Salmon is the common name for several species of
fishof the family Salmonidae. Several other fish in the family are called trout. Salmon live in both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, as well as the Great Lakesand other land locked lakes.
Typically, salmon are anadromous: they are born in
fresh water, migrate to the ocean, then return to fresh water to reproduce. However, there are rare species that can only survive in fresh water habitats. This is most likely due to the domestication of these certain species of Salmon. Folklorehas it that the fish return to the exact spot where they were born to spawn.
The salmon has long been at the heart of the culture and livelihood of coastal dwellers. Most peoples of the Northern Pacific shore had a ceremony to honor the first return of the year. For many centuries, people caught salmon as they swam upriver to spawn. A famous
spearfishingsite on the Columbia Riverat Celilo Fallswas inundated after great dams were built on the river. The Ainu, of northern Japan, taught dogs how to catch salmon as they returned to their breeding grounds "en masse". Now, salmon are caught in bays and near shore.
Salmon population levels are of concern in the Atlantic and in some parts of the Pacific but in
Alaskastocks are still abundant. Fish farmingis outlawedFact|date=June 2008 and the State of Alaska's fisheries managementsystem is viewed as the global leader in the management of wild, sustainable fish stocks.Fact|date=July 2008 The most important Alaska Salmon sustainable wild fisheries are located near the Kenai River, Copper River, and in Bristol Bay. In Canada, returning Skeena Riverwild salmon support commercial, subsistence and recreational fisheries as well as the area's diverse wildlife on the coast and around communities hundreds of miles inland in the watershed. The Columbia River salmon population is now less than 3% of what it was when Lewis and Clark arrived at the river. [cite web | title = Endangered Salmon | publisher = U.S. Congressman Jim McDermott | url = http://www.house.gov/mcdermott/issues_salmon.shtml | accessdate = 2006-11-17]
Both Atlantic and Pacific Salmon are important to recreational fishing around the world.
Alaska, the crossing-over to other streams allows salmon to populate new streams, such as those that emerge as a glacierretreats. The precise method salmon use to navigate has not been entirely established, though their keen sense of smell is involved. In all species of Pacific salmon, the mature individuals die within a few days or weeks of spawning, a trait known as semelparity. However, even in those species of salmon that may survive to spawn more than once ( iteroparity), post-spawning mortality is quite high (perhaps as high as 40 to 50%.)
In order to lay her
roe, the female salmon uses her dorsal fin to excavate a shallow depression, called a "redd". The redd may sometimes contain 5,000 eggs covering convert|30|sqft|m2. [cite web | first = Susan | last = McGrath | title = Spawning Hope | publisher = Audubon Society | url = http://www.audubonmagazine.org/features0309/hope.html | accessdate = 2006-11-17] The eggs usually range from orange to red in color. One or more males will approach the female in her redd, depositing his sperm, or milt, over the roe.cite web | title = Pacific Salmon, (Oncorhynchus spp.) | publisher = U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services | url = http://www.fws.gov/species/species_accounts/bio_salm.html | accessdate = 2006-11-17] The female then covers the eggs by disturbing the gravel at the upstream edge of the depression before moving on to make another redd. The female will make as many as 7 redds before her supply of eggs is exhausted. The salmon then die within a few days of spawning.
The eggs will hatch into "alevin" or "sac fry". The fry quickly develop into "parr" with camouflaging vertical stripes. The parr stay for one to three years in their natal stream before becoming "smolts" which are distinguished by their bright silvery colour with scales that are easily rubbed off. It is estimated that only 10% of all salmon eggs survive long enough to reach this stage. [cite web | title =A Salmon's Life: An Incredible Journey | publisher =U.S. Bureau of Land Management | url = http://www.blm.gov/education/00_resources/articles/Columbia_river_basin/posterback.html | accessdate = 2006-11-17] The smolt body chemistry changes, allowing them to live in salt water. Smolts spend a portion of their out-migration time in brackish water, where their body chemistry becomes accustomed to
osmoregulationin the ocean.
The salmon spend about one to five years (depending on the species) in the open ocean where they will become sexually mature. The adult salmon returns primarily to its natal stream to spawn. When fish return for the first time they are called "whitling" in the UK and "grilse" or "peel" in Ireland. Prior to spawning, depending on the
species, the salmon undergoes changes. They may grow a hump, develop canine teeth, develop a "kype" (a pronounced curvature of the jaws in male salmon). All will change from the silvery blue of a fresh run fish from the sea to a darker color. Condition tends to deteriorate the longer the fish remain in freshwater, and they then deteriorate further after they spawn becoming known as "kelts". Salmon can make amazing journeys, sometimes moving hundreds of miles upstream against strong currents and rapids to reproduce. Chinook and sockeye salmon from central Idaho, for example, travel over convert|900|mi|km and climb nearly convert|7000|ft|m from the Pacific ocean as they return to spawn.
