communistgovernment.
There are 19 districts in West Bengal — Bankura, Bardhaman, Birbhum, Cooch Behar, Darjeeling,
East Midnapore, Hooghly, Howrah, Jalpaiguri, Kolkata, Malda, Murshidabad, Nadia, North 24 Parganas, North Dinajpur, Purulia, South 24 Parganas, Dakshin Dinajpurand West Midnapore. Each district is governed by a district collectoror district magistrate, appointed either by the Indian Administrative Serviceor the West Bengal Civil Service. Each district is subdivided into Sub-Divisions, governed by a sub-divisional magistrate, and again into Blocks. Blocks consists of panchayats (village councils) and town municipalities.
The capital and largest city of the state is Kolkata — the third-largest
urban agglomerationcite web
title=India: metropolitan areas|accessdate=2006-10-26|publisher=World Gazetteer] and the fourth-largest citycite web
title=India: largest cities and towns and statistics of their population
accessdate=2006-10-26|publisher=World Gazetteer] in India.
Siliguriis an economically important town, strategically located in the northeastern Siliguri Corridor(Chicken's Neck) of India. Asansol, Durgapurand Raniganjare cities in the western industrial belt. Other major cities and towns in West Bengalare Howrah, Haldia, Kharagpur, Burdwan, Darjeeling, Midnapore, Tamluk, Malda and Cooch Behar.
Agriculture is the leading occupation in West Bengal.
Riceis the state's principal food crop. Other food crops are pulses, oil seeds, wheat, tobacco, sugarcaneand potatoes. Juteis the main cash cropof the region. Teais also produced commercially; the region is well known for Darjeeling and other high quality teas.cite web
work=West Bengal|publisher=Suni System (P) Ltd] However, the
service sectoris the largest contributor to the gross domestic productof the state, contributing 51% of the state domestic product compared to 27% from agriculture and 22% from industry.cite web
title=The State Economy|accessdate=2006-09-07|format=PDF|work=Indian States Economy and Business: West Bengal
India Brand Equity Foundation, Confederation of Indian Industry|pages=9] State industries are localized in the Kolkata region and the mineral-rich western highlands. Durgapur–Asansol colliery belt is home to a number of major steel plants. Manufacturing industries playing an important economic role are engineering products, electronics, electrical equipment, cables, steel, leather, textiles, jewellery, frigates, automobiles, railway coaches, and wagons.
A significant part of the state is economically backward, namely, large parts of six northern districts of
Cooch Behar, Darjeeling, Jalpaiguri, Malda, North Dinajpurand South Dinajpur; three western districts of Purulia, Bankura, Birbhum; and the Sundarbansarea. Years after independence, West Bengal was still dependent on the central government for meeting its demands for food; food production remained stagnant and the Indian green revolutionbypassed the state. However, there has been a significant spurt in food production since the 1980s, and the state now has a surplus of grains. The state's share of total industrial output in India was 9.8% in 1980–81, declining to 5% by 1997–98. However, the service sector has grown at a rate higher than the national rate.
West Bengal has the third largest economy (2003–2004) in India, with a net state domestic product of US$ 21.5 billion. During 2001–2002, the state's average SDP was more than 7.8% — outperforming the National GDP Growth.cite web
archivedate=2006-11-28|title=Basic Information|accessdate=2006-09-07|work=About West Bengal
publisher=West Bengal Industrial Development Corporation] The state has promoted
foreign direct investment, which has mostly come in the software and electronics fields; Kolkata is becoming a major hub for the Information technology(IT) industry. Owing to the boom in Kolkata's and the overall state's economy, West Bengal is now the third fastest growing economy in the country.cite web| url=http://kolkata.usconsulate.gov/19oct2005.html| title=Consul General Henry V. Jardine to The Indo-American Chamber of Commerce, 19 October 2005| accessdate=2006-04-11] However, the rapid industrialisation process has given rise to debate over land acquisition for industry in this agrarian state.cite web
url=http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/2006/10/27/stories/2006102700080100.htm|title= A new dawn beckons West Bengal
accessdate=2006-10-29|last=Ray Choudhury|first=R|date=27 October 2006
publisher=The Hindu Business Line]
NASSCOM– Gartnerranks West Bengal power infrastructure the best in the country.cite web
url=http://www.indiaathannover.org/pdf/exhibitorslist.pdf|title=West Bengal Industrial Development Corporation Ltd.
