- Arab World
The Arab World ( _ar. العالم العربي; Transliteration: al-`alam al-`arabi) refers to Arabic-speaking countries stretching from the
Atlantic Oceanin the west to the Arabian Seain the east, and from the Mediterranean Seain the north to the Horn of Africaand the Indian Oceanin the southeast. It consists of 24 countries and territories with a combined population of some 325 million people straddling two continents.
Language, politics, religion and people
Arabic languageforms a unifying feature of the Arab World. Though different areas use local dialects of Arabic, all share in the use of the standard classical language (see diglossia). This contrasts with the situation in the wider Islamic World, where Arabic retains its cultural prestige primarily as the language of religion and of theological scholarship, but the populace generally do not speak the Arabic language.
The linguistic and political denotation inherent in the term "
Arab" is generally dominant over genealogicalconsiderations. Thus, individuals with little or no direct ancestry from the Arabian Peninsulacould identify as, or be considered to be, Arabs partially by virtue of their mother tongue (see Who is an Arab?). However, this definition is disputed by many peoples of non-Arab origins; thus Egyptiansfor example may or may not identify as Arabs (see Egypt#Identity), but Egyptians enriched the Arabic languageand definitely Egyptians are Arabs according to the definition of the "Arab League".
Arab League, a political organization intended to encompass the Arab World, defines as Arab,
The Arab League's main goal is to unify politically the Arab populations so defined. Its permanent headquarters are located in
Cairo. However, it was moved temporarily to Tunisduring the 1980s, after Egypt was expelled due to the Camp David Accords (1978).
The majority of people in the Arab World adhere to
Islamand the religion has official status in most countries. Shariahlaw exists partially in the legal system in some countries, especially in the Arabian peninsula, while others are secular. The majority of the Arab countries adhere to Sunni Islam. Iraq, however, is a Shiamajority country (65%), while Lebanon, Yemen, Kuwait, and Bahrainhave large Shiaminorities. In Saudi Arabia, the eastern province Al-Hasa region has Shia minority and the southern province city Najran has Ismalia Shiite minority too. IbadiIslam is practised in Omanand Ibadis make up 75% population of the country.
There are sizable numbers of
Christians, living primarily in Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Jordan, Palestineand Sudan. Formerly, there were significant minorities of Arab Jewsthroughout the Arab World; however, the establishment of the state of Israelprompted their subsequent mass emigration and expulsion within a few decades. Today small Jewish communities remain, ranging anywhere from ten in Bahrain to 7,000 in Moroccoand more than 1,000 in Tunisia. Overall, Arabs make up less than one quarter of the world's 1.4 billion Muslims, a group sometimes referred to as the Islamic world.
Some Arab countries have substantial reserves of petroleum. The Gulf is particularly well-furnished: four Gulf states, Saudi Arabia, the UAE, Kuwait, and Qatar, are among the top ten oil or gas exporters worldwide. In addition, Algeria, Libya, Iraq, Bahrain, Morocco, Western Sahara, and Sudan all have smaller but significant reserves. Where present, these have had significant effects on regional politics, often enabling
rentier states, leading to economic disparities between oil-rich and oil-poor countries, and, particularly in the more sparsely populated states of the Gulf and Libya, triggering extensive labor immigration.
UNESCO, the average rate of adult literacy(ages 15 and older) in this region is 66%, and this is one of the lowest rates in the world.Fact|date=September 2008 In Mauritania, Morocco, and Yemen, the rate is lower than the average, at barely over 50 %. On the other hand, Syria, Lebanon, Palestineand Jordanrecord a high adult literacy rate of over 90%. The average rate of adult literacy shows steady improvement, and the absolute number of adult illiterates fell from 64 million to around 58 million between 1990 and 2000-2004. Overall, the gender disparity in adult literacy is high in this region, and of the illiteracy rate, women account for two-thirds, with only 69 literate women for every 100 literate men. The average GPI (Gender Parity Index) for adult literacy is 0.72, and gender disparity can be observed in Egypt, Morocco, and Yemen. Above all, the GPI of Yemen is only 0.46 in a 53% adult literacy rate PDFlink| [http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001489/148972E.pdf] |374 KiB .