Each year, the fish experiences a period of rapid growth, often in summer, and one of slower growth, normally in winter. This results in rings (annuli) analogous to the growth rings visible in a tree trunk. Freshwater growth shows as densely crowded rings, sea growth as widely spaced rings; spawning is marked by significant erosion as body mass is converted into eggs and milt.
Freshwater streams and estuaries provide important habitat for many salmon species. They feed on terrestrial and
aquatic insects, amphipods, and other crustaceanswhile young, and primarily on other fish when older. Eggs are laid in deeper water with larger gravel, and need cool water and good water flow (to supply oxygen) to the developing embryos. Mortality of salmon in the early life stages is usually high due to natural predation and human induced changes in habitat, such as siltation, high water temperatures, low oxygen conditions, loss of stream cover, and reductions in river flow. Estuariesand their associated wetlandsprovide vital nursery areas for the salmon prior to their departure to the open ocean. Wetlands not only help buffer the estuary from silt and pollutants, but also provide important feeding and hiding areas.
Salmon as food
Salmon is a popular
food. Consuming salmon is considered to be reasonably healthy due to the fish's high protein, high Omega-3 fatty acids, and high vitamin Dcite web|url=http://dietary-supplements.info.nih.gov/factsheets/vitamind.asp|title=Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Vitamin D|publisher=National Institutes of Health|accessdate=2007-12-13|archiveurl=http://www.webcitation.org/5Rl5u0LB5 |archivedate=2007-12-13] content. Salmon is also a source of cholesterol, ranging 23–214 mg/100g depending on the species.cite web|url=http://www.dietaryfiberfood.com/cholesterol-shrimp.php
title=Cholesterol: Cholesterol Content in Seafoods (Tuna, Salmon, Shrimp)|accessdate=2007-12-13] According to reports in the journal "Science", however, farmed salmon may contain high levels of
dioxins. PCB ( polychlorinated biphenyl) levels may be up to eight times higher in farmed salmon than in wild salmon. Omega-3 content may also be lower than in wild caught individuals, and in a different proportion to what is found naturally. Omega 3 comes in three types, ALA, DHA and EPA; wild salmon has traditionally been an important source of DHA and EPA, which are important for brain function and structure, among other things. This means that if the farmed salmon is fed on a meal which is partially grain then the amount of Omega 3 it contains will be present as ALA (alpha-linolenic acid). The body can itself convert ALA Omega 3 into DHA and EPA, but at a very inefficient rate (2–15%). Nonetheless, according to a 2006 study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association, the benefits of eating even farmed salmon still outweigh any risks imposed by contaminants [http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/abstract/296/15/1885] . Type of Omega 3 present may not be a factor for other important health functions.A simple rule of thumbis that the vast majority of Atlantic salmonavailable on the world market are farmed (greater than 99%), whereas the majority of Pacific salmon are wild-caught (greater than 80%). Farmed salmon outnumber wild salmon 85 to 1. [cite web | firstl = Fen | last = Montaigne | title = Everybody Loves Atlantic Salmon: Here's the Catch... | publisher = National Geographic| url = http://magma.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/0307/feature5/?fs=www3.nationalgeographic.com | accessdate = 2006-11-17]
Salmon flesh is generally orange to red in colour, although there are some examples of white fleshed wild salmon. The natural colour of salmon results from
carotenoidpigments, largely astaxanthin(E161j), in the flesh.cite web | title = Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Animal Nutrition on the use of canthaxanthin in feedingstuffs for salmon and trout, laying hens, and other poultry. | pages= 6–7 | publisher =European Commission - Health & Consumer Protection Directorate | url = http://ec.europa.eu/food/fs/sc/scan/out81_en.pdf | format = krilland other tiny shellfish. Because consumers have shown a reluctance to purchase white fleshed salmon, astaxanthin, and very minutely canthaxanthin(E161g)), are added as artificial colorants to the feed of farmed salmon because prepared diets do not naturally contain these pigments. In most cases the astaxanthin is made chemically; alternatively it is extracted from shrimp flour. Another possibility is the use of dried red yeast, which provides the same pigment. However, synthetic mixtures are the least expensive option. Astaxanthin is a potent antioxidantthat stimulates the development of healthy fish nervous systems and that enhances the fish's fertility and growth rate. Research has revealed canthaxanthinmay have negative effects on the human eye, accumulating in the retina at high levels of consumption. Today the concentration of carotenoids (mainly canthaxanthin and astaxanthin) exceeds 8 mg/kg of flesh and all fish producers try to reach a level that represents a value of 16 on the "Roche Color Card", a colour card used to show how pink the fish will appear at specific doses. This scale is specific for measuring the pink colour due to astaxanthin and is not for the orange hue obtained with canthaxanthin. The development of processing and storage operations, which can be detrimental on canthaxanthin flesh concentration, has led to an increased quantity of pigments added to the diet to compensate for the degrading effects of the processing. In wild fish, carotenoid levels of up to 20–25 mg are present, but levels of canthaxanthin are, in contrast, minor.