accessdate=2006-09-07|format=PDF|work=India @ Hannover Messe 2006|publisher=Engineering Export Promotion Council (EEPC), India|pages=303] West Bengals state domestic product (SDP) grew in 2004 with 12.7 % and in 2005 with 11.0 %. [>cite web
url=http://mospi.nic.in/6_gsdp_cur_9394ser.htm|title= STATEMENT : GROSS STATE DOMESTIC PRODUCT AT CURRENT PRICES
accessdate=2007-09-02|publisher=Directorate of Economics & Statistics of respective State Governments, and for All-India ]
The total length of surface road in West Bengal is over convert|92023|km|mi|0|abbr=on;cite web
title=West Bengal: Infrastructure
work=Public Private Partnerships in India
publisher=Dept of Economic Affairs, Ministry of Finance, Government of India] national highways comprise convert|2377|km|mi|0|abbr=oncite web
title=List of State-wise National Hoghways in the Country
publisher=Department of Road Transport and Highways; Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport and Highways; Government of India
archivedate= 20 January 2007] and state highways convert|2393|km|mi|0|abbr=on. The road density of the state is 103.69 km per 100 km² (166.92 mi per 100 sq mi), higher than the national average of 74.7 km per 100 km² (120 mi per 100 sq mi).cite journal
last=Chattopadhyay |first=Suhrid Sankar |year=2006 | month = January–February |title=Remarkable Growth
journal = Frontline | volume = 23 | issue = 02 |publisher=The Hindu |location=Chennai, India
url=http://www.flonnet.com/fl2302/stories/20060210004209800.htm |accessdate=2008-03-31 ] Average speed on state highways varies between 40–50 km/h (25–31 mi/h); in villages and towns, speeds are as low as 20–25 km/h (12–16 mi/h) due to the substandard quality of road constructions and low maintenance. Total railway length is convert|3825|km|mi|0|abbr=on.cite web
work=Indian States-A Profile
publisher=Indian Investment Centre, Government of India] Kolkata is the headquarters of two divisions of the
Indian Railways—Eastern Railway and South Eastern Railway.Cite web
title=Geography : Railway Zones | url=http://www.irfca.org/faq/faq-geog.html |accessdate=2007-08-31 |work= IRFCA.org
publisher=Indian Railways Fan Club] The
Northeast Frontier Railway(NFR) plies in the northern parts of the state. The Kolkata metrois the country's first underground railway. [cite web
Kolkata Metro| url=http://www.kolmetro.com/ | title= About Kolkata Metro| accessdate=2007-09-01] The Darjeeling Himalayan Railway, part of NFR, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.cite web
publisher=UNESCO World Heritage Centre | url=http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/944 | title=Mountain Railways of India | accessdate=2006-04-30]
The state's only international airport is
Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose International Airportat Dum Dum, Kolkata. Bagdograairport near Siliguriis another significant airport in the state. Kolkata is a major river-port in eastern India. The Kolkata Port Trustmanages both the Kolkata docks and the Haldiadocks.cite web |url=http://www.kolkataporttrust.gov.in/index_new.html |title= Salient Physical Features|accessdate=2007-06-09|work=Kolkata Port Trust |publisher=Kolkata Port Trust, India ] There is passenger service to Port Blairon the Andaman and Nicobar Islandsand cargo shipservice to ports in Indiaand abroad, operated by the Shipping Corporation of India. Ferryis a principal mode of transport in the southern part of the state, especially in the Sundarbans area. Kolkata is the only city in India to have trams as a mode of transport and these are operated by the Calcutta Tramways Company.Cite web
title=Intra-city train travel | url= http://timesfoundation.indiatimes.com/articleshow/657741.cms|accessdate=2007-08-31 |work= reaching India |publisher=Times Internet Limited]
Several government-owned organisations operate substandard bus services in the state, including the
Calcutta State Transport Corporation, the North Bengal State Transport Corporation, the South Bengal State Transport Corporation, the West Bengal Surface Transport Corporation, and the Calcutta Tramways Company, thus leading to mismanagement. There are also private bus companies. The railway system is a nationalised service without any private investment. Hired forms of transport include metered taxis and auto rickshaws which often ply specific routes in cities. In most of the state, cycle rickshaws, and in Kolkata, hand-pulled rickshaws, are also used for short-distance travel.