Literacy rate is higher among the youth than adults. Youth literacy rate (ages 15-24) in the Arab region increased from 63.9 to 76.3 % from 1990 to 2002. The average rate of GCC States [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cooperation_Council_for_the_Arab_States_of_the_Gulf_%28GCC%29] was 94 %, followed by
the Maghrebat 83.2% and the Mashriqat 73.6 %. However, more than one third of youth remain illiterate in the Arab LDCs (Comoros, Djibouti, Mauritania, Somalia, Sudan, and Yemen) PDFlink| [http://www.escwa.org.lb/information/publications/edit/upload/scu-05-3-sum-e.pdf] |158 KiB .In 2004, the regional average of youth literacy is 89.9% for male and 80.1 % for female [http://www.uis.unesco.org/profiles/EN/EDU/counttyProfile_en.aspx?code=40322] .
The average population growth rate in Arab countries is 2.3%.
United Nationspublished an Arab human development reportin 2002, 2003 and 2004. These reports, written by researchers from the Arab world, address some sensitive issues in the development of Arab countries: women empowerment, availability of education and information among others.
2008, the US-based organization Freedom Houserates only Comorosand Mauritaniaas Arab “electoral democracies”. [ [http://freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=22&year=2008 Freedom House Country Report] ]
Non-Arab people in the Arab World
Within the most common definition of the Arab World, there are substantial populations who are not Arab either by ethnic or linguistic affiliation, and who often or generally do not consider themselves Arab as such. Nevertheless, most are as indigenous to their areas and many, if not most, actually resided in the area before the arrival of true Arabs of the Arabian Peninsula during which the spread of
Islamtook place. Certain populations have expressed resentment towards the term "Arab World," and believe that their national and political rights have been unjustly brushed aside by modern governments' focus on Pan-Arabismand promoting an Arab identity. In some cases this has led to severe conflicts between the ethnic nationalismof these groups and the Arab nationalismpromoted by governments lead by Arab leaders, which sometimes amounted to denying the existence of or forcibly suppressing non-Arab minorities within their borders.
Maghreb(North Africa) most of the population is of Arabdecent yet still there is a 10-15% Berber minority as the number of Arabs from the Arabian Peninsula who settled in the region was very large [ [http://www.muslimphilosophy.com/ik/Muqaddimah/IntroMaterial/Introduction.htm "History of Ibn Khaldun" by Wold renouned Historian Ibn Khaldun] ] . Arab and Berber identity in these countries is generally defined by language and ancestry. In Morocco, Berber speakers form about 35% of the total population; in Algeria, they represent about 10% of the population. In Libya, they form about 4% of the population.
There are much smaller isolated Berber communities in
Mauritaniaand one oasis in Egypt's Western Desert. The nomadic Tuaregpeople whose traditional areas straddle the borders of several countries in the Sahara desert, are also of Berber origins. Government worries about ethnic separatism, and condescending attitudes towards the mainly rural Berber-speaking areas, led to the Berber communities being denied full linguistic and cultural rights; in Algeria, for example, Berber chairs at universities were closed, and Berber singers were occasionally banned from singing in their own language, although an official Berber radio station continued to operate throughout. These problems have to some extent been redressed in later years in Morocco and Algeria; both have started teaching Berber languages in schools and universities, and Algeria has amended its constitution to declare Berber a fundamental aspect of Algerian identity (along with Islam and Arabness.) In Libya, however, any suggestion that Berbers might be non-Arab remains taboo Fact|date=September 2007.
In the northern regions of
Iraq(15-20%) and Syria(5-8%) live the Kurds, an ethnic group who speak Kurdish, a language closely related to Persian, "not" Arabic, except insofar as like Persian, it has absorbed Arabic vocabulary. The nationalist aspiration for self-rule or for a state of Kurdistanhas created conflict between Kurdish minorities and their governments. Somaliais a Muslim country, but many Somalis just recognize themselves as Somali instead of Arab despite centuries-old ties to Arabia. [David D. Laitin, "Politics, Language, and Thought", (University of Chicago Press: 1977), p.50] Although Somaliajoined the Arab Leaguein 1974, accords Arabic official language status, and Arabic is spoken by some Somalis in commerce, religion and education, the country's primary language is Somali. The population is also predominantly comprised of ethnic Somalis with small communities of Indian, Iranian, Indonesian and Portuguese. Egypt's largest ethnic group is Egyptianswho constitute over 90% of the population. The majority of Egyptians consider themselves Arab on a cultural basis. [World Book, Inc., "The World Book Encyclopedia", (World Book, Inc.: 2001), p.123] [Tracey Boraas, "Egypt", (Capstone Press: 2001), p.45] Djibouti, whose demographics are approximately 60% Somali and 35% Afar, is in a similar position. Arabic is one of the official languages, 94% of its population is Muslim, and Djibouti has a close proximity on the Red Seaand Arabia.