Canned salmon in the U.S. is usually wild Pacific catch, though some farmed salmon is available in canned form.
Smoked salmonis another popular preparation method, and can either be hot or cold smoked. Lox can refer either to cold smoked salmon or to salmon cured in a brine solution (also called gravlax). Traditional canned salmon includes some skin (which is harmless) and bone (which adds calcium). Skinless and boneless canned salmon is also available.
Raw salmon flesh may contain "
Anisakis" nematodes, marine parasites that cause Anisakiasis. Before the availability of refrigeration, the Japanese did not consume raw salmon. Salmon and salmon roehave only recently come into use in making sashimi(raw fish) and sushi.
Many wild Salmon stocks have seen a marked decline in recent decades, especially north Atlantic populations which spawn in western European and eastern Canadian waters, and wild salmon of the Snake and Columbia River systems in the Northwest USA. The causes of these declines likely include a number of factors, among them:
*Disease transfer from open net cage salmon farming, especially
sea lice. The European Commission (2002) concluded “The reduction of wild salmonid abundance is also linked to other factors but there is more and more scientific evidence establishing a direct link between the number of lice-infested wild fish and the presence of cages in the same estuary.” [ [http://www.saveourskeenasalmon.org/getInformed/scientificEvidence.php Scientific Evidence] .] It is reported that wild salmon on the west coast of Canada are being driven to extinctionby sea licefrom nearby salmon farms. [http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/summary/318/5857/1711 Martin Krkosek, Jennifer S. Ford, Alexandra Morton, Subhash Lele, Ransom A. Myers, and Mark A. Lewis Declining Wild Salmon Populations in Relation to Parasites from Farm Salmon. (14 December 2007) "Science" 318 (5857), 1772.] ]
*For Atlantic salmon smolts, it takes as few as eight sea lice to kill the fish. On the Pacific Coast where the smolt are much smaller, only one or two are needed. In the Atlantic, sea lice have been a proven factor in both Norwegian and Scottish salmon. In the Western Atlantic there has been little research at sea, but sea lice numbers in the period post-2000 do not appear to be a significant factor in the critical decline of endangered inner Bay of Fundy salmon. The situation may have been different in the 1980s and 1990s, but we are unlikely ever to know the true facts on that.
*Overfishing in general but especially commercial netting in the
*Ocean and river warming which can delay spawning and accelerate transition to smolting.
Ulcerative dermal necrosis(UDN) infections of the 1970s and 1980s which severely affected adult salmon in freshwater rivers.
*Loss of suitable freshwater habitat, especially degradation of
stream pools and reduction of suitable material for the excavation of redds. Historically stream pools were, to a large extent, created by beavers. With the extirpation of the beaver, the nurturing function of these ponds was lost.
*Reduction of the retention of the nutrients brought by the returning adult salmon in stream pools. Without stream pools, dead adult salmon tend to be washed straight back down the streams and rivers.
*The construction of dams, weirs, barriers and other "flood prevention" measures, which bring severe adverse impacts to river habitat and on the accessibility of those habitats to salmon. This is particularly true in the northwest USA, where large numbers of dams have been built in many river systems, including over 400 in the Columbia River Basin.
*Loss of invertebrate diversity and population density in rivers because of modern
farming methods and various sources of pollution, thus reducing food availability.
*Reduction in freshwater base flow in rivers and disruption of seasonal flows, because of diversions and extractions, hydroelectric power generation,
irrigationschemes, and slackwater reservoirs, which inhibit normal migratory processes and increase predation for salmon.