The vast majority of the 80,221,171 people of West Bengalcite web
url = http://www.censusindia.gov.in/|title=Provisional Population Totals: West Bengal|accessdate=2006-08-26|work=Census of India, 2001|publisher=Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India|archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20070807110706/http://www.censusindia.net/profiles/wbe.html
archivedate= 2007-08-07] are Bengalis.cite web
url=http://www.infobengal.com/html/openingpage.html|title=West Bengal|accessdate=2006-09-13|publisher=Infobengal.com ] The
Bihariminority is scattered throughout the state and communities of Sherpas and ethnic Tibetans can be found in regions bordering Sikkim. Darjeeling district has a large number of Gurkhapeople of Nepalese origin. West Bengal is home to indigenous tribal " Adivasis" such as Santals, Kol, Koch-Rajbongshi and Toto tribe.
The official language is Bengali.
Hindiand English are also used commonly. Nepali is spoken primarily in the Darjeeling district. Languages such as Rajbongshi, Santali and Ho are used in some parts of the state. Hinduismis the principal religion at 72.5% of the total population, while Muslims comprise 25%; Sikhism, Christianityand other religions make up the remainder.cite web
url = http://www.censusindia.gov.in/|title=Data on Religion|accessdate=2006-08-26
work=Census of India (2001)|publisher=Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India|archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20070812142520/http://www.censusindia.net/religiondata/
archivedate= 2007-08-12] West Bengal has a population density of PD km2 to sq mi|904|spell=UK making it the most densely populated state in India.cite web
url = http://www.censusindia.gov.in/|title=Press Release - Provisional Population Results - Census of India 2001|accessdate=2006-08-26|date=26|year=2001| month = March|publisher=Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India|archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20070808122134/http://www.censusindia.net/press/pr260301.html
archivedate= 2007-08-08] The state contributes 7.81% of India's population.Population of West Bengal (80,221,171) is 7.81% of India's population (1,027,015,247)] The state's 1991–2001 growth rate of 17.84% is lower than the national rate of 21.34%. The gender ratio is 934 females per 1000 males.
The literacy rate is 69.22%. Data of 1995–1999 showed the life expectancy in the state was 63.4 years, higher than the national value of 61.7 years.cite web
title= An Indian life: Life expectancy in our nation|accessdate=2006-08-26|work=India Together|publisher=Civil Society Information Exchange Pvt. Ltd] About 72% of people live in rural areas. The proportion of people living below the poverty line in 1999–2000 was 31.85%.
Scheduled Castes and Tribesform 28.6% and 5.8% of the population respectively in rural areas, and 19.9% and 1.5% respectively in urban areas.
The crime rate in the state in 2004 was 82.6 per 100,000, which was half of the national average.cite book
author =National Crime Records Bureau |year=2004 |title=Crime in India-2004
chapter=Crimes in Mega Cities | chapterurl = http://ncrb.nic.in/crime2004/cii-2004/CHAP2.pdf
pages= p.158 | format= PDF Format |publisher=Ministry of Home Affairs | accessdate=2006-08-26 ] This is the fourth-lowest crime rate among the 32 states and union territories of India.cite web
title= Human Security
work= [http://www.undp.org.in/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=124&Itemid=212 West Bengal Human Development Report 2004]
publisher= Development and Planning Department, Government of West Bengal
quote= ] However, the state reported the highest rate of Special and Local Laws (SLL) crimes.cite book
author =National Crime Records Bureau |year=2004 |title=Crime in India-2004
chapter=General Crime Statistics Snapshots 2004 | chapterurl = http://ncrb.nic.in/crime2004/cii-2004/Snapshots.pdf | pages= p.1 | format= PDF Format
publisher=Ministry of Home Affairs | accessdate=2006-04-26] In reported crimes against women, the state showed a crime rate of 7.1 compared to the national rate of 14.1. West Bengal was the first Indian state to constitute a
Human Rights Commissionof its own.
Bengali languageboasts a rich literary heritage, shared with neighboring Bangladesh. West Bengal has a long tradition in folk literature, evidenced by the " Charyapada", " Mangalkavya", " Shreekrishna Kirtana", " Thakurmar Jhuli", and stories related to Gopal Bhar. In the nineteenth and twentieth century, Bengali literaturewas modernized in the works of authors such as Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay, Michael Madhusudan Dutt, Rabindranath Tagore, Kazi Nazrul Islam, Sharat Chandra Chattopadhyayand Manik Bandyopadhyay.