The Arab world is also home to significant populations of Turkmen, Assyrians, Syriacs, and
Armenians, a high percentage of whom do not identify as Arab. Many Jews in Israelhave roots in Arab countries, from where most fled in the first decades following the 1948 Arab-Israeli War.
Since most modern borders of the Arab world are products of Western imperial powers, they often ignore distinct ethnic and geographic boundaries. Thus, in addition to regions with large Arab populations being located in non-Arab states (such as the Turkish province of
Hatay, populated mainly by indigenous Iskanderun Syrians, and the Iranian province of Khuzestan, populated mainly by Iranian Arabs), many peripheral states of the Arab world have border-straddling minorities of non-Arab peoples, as is the case with the non-Arab Black Africans of southern Sudanand southern Mauritania.
Many Arab countries in the Gulf have sizable (10 - 30%) non-Arab populations, usually of a temporary nature, at least in theory. Iraq, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, United Arab Emirates and Oman has a sizeable Persian speaking minority. The same countries also have Hindi-Urdu speakers and Filipinos as sizable minority. Balochi speakers are a good size minority in Oman. Countries like Bahrain, UAE, Oman and Kuwait have significant non-Muslim / non-Arab minorities (10 - 20%) like Hindus and Christians from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and the Philippines.
Many non-Arab countries bordering the core Arab world states have large Arab populations, as is the case in
Chad, Israel, Turkey, Iran, Mali, Niger, and Senegal.
tates and disputed territories
Palestine, as administered by the Palestinian Authority, is recognized as a state by over 100 [https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Peace/palrec.html] countries in addition to being a full-fledged member of the Arab League and many other international organizations. However, the U.N., Israel, the U.S.A., and the E.U. do not recognize the State of Palestineas an operational state, referring instead to the Palestinian Territories, under which name the Palestinian Authority sits as an observer member of the U.N.
The territory of
Western Saharais disputed between Moroccoand the Polisario Front, which declared independence and a government-in-exile, the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic(SADR), following the withdrawal of Spanish forces. SADR, although having won support from many sub-Saharan African countries and full membership in the African Union, is not recognized by the Arab League. Generally, there has not been international support or recognition for the Moroccan annexation, nor for the establishment of an independent state. The Western powers and the UNsupport a negotiated settlement between the parties, and many if not most countries maintain a careful diplomatic ambiguity with respect to each parties' claims, pending a final settlement.
Comorosis a member state of the Arab League and accords Arabicstatus as an official language, Comorian and French enjoy greater usage. The predominate language in Somalia and Djibouti is Somali, which is a part of the larger Afro-Asiatic family of languages that also includes Arabic and Hebrew. Similarly, while the Maltese languageis closely related to Tunisian Arabic, the people of Maltado not use standard Arabic nor do they consider themselves Arab. Chad, Eritrea, and Israelall recognize standard Arabic as an official language, but none of them are members of the Arab League, though Chadand Eritreahave observer status. Maliand Senegal, West African countries which are neither a part of the Arab League nor the Arab world, recognize Hassaniya(the Arabic dialect of their Berberminorities) as a national language.
Different forms of government are represented in the Arab World: Some of the countries are monarchies: Bahrain, Jordan, Kuwait, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. The other Arab countries are all
republics. With the exception of Lebanon, and recently Mauritania, democratic elections throughout the Arab World are generally viewed as compromised, due to outright vote rigging, intimidation of opposition parties, and severe restraints on civil liberties and political dissent.