There are efforts to relieve this situation. As such, several governments and
NGOs are sharing in research and habitat restoration efforts.
*In the western Atlantic, the Atlantic Salmon Federation has developed a major sonic tracking technology program to understand the high at-sea mortality since the early 1990s. Ocean arrays are deployed across the Baies des Chaleurs and between Newfoundland and Labrador at the Strait of Belle Isle. Salmon have now been tracked half way from rivers like the Restigouche to Greenland feeding grounds. Now the first line of the Ocean Tracking Network initiative is installed by DFO and Dalhousie University of Halifax from Halifax to the edge of the continental shelf. First results include Atlantic salmon travelling from the Penobscot River in Maine, the "anchor river" for US Atlantic salmon populations.
Results overall are showing that estuary problems exist for some rivers, but issues involving feeding grounds at sea are impacting populations as well. In 2008 returns were markedly improved for Atlantic salmon on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, but no one knows if this is a temporary improvement or sign of a trend.
NOAA's Office of Protected Resources maintains a [http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/species/esa.htm#fish list of Endangered Species] , the Endangered Species Act
Swedenhas generated a protection program as part of its Biodiversity Action Plan
* [http://www.stateofthesalmon.org/ State of Salmon] maintains an
IUCNredlist of [http://www.stateofthesalmon.org/assess/page.asp?pID=70 endangered salmon]
Kamchatka Peninsula, in the Russian Far East, contains the world's greatest salmon sanctuary.
Alaska, is the site of salmon enhancement activities since 1962. [cite web
title=Project Bear Lake
almon and beavers
Beavers' ponds may provide critical habitat for juvenile salmon. An example of this was seen in the years following 1818 in the Columbia River Basin. In 1818, the British government made an agreement with the U.S. government to allow U.S. citizens access to the Columbia catchment (see Treaty of 1818). At the time, the Hudson's Bay Companysent word to trappers to extirpate all furbearers from the area in an effort to make the area less attractive. In response to the elimination of beavers from large parts of the river system, salmon runs plummeted, even in the absence of many of the factors usually associated with the demise of salmon runs. Salmon recruitment can be effected by beavers' dams because dams can: [cite web | url=http://www.nwcouncil.org/history/Extinction.asp | title=Extinction | author=Northwest Power and Conservation Council | accessdate=2007-12-21] [cite web | url=http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/nrc/er/2004/00000012/00000003/art00001 | title=Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) nursery lake fertilization: Review and summary of results | author=K. D. Hyatt, D. J. McQueen, K. S. Shortreed and D. P. Rankin | accessdate=2007-12-21] [cite web | url=http://rocky.ess.washington.edu/grg/publications/pdfs/Pollock.pdf | title=The Importance of Beaver Ponds to Coho Salmon Production in the Stillaguamish River Basin, Washington, USA | author=M. M. Pollock, G. R. Pess and T. J. Beechie | accessdate=2007-12-21]
*Slow the rate at which nutrients are flushed from the system; nutrients provided by adult salmon dying throughout the fall and winter remain available in the spring to newly-hatched juveniles
*Provide deeper water pools where young salmon can avoid avian predators
*Increase productivity through photosynthesis and by enhancing the conversion efficiency of the cellulose-powered detritus cycle
*Create low-energy environments where juvenile salmon put the food they ingest into growth rather than into fighting currents
*Increase structural complexity with many physical niches where salmon can avoid predators
Beavers' dams are able to nurture salmon juveniles in Estuarine tidal marshes where the salinity is less than 10ppm. Beavers build small dams of generally less than convert|2|ft|m high in channels in the Myrtle zone. These dams can be overtopped at high tide and hold water at low tide. This provides refuges for juvenile salmon so they don't have to swim into large channels where they are subject to predation. [cite web |url=http://skagitwatershed.org/rpapers_overlooked.html |title= An overlooked ecological web]
aquacultureis the major economic contributor to the world production of farmed fin-fish, representing over $1 billion US annually. Other commonly cultured fish species include: tilapia, catfish, sea bass, carp, bream, and trout. Salmon farming is very big in Chile, Norway, Scotland, Canadaand the Faroe Islands, and is the source for most salmon consumed in America and Europe. Atlantic salmon are also, in very small volumes, farmed in Russia, Tasmania, Australia. Salmon are carnivorousand are currently fed a meal produced from catching other wild fish and other marine organisms. Consequently, as the number of farmed salmon increase, so does the demand for other fish to feed the salmon. Work continues on substituting vegetable proteins for animal proteins in the salmon diet. Unfortunately though, this substitution results in lower levels of the highly valued Omega-3content in the farmed product. Intensive salmon farming now uses open net cages which have low production costs but have the drawback of allowing disease and sea liceto spread to local wild salmon stocks.