Baultradition is a unique heritage of Bengali folk music, which has also been influenced by regional music traditions.cite web
title=The Bauls of Bengal|accessdate=2006-10-26|work=Folk Music|publisher=BengalOnline] Other folk music forms include
Gombhiraand Bhawaiya. Folk music in West Bengal is often accompanied by the ektara, a one-stringed instrument. West Bengal also has an heritage in North Indian classical music. " Rabindrasangeet", songs composed and set into tune by Rabindranath Tagore and " Nazrulgeeti" (by Kazi Nazrul Islam) are popular. Also prominent are other musical forms like Dwijendralal, Atulprasad and Rajanikanta's songs, and "adhunik" or modern music from films and other composers. From the early 1990s, there has been an emergence and popularisation of new genres of music, including fusions of Baul and Jazz by several Bangla bands, as well as the emergence of what has been called "Jeebonmukhi Gaan" (a modern genre based on realism). Bengali dance forms draw from folk traditions, especially those of the tribal groups, as well as the broader Indian dance traditions. Chau danceof Purulia is a rare form of mask dance.cite web
url=http://www.boloji.com/dances/00109.htm|title=Chau: The Rare Mask Dances|accessdate=2006-10-22|work=Dances of India |publisher=Boloji.com]
Mainstream Hindi films are popular, as are films from the
Bengali cinemaindustry, dubbed "Tollywood". Tollygunjin Kolkatais the location of Bengali movie studios and the name "Tollywood" (similar as Hollywood, USA) is derived from that name. The Bengali film industry is also known for art films or Indy films. Its long tradition of filmmaking has produced acclaimed directors like Satyajit Ray, Mrinal Sen, Tapan Sinha and Ritwik Ghatak. Contemporary directors include Buddhadev Dasgupta, Goutam Ghose, Aparna Senand Rituparno Ghosh.
Rice and fish are traditional favorite foods, leading to a saying in Bengali, "machhe bhate bangali", that translates as "fish and rice make a Bengali".cite web
title=Development of freshwater fish farming and poverty alleviation: A case study from Bangladesh|accessdate=2006-10-22|author=Gertjan de Graaf, Abdul Latif
publisher=Aqua KE Government|format=PDF] Bengal's vast repertoire of fish-based dishes includes
hilsapreparations, a favorite among Bengalis. Bengalis make distinctive sweetmeats from milk products, including "Rôshogolla", "Chômchôm", "Kalojam" and several kinds of " Pithe". Popular street foodincludes Beguni, Kati roll, and phuchka.cite news
title=Resurrected, the kathi roll - Face-off resolved, Nizam's set to open with food court
The Telegraph (Kolkata)|date=18 January 2006 |accessdate=2006-10-26] cite web
url=http://www.bangalinet.com/mobile_foodstalls.htm|title=Mobile food stalls|accessdate=2006-10-26|publisher=Bangalinet.com] "
Panta bhat" (rice soaked overnight in water) is a traditional dish consumed in rural areas.
Bengali women commonly wear the "shaŗi" , often distinctly designed according to local cultural customs. In urban areas, many women and men wear Western attire. Among men, western dressing has greater acceptance. Men also wear traditional costumes such as the "panjabi" with "dhuti" , often on cultural occasions. Durga Puja in October is the most popular festival in the West Bengal.cite web
url=http://www.wbtourism.com/fairs_festivals/durga.htm|title=Durga Puja|accessdate=2006-10-28|work=Festivals of Bengal|publisher=West Bengal Tourism, Government of West Bengal]
Pohela Baishakh(the Bengali New Year), Rathayatra, Dolyatraor Basanta-Utsab, Nobanno, "Poush parbon" (festival of Poush), kalipuja, saraswatipuja, laxmipuja, Christmas, Eid ul-Fitrand Eid ul-Adhaare other major festivals. Buddha Purnima, which marks the birth of Gautama Buddha, is one of the most important Buddhist festivals while Christmas, called "Bôŗodin" (Great day) in Bengali is celebrated by the minority Christian population. West Bengal has been home to several famous religious teachers, including Sri Chaitanya, Sri Ramakrishna, Swami Vivekananda, and Paramahansa Yogananda.