World War II, the movement known as Pan-Arabismsought to unite all Arabic-speaking countries into one political entity. Only Syria, Iraq, Egypt, Tunisia, Libyaand North Yemenattempted the short-lived unification. Historical divisions, competing local nationalisms, and geographical sprawl were major reasons for the failure of Pan-Arabism. Arab Nationalismwas another strong force in the region which peaked during the mid 20th century and was professed by many leaders in Egypt, Algeria, Libya, Syria, and Iraq.
Arab Nationalist leaders included
Gamal Abdel Nasserof Egypt, Ahmed Ben Bellaof Algeria, Michel Aflaq, Salah al-Din al-Bitar, Zaki al-Arsuzi, Constantin Zureiq, Shukri al-Kuwatli, Hafez al-Assadand Bashar al-Assadof Syria, Saddam Husseinand Ahmad Hassan al-Bakrof Iraq, Muammar al-Gaddafiof Libya, Habib Bourguibaof Tunisia, Mehdi Ben Barkaof Morocco, and Shakib Arslanof Lebanon. The various Arab states maintain close ties but national identities have been strengthened by the political realities of the past 60 years, making a single Arab nationalistic state less and less feasible. Moreover, the upsurge in political Islam and led to a greater emphasis on pan-Islamic identity amongst many Arab Muslims. As such, Arab nationalists who once opposed Islamic movements now pander to them for political survival. [http://www.geocities.com/martinkramerorg/ArabNationalism.htm]
Many of the modern borders of the Arab World were drawn by
European imperial powers during the 19th and early 20th century. However, some of the larger states (in particular Egyptand Syria) have historically maintained geographically definable boundaries, on which some of the modern states are roughly based. The 14th century Egyptian historian Al-Maqrizi, for instance, defines Egypt's boundaries as extending from the Mediterraneanin the north to lower Nubiain the south; and between the Red Seain the east and the oases of the Western/ Libyan desert. The modern borders of Egypt, therefore, are not a creation of European powers, and are at least in part based on historically definable entities which are in turn based on certain cultural and ethnic identifications.
At other times, kings, '
emirs' or ' sheiks' were placed as semi-autonomous rulers over the newly created nation states, usually chosen by the same imperial powers that for some drew the new borders, for services rendered to European powers like the British Empiree.g. Sherif Hussein ibn Ali. Many African States did not attain independence until the 1960s from France after bloody insurgencies for their freedom. These struggles were settled by the imperial powers approving the form of independence given, so as a consequence almost all of these borders have remained. Some of these borders were agreed upon without consultation of those individuals that had served the colonial interests of Britain or France. One such agreement solely between Britain and France (to the exclusion of Sherif Hussein ibn Ali), signed in total secrecy until Leninreleased the full text, was the Sykes-Picot Agreement. Another influential document written without the consensus of the local population was the Balfour Declaration.
As former director of the Israeli intelligence agency
Mossad, Efraim Halevy, now a director at the Hebrew University said,
He went on to give an example,
Historian Jim Crow, of
Newcastle University, has said:
As of 2006, the Arab World accounts for two-fifth of the gross domestic product and three-fifth of the trade of the wider
Muslim WorldFact|date=November 2007.
The Arab states are mostly, although not exclusively, developing economies and derive their export revenues from oil and gas, or the sale of other raw materials. Recent years have seen significant economic growth in the Arab World, due largely to an increase in oil and gas prices, which tripled between 2001 and 2006, but also due to efforts by some states to diversify their economic base. Industrial production has risen, for example the amount of steel produced between 2004 and 2005 rose from 8.4 to 19 million tonnes. (Source: Opening speech of Mahmoud Khoudri, Algeria's Industry Minister, at the 37th General Assembly of the Iron & Steel Arab Union, Algiers, May 2006). However even 19 million tons pa still only represents 1.7% of global steel production, and remains inferior to the production of countries like
Brazil. (source: www.worldsteel.org).