On a dry-dry basis, it takes 2-4 kg of wild caught fish to produce one kg of salmon. [cite web | first = Rosamond L. | last = Naylor | title = Nature's Subsidies to Shrimp and Salmon Farming | url=http://www.nicholas.duke.edu/solutions/documents/science1998.pdf | publisher = Science; 10/30/98, Vol. 282 Issue 5390, p883] Salmon farms (feed lots actually, as there is no farming involved) introduce levels of untreated sewage into the ocean that has already been outlawed for sea side communities. This detritus is thought to contribute to toxic
algal blooms and also has negative affects on local benthic communities.
Another form of salmon production, which is safer but less controllable, is to raise salmon in hatcheries until they are old enough to become independent. They are then released into rivers, often in an attempt to increase the salmon population. This practice was very common in countries like
Swedenbefore the Norwegians developed salmon farming, but is seldom done by private companies, as anyone may catch the salmon when they return to spawn, limiting a company's chances of benefiting financially from their investment. Because of this, the method has mainly been used by various public authorities as a way of artificially increasing salmon populations in situations where they have declined due to overharvest, construction of dams, and habitat destruction or disruption. Unfortunately, there can be negative consequences to this sort of population manipulation, including genetic "dilution" of the wild stocks, and many jurisdictions are now beginning to discourage supplemental fish planting in favour of harvest controls and habitat improvement and protection. A variant method of fish stocking, called ocean ranching, is under development in Alaska. There, the young salmon are released into the ocean far from any wild salmon streams. When it is time for them to spawn, they return to where they were released where fishermen can then catch them. An alternative method to hatcheries is to use spawning channels. These are artificial streams, usually parallel to an existing stream with cement or rip-rap sides and gravel bottoms. Water from the adjacent stream is piped into the top of the channel, sometimes via a header pond to settle out sediment. Spawning success is often much better in channels than in adjacent streams due to the control of floods which in some years can wash out the natural redds. Because of the lack of floods, spawning channels must sometimes be cleaned out to remove accumulated sediment. The same floods which destroy natural redds also clean them out. Spawning channels preserve the natural selection of natural streams as there is no temptation, as in hatcheries, to use propholactic chemicals to control diseases.
Farm raised salmon are fed the
carotenoids astaxanthinand canthaxanthin, so that their flesh color matches wild salmon. [cite web |url=http://www.seafoodmonitor.com/sample/salmon.html |title=Pigments in Salmon Aquaculture: How to Grow a Salmon-colored Salmon |accessdate=2007-08-26 |quote=Astaxanthin (3,3'-hydroxy-β,β-carotene-4,4'-dione) is a carotenoid pigment, one of a large group of organic molecules related to vitamins and widely found in plants. In addition to providing red, orange, and yellow colors to various plant parts and playing a role in photosynthesis, carotenoids are powerful antioxidants, and some (notably various forms of carotene) are essential precursors to vitamin A synthesis in animals. |publisher= ]
Diseases and parasites affecting wild salmon
According to Canadian biologist Dr. Dorothy Kieser, protozoan parasite
Henneguya salminicolais commonly found in the flesh of salmonids. It has been recorded in the field samples of salmon returning to Queen Charlotte Island streams. The fish responds by walling off the parasitic infection into a number of cysts that contain milky fluid. This fluid is an accumulation of a large number of parasites.
Henneguya and other parasites in the myxosporean group have a complex lifecycle where the salmon is one of two hosts. The fish releases the spores after spawning. In the Henneguya case, the spores enter a second host, most likely an invertebrate, in the spawning stream. When juvenile salmon out-migrate to the Pacific Ocean, the second host releases a stage infective to salmon. The parasite is then carried in the salmon until the next spawning cycle. The myxosporean parasite that causes whirling disease in trout, has a similar lifecycle. [cite web|url=http://el.erdc.usace.army.mil/ansrp/myxobolus_cerebralis.pdf
title=Whirling Disease – "Myxobolus cerebralis"|accessdate=2007-12-13
first3=Jerri|last3=Bartholomew] However, as opposed to whirling disease, the Henneguya infestation does not appear to cause disease in the host salmon - even heavily infected fish tend to return to spawn successfully.