West Bengal schools are run by the state government or by private organisations, including religious institutions. Instruction is mainly in English or Bengali, though Hindi and
Urduare also used. The secondary schools are affiliated with the Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE), the Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE), or the West Bengal Board of Secondary Education. Under the 10+2+3 plan, after completing secondary school, students typically enroll for 2 years in a junior college, also known as pre-university, or in schools with a higher secondary facility affiliated with the West Bengal Council of Higher Secondary Educationor any central board. Students choose from one of three streams, namely, liberal arts, commerceor science. Upon completing the required coursework, students may enroll in general or professional degree programs.
West Bengal has eighteen universities.cite web
title=UGC recognised Universities in West Bengal with NAAC accreditation status
accessdate=2006-10-26|publisher=Education Observer] cite web
url=http://www.thewbuhs.org/|title=West Bengal University of Health Sciences
accessdate=2006-10-26|publisher=West Bengal University of Health Sciences] The
University of Calcutta, one of the oldest and largest public universities in India, has more than 200 affiliated colleges.cite web
title=List of Affiliated Colleges|accessdate=2008-03-29|publisher=University of Calcutta] The
Bengal Engineering & Science Universityand Jadavpur Universityare prestigious technical universities.cite news
first=P |last=Mitra |title=Waning interest
url=http://www.telegraphindia.com/1050831/asp/careergraph/story_5174502.asp |work=Careergraph |publisher=The Telegraph |date=31 August 2005 |accessdate=2006-10-26 ]
Visva-Bharati Universityat Santiniketanis a central university and an institution of national importance.cite web
title=Visva-Bharati: Facts and Figures at a Glance|accessdate=2007-03-31|publisher= Visva-Bharati Computer Centre]
West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciencesis located in Kolkata. The state has higher education institutes of national importance including the Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, the Indian Institute of Management Calcutta(the first management institute in India of its kind), the National Institute of Technologyat Durgapur, the Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, the Asiatic Society, the Indian Statistical Institute, the West Bengal National University of Juridical Sciences,the National Institute of Fashion Technologyand the Marine Engineering and Research Instituteand the West bengal university of technology.
West Bengal had 505 published newspapers in 2005,cite web
publisher=Registrar of Newspapers for India ] of which 389 were in Bengali. "
Ananda Bazar Patrika", published from Kolkata with 1,234,122 daily copies, has the largest circulation for a single-edition, regional language newspaper in India. Other major Bengali newspapers are " Aajkaal", " Bartaman", " Sangbad Pratidin", " Uttarbanga Sambad" and " Ganashakti". "The Telegraph", " The Statesman", " Asian Age", " Hindustan Times" and " The Times of India" are some of the newspapers published in English. Vernacular newspapers such as those in Hindi, Gujarati, Oriya, Urdu, Punjabi and Nepaliare also read by a select readership. Doordarshanis the state-owned television broadcaster. Multi system operators provide a mix of Bengali, Nepali, Hindi, English and international channels via cable. include STAR Anandaand Kolkata TV. All India Radiois a public radio station. Private FM stations are available only in cities like Kolkata and Siliguri. BSNL, Reliance Infocomm, Tata Indicom, Vodafone Essar, Airceland Airtelare available cellular phone operators. Broadbandinternet is available in select towns and cities and is provided by the state-run BSNL and by other private companies. Dial-up accessis provided throughout the state by BSNL and other providers.
* Harvard reference
Surname1 = Baxter
Given1 = C
title=Bangladesh, From a Nation to a State
Publisher= Westview Press
* Harvard reference
Surname1 = Bennett
Given1 = A
title=London Review of Books: An Anthology
* Harvard reference
Title= Urban Informality: Transnational Perspectives from the Middle East, Latin America and South Asia
Publisher= Lexington Books
* Harvard reference
Title= [http://www.undp.org.in/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=124&Itemid=212 West Bengal Human Development Report 2004]
Publisher= Development and Planning Department, Government of West Bengal
* [http://www.wbgov.com/ Official website of Government of West Bengal]
* [http://wbplan.gov.in/htm/ReportPub/WB_HandBook.pdf STATISTICAL HANDBOOK WEST BENGAL]
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