The main economic organisations in the Arab World are the
Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), comprising the states in the Gulf, and the Union of the Arab Maghreb (UMA), made up of North African States. The GCC has achieved some success in financial and monetary terms, including plans to establish a common currency in the Gulf region. Since its foundation in 1989, the UMA's most significant accomplishment has been the establishment of a 7000 km highway crossing North Africa from Mauritaniato Libya's border with Egypt. The central stretch of the highway, expected to be completed in 2010, will cross Morocco, Algeriaand Tunisia. In recent years a new term has been coined to define a greater economic region: the MENA region (standing for Middle East and North Africa) is becoming increasingly popular, especially with support from the current US administration. Saudi Arabiaremains the top Arab economy in terms of total GDP. It is Asia's eleventh largest economy, followed by Egyptand Algeria, which were also the second and third largest economies in Africa (after South Africa), in 2006. In terms of GDP per capita, Qataris the richest developing country in the world. (Source: CIA World Factbook, GDP by country classification)
The Arab World stretches across more than 12.9 million square kilometers (5 million square miles) of
North Africaand the part of North-East Africa and South-West Asia called the Middle East. The Asian part of the Arab world is called the " Mashriq". The North African part of the Arab World to the west of Egypt and Sudan is known as the " Maghreb".
Its total area is the size of the entire Spanish-speaking Western Hemisphere (12.9 million km²), larger than
Europe(10.4 million km²), Canada(10 million km²), China(9.6 million km²), the United States(9.6 million km²), Brazil(8.7 million km²). Only Russia– at 17 million km², the largest country in the world – and arguably Anglophone North America(eighteen million square kilometers) are larger geocultural units.
The term "Arab" often connotes the Middle East, but the larger (and more populous) part of the Arab World is North Africa. Its eight million square kilometers include the two largest countries of the African continent,
Sudan(2.5 million km²) in the southeast of the region and Algeria(2.4 million km²) in the center, each about three-quarters the size of India, or about one-and-a-half times the size of Alaska, the largest state in the United States. The largest country in the Arab Middle East is Saudi Arabia(2 million km²).
At the other extreme, the smallest autonomous mainland Arab country in North Africa and the Middle East is
Lebanon(10,452 km²), and the smallest island Arab country is Bahrain(665 km²).
Notably, every Arab country borders a sea or ocean, with the exception of the Arab region of northern Chad.
The political borders of the Arab World have wandered, leaving Arab minorities in non-Arab countries of the
Saheland the Horn of Africaas well as in the Middle Eastern countries of Turkeyand Iran, and also leaving non-Arab minorities in Arab countries. However, the basic geography of sea, desert, and mountain provide the enduring natural boundaries for this region.
The Arab World straddles two continents,
Africaand Asia, and is oriented mainly along an east-west axis, dividing it into African and Asian areas.
Arab Africa—or more commonly Arab North Africa, though this is redundant—is roughly a long trapezoid, narrower at the top, that comprises the entire northern third of the continent. It is surrounded by water on three sides (west, north, and east) and desert or desert scrubland on the fourth (south).
In the west, it is bounded by the shores of the
Atlantic Ocean. From northeast to southwest, Morocco, Western Sahara(annexed and occupied by Morocco), and Mauritaniamake up the roughly 2,000 kilometers of Arab Atlantic coastline. The southwestern sweep of the coast is gentle but substantial, such that Mauritania's capital, Nouakchott(18°N, 16°W), is far enough west to share longitude with Iceland(13-22°W). Nouakchott is the westernmost capital of the Arab World and the third-westernmost in Africa, and sits on the Atlantic fringe of the southwestern Sahara. Next south along the coast from Mauritania is Senegal, whose abrupt border belies the gradient in culture from Arab to Negroid African that historically characterizes this part of West Africa.
Arab Africa's boundary to the north is again a continental boundary, the
Mediterranean Sea. This boundary begins in the west with the narrow Strait of Gibraltar, the thirteen kilometer wide channel that connects the Mediterranean with the Atlantic to the west, and separates Morocco from Spainto the north. East along the coast from Morocco are Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya, followed by Egypt, which forms the region's (and the continent's) northeastern corner. The coast turns briefly but sharply south at Tunisia, slopes more gently southeastward through the Libyan capital of Tripoli, and bumps north through Libya's second city, Benghazi, before turning straight east again through Egypt's second city, Alexandria, at the mouth of the Nile. Along with the spine of Italyto its north, Tunisia thus marks the junction of western and eastern Mediterranean, and a cultural transition as well: west of Tunisia begins the region of the Arab World known as the Maghreb.