According to Dr. Kieser, a lot of work on Henneguya salminicola was done by scientists at the Pacific Biological Station in Nanaimo in the mid-1980, in particular, an overview report [cite journal|title=Investigation of the Distribution, Detection, and Biology of Henneguya salminicola (Protozoa, Myxozoa), a Parasite of the Flesh of Pacific Salmon|author= N.P. Boyce, Z. Kabata and L. Margolis|year=1985|journal=Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences |issue=1450|pages=55] which states that "the fish that have the longest fresh water residence time as juveniles have the most noticeable infections. Hence in order of prevalence coho are most infected followed by sockeye, chinook, chum and pink." As well, the report says that, at the time the studies were conducted, stocks from the middle and upper reaches of large river systems in British Columbia such as Fraser, Skeena, Nass and from mainland coastal streams in the southern half of B.C. "are more likely to have a low prevalence of infection." The report also states "It should be stressed that Henneguya, economically deleterious though it is, is harmless from the view of public health. It is strictly a fish parasite that cannot live in or affect warm blooded animals, including man".
According to Klaus Schallie, Molluscan Shellfish Program Specialist with the Canadian Food Inspection Agency, "Henneguya salminicola is found in southern B.C. also and in all species of salmon. I have previously examined smoked chum salmon sides that were riddled with cysts and some sockeye runs in Barkley Sound (southern B.C., west coast of Vancouver Island) are noted for their high incidence of infestation."
As noted above, the "Lepeophtheirus salmonis", a
sea louse, causes deadly infestations of farm-grown and wild salmon. On the Pacificcoast of Canada, the louse-induced mortality of pink salmon is commonly over 80%.
The various species of salmon have many names, and varying behaviors.
Atlantic Ocean species
Atlantic ocean species belong to the genus "
Salmo". They include,
Atlantic salmonor Salmon ("Salmo salar"), was the first salmon to be classified. Atlantic salmon have also been proven to have antifreeze proteins (AFP)Fact|date=August 2008. This prevents the fishes' body from freezing for up to −2.5 °C. The AFP bind to the ice crystals when they are small and stop them from growing. [cite web | title = Fish Antifreeze Proteins | publisher = Committee on Fundamental Science, National Science and Technology Council | url = http://www.nsf.gov/pubs/1996/nstc96rp/sb3.htm | accessdate = 2008-08-21]
Pacific Ocean species
Pacific species belong to the genus "
Oncorhynchus", some examples include;
Cherry salmon("Oncorhynchus masu" or "O. masou") is found only in the western Pacific Ocean in Japan, Korea and Russia and also landlocked in central Taiwan's Chi Chia Wan Stream. [cite web | title = Formosan salmon | publisher = Taiwan Journal | url = http://taiwanjournal.nat.gov.tw/ct.asp?xItem=10710&CtNode=122 | accessdate = 2006-12-13 ]
Chinook salmon("Oncorhynchus tshawytscha") is also known in the USA as King or Blackmouth Salmon, and as Spring Salmon in British Columbia. Chinook are the largest of all Pacific salmon, frequently exceeding convert|30|lb|abbr=on. [cite web | title = Chinook Salmon | publisher = Alaska Department of Fish and Game | url = http://www.adfg.state.ak.us/pubs/notebook/fish/chinook.php | accessdate = 2006-11-17 ] The name Tyee means Chinook over 30 pounds in British Columbia. Chinook salmon are known to range as far north as the Mackenzie River and Kugluktuk in the central Canadian arctic [http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/Library/321160.pdf] .
Chum salmon("Oncorhynchus keta") is known as Dog or Calico salmon in some parts of the USA. This species has the widest geographic range of the Pacific species: [cite web | title = Chum Salmon | publisher = Alaska Department of Fish and Game | url = http://www.adfg.state.ak.us/pubs/notebook/fish/chum.php | accessdate = 2006-11-17 ] south to the Sacramento Riverin California in the eastern Pacific and the island of Kyūshūin the Sea of Japanin the western Pacific; north to the Mackenzie Riverin Canada in the east and to the Lena Riverin Siberia in the west.
Coho salmon("Oncorhynchus kisutch") is also known in the USA as Silver salmon. This species is found throughout the coastal waters of Alaska and British Columbia and up most clear-running streams and rivers. It is also now known to occur, albeit infrequently, in the Mackenzie River [http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/Library/321160.pdf] .
Pink salmon("Oncorhynchus gorbuscha"), known as humpies in south east Alaska, are found from northern California and Korea, throughout the northern Pacific, and from the Mackenzie River[http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/Library/321160.pdf] in Canada to the Lena Riverin Siberia, usually in shorter coastal streams. It is the smallest of the Pacific species, with an average weight of convert|3.5|lb|abbr=on to convert|4|lb|abbr=on. [cite web | title = Pink Salmon | publisher = Alaska Department of Fish and Game | url = http://www.adfg.state.ak.us/pubs/notebook/fish/pink.php | accessdate = 2006-11-17 ]
Sockeye salmon("Oncorhynchus nerka") is known in the USA as Red salmon. [cite web | title = Sockeye Salmon | publisher = Alaska Department of Fish and Game | url = http://www.adfg.state.ak.us/pubs/notebook/fish/sockeye.php | accessdate = 2006-11-17 ] This lake-rearing species is found south as far as the Klamath Riverin Californiain the eastern Pacific and northern Hokkaidō Island in Japanin the western Pacific and as far north as Bathurst Inletin the Canadian Arcticin the east and the Anadyr Riverin Siberiain the west. Although most adult Pacific salmon feed on small fish, shrimp and squid; sockeye feed on planktonthat they filter through gill rakers.
Steelhead are true salmon belonging to the taxonomic family Salmonidae. All modern books list it as being such. There is much confusion on this, and many books do not state this clearly. [Books after 1990 seem to have it correct. For a good reference see Salmon by Peter Coates ISBN 1-86189-295-0]
Steelheador Steelhead trout or Rainbow trout (Oncorhychus mykiss) are river spawners, usually found in the same rivers that produce chinook, especially the Columbia, Snake, Skeena, and other large rivers on the Pacific Coast. Steelhead have also been introduced into some rivers surrounding the Laurentian Great Lakes.
* Land-locked salmon ("Salmo salar sebago") live in a number of lakes in eastern North America. This
subspeciesof Atlantic Salmon is non-migratory, even when access to the sea is not barred.
* Kokanee salmon is a land-locked form of sockeye salmon.
Huchenor Danube salmon ("Hucho hucho"), the largest permanent fresh water salmonid
almon in mythology
Irish mythology, the hero Fionn mac Cumhaill, leader of the Fianna, gained powers of perception from a salmon. The young Fionn met the poet Finegasnear the river Boyneand studied under him. Finegas had spent seven years trying to catch the salmon of knowledge which lived in a pool on the Boyne, for whoever ate the salmon would gain all the knowledge in the world. Eventually he caught it and told the boy to cook it for him. While cooking it Fionn burst a blister on the salmon's skin, burning his thumb, and instinctively put his thumb in his mouth, swallowing a piece of the salmon's skin. This imbued him with the salmon's wisdom. [ Fenian Cycleattributed to Oisín]
The salmon is also one of the incarnations of both
Tuan mac Cairill[ [http://www.maryjones.us/ctexts/tuan.html|The Story of Tuan mac Cairill] ] and Fintan mac Bóchra[ [http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/G109001/index.html|The Colloquy between Fintan and the Hawk of Achill] ] .
Welsh mythology, the salmon of Llyn Llyw is the oldest animal in the world. King Arthur and his knights are charged with finding Mabon ap Modron, and consult several animals—an ousel, a stag, an owl and an eagle—before finding the salmon, who lets Caiand Bedwyrride its back to the walls of Mabon's prison in Gloucester. [ Culhwch ac Olwen]
Norse mythology, when Loki, god of mischief and strife, tricked Hod the blind god into killing Baldr, god of beauty and light, Loki jumped into a river and transformed himself into a salmon in order to escape punishment from the other gods. When they held out a net to trap him he attempted to leap over it but was caught by Thorwho grabbed him by the tail with his hand, and this is why the salmon's tail is tapered. [ Prose Eddaby Snorri Sturluson]
Salmon are central to
Native American mythologyon the Pacific coast, from the Haidato the Nootka.
* [http://oregonstate.edu/dept/fw/lackey/Salmon2100.htm The Salmon 2100 Project] An unbiased collaboration on the outlook for wild pacific salmon
* [http://content.lib.washington.edu/salmonweb/index.html University of Washington Libraries Digital Collections – Salmon Collection] A collection of documents describing salmon of the Pacific Northwest.
* [http://www.columbia.edu/~kjh2103/Salmon-omics-PDO.pdf "Salmon-omics: Effect of Pacific Decadal Oscillation on Alaskan Chinook Harvests and Market Price"] , Kevin Ho, Columbia University, 2005.
* [http://www.cf.adfg.state.ak.us/geninfo/finfish/salmon/species/salmon_species.php Alaska Department of Fish & Game Salmon Species Descriptions]
* [http://www.critfc.org/ Tribal Salmon Restoration Plan]
* [http://www.dietaryfiberfood.com/cholesterol-shrimp.php Cholesterol content in salmon]
* [http://www.wildsalmon.org/ Save Our Wild Salmon Coalition] a non-profit union of over 50 organizations and 6 million members working to restore wild salmon in the Pacific NW, especially the Columbia/Snake basins.
* [http://www.thinksalmon.com/ Think Salmon] A salmon sustainability and awareness effort
* [http://www.wildsalmoncenter.org/ Wild Salmon Center]
* [http://www.salmonfund.org SalmonFund.org] A registered non-profit for sustainable development of salmon habitat in the Pacific Northwest.
* [http://www.salmonnation.com Salmon Nation] A movement to create a bioregional community, based on the historic spawning area of Pacific salmon (CA to AK).
* [http://www.cjly.net/deconstructingdinner/020206.htm One Hour Radio Broadcast on Farmed Salmon in British Columbia, Canada - Kootenay Co-op Radio's Deconstructing Dinner program]
* [http://www.worldandi.com/public/2000/may/fishy.html Is Something Fishy Going On?] by Linda Joyce Forristal, worldandi.com, 2003 - Salmon specific.
* [http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~lrd/fdfishy.html Is Something Fishy Going On?] by Judith E. Foulke, FDA Consumer, September 1993 - General talk on consumer fraud in the fish industry, with a section on salmon coloring.
* [http://www.acnetreatmentinfo.org/info/Salmon_for_acne Effects of Salmon on the skin disorder Acne]
* [http://www.canfisco.com/wildsalmon/salmon_history.asp?article=8 History of Salmon Canning in British Columbia]
* [http://18.104.22.168/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20061019/NEWS/610190332 "Salmon fossils dated to 1 million years"]
* [http://www.nasco.int/ NASCO, North Atlantic Salmon Conservation Organization]
* [http://darwin.nap.edu/books/0309083117/html/R3.html Genetic Status of Atlantic Salmon in Maine: Interim Report (2002)] online book
* [http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~lrd/FCF161.html U.S. Code of Federal Regulations 21CFR161 Fish and Shellfish]
* "Atlas of Pacific Salmon", Xanthippe Augerot and the State of the Salmon Consortium, University of California Press, 2005, hardcover, 152 pages, ISBN 0-520-24504-0
* "Making Salmon: An Environmental History of the Northwest Fisheries Crisis", Joseph E. Taylor III, University of Washington Press, 1999, 488 pages, ISBN 0-295-98114-8
* "Trout and Salmon of North America", Robert J. Behnke, Illustrated by Joseph R. Tomelleri, The Free Press, 2002, hardcover, 359 pages, ISBN 0-7432-2220-2
* "Come back, salmon", By Molly Cone, Sierra Club Books, 48 pages, ISBN 0-87156-572-2 - A book for juveniles describes the restoration of 'Pigeon Creek'.
* "The salmon: their fight for survival", By Anthony Netboy, 1973, Houghton Mifflin Co., 613 pages, ISBN 0-395-14013-7
* "A River Lost", by Blaine Harden, 1996, WW Norton Co., 255 pages, ISBN 0-393-31690-4. (Historical view of the Columbia River system).
* "River of Life, Channel of Death", by Keith C. Peterson, 1995, Confluence Press, 306 pages, ISBN 978-0870714962. (Fish and dams on the Lower Snake river.)
* "Salmon", by Dr Peter Coates, 2006, ISBN 1861892950
* [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/01/30/AR2007013001757.html NEWS January 31, 2007: U.S. Orders Modification of Klamath River - Dams Removal May Prove More Cost-Effective for allowing the passage of Salmon]
* [http://library.state.ak.us/asp/edocs/2007/04/ocn131181333.pdf Salmon age and sex composition and mean lengths for the Yukon River area, 2004 / by Shawna Karpovich and Larry DuBois.] Hosted by [http://library.state.ak.us Alaska State Publications Program] .
* [http://www.traffic.org/fisheries-reports/traffic_pub_fisheries7.pdf Trading Tails: Linkages Between Russian Salmon Fisheries and East Asian Markets. Shelley Clarke. (November 2007). 120pp. ISBN 978 1 85850 230 4] .
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