Historically the 4,000-kilometer Mediterranean boundary has fluttered. Population centers north of it in
Europehave invited contact and Arab exploration—mostly friendly, though sometimes not. Islands and peninsulas near the Arab coast have changed hands. The islands of Sicilyand Maltalie just a hundred kilometers east of the Tunisian city of Carthage, which has been a point of contact with Europe since its founding in the first millennium B.C.E.; both Sicily and Malta at times have been part of the Arab World. Just across the Strait of Gibraltar from Morocco, regions of the Iberian peninsula were part of the Arab World throughout the Middle Ages, extending the northern boundary at times to the foothills of the Pyreneesand leaving a substantial mark on local and wider European and Western culture.
The northern boundary of the African Arab World has also fluttered briefly in the other direction, first through the
Crusadesand later through the imperial involvement of France, Britain, Spain, and Italy. Another visitor from northern shores, Turkey, controlled the east of the region for centuries, though not as a colonizer. Spain still maintains two small enclaves, Ceutaand Melilla, along the otherwise Moroccan coast. Overall this wave has ebbed, though like the Arab expansion north it has left its mark. The proximity of North Africa to Europe has always encouraged interaction, and this continues with Arab immigration to Europe and European interest in the Arab countries today. However, population centers and the physical fact of the sea keeps this boundary of the Arab World settled on the Mediterranean coastline.
To the east, the
Red Seadefines the boundary between Africaand Asia, and thus also between Arab Africa and the Arab Middle East. This sea is a long and narrow waterway with a northwest tilt, stretching 2,300 kilometers from Egypt's Sinai peninsulasoutheast to the Bab-el-Mandebstrait between Djiboutiin Africa and Yemenin Arabia but on average just 150 kilometers wide. Though the sea is navigable along its length, historically much contact between Arab Africa and the Arab Middle East has been either overland across the Sinai or by sea across the Mediterranean or the narrow Bab al Mendeb strait. From northwest to southeast, Egypt, Sudan, and Eritreaform the African coastline, with Djibouti marking Bab al Mendeb's African shore.
Southeast along the coast from Djibouti is Somalia, but the Somali coast soon makes a 90-degree turn and heads northeast, mirroring a bend in the coast of Yemen across the water to the north and defining the south coast of the Gulf of Aden. The Somali coast then takes a hairpin turn back southwest to complete the horn of Africa. For six months of the year the
monsoonwinds blow from up equatorial Somalia, past Arabia and over the small Yemeni archipelago of Socotra, to rain on India; they then switch directions and blow back. Hence the east- and especially southeast-coast boundary of Arab Africa has historically been a gateway for maritime trade and cultural exchange with both East Africaand the subcontinent. The trade winds also help explain the presence of the Comoros islands, an Arab-African country, off the coast of Mozambique, near Madagascarin the Indian Ocean, the southernmost part of the Arab World.
The southern boundary of Arab North Africa is the stripe of scrubland known as the
Sahel, that crosses the continent south of the Sahara, dipping further south in Sudan in the east.
Arabia and the Arab Middle East
The Asian or Middle Eastern Arab World comprises the
Arabian Peninsula, Bilad al-Shamor the Levant, and Iraq, more broadly or narrowly defined. The peninsula is roughly a tilted rectangle that leans back against the slope of northeast Africa, the long axis pointing toward Turkey and Europe.
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* Reader, John (1997). "Africa: A Biography of the Continent." New York: Vintage.
* Saint-Prot, Charles, "French Policy toward the Arab World" Abu Dhabi: ECSSR, 2003
Arabic influence on the Spanish language
Greater Middle East
List of countries where Arabic is an official language
English exonyms of Arabic speaking places
* [http://www.arabland.com/dir ArabLand.com - Directories of all Arab World countries]
* [http://natgeotv.com.au/Programmes/Custom/Koran/Main.aspx?Id=1325 The real Arab]
* [http://middleeastreference.org.uk/Chronology.html Chronology of Events in the Middle East from 1908 to 1966 ]
* [http://arabworld.nitle.org/ NITLE Arab World Resource Site]
* [http://www.araboo.com/ Araboo.com - Arab World Directory]
* [http://www.al-hakawati.net/english/states/index.asp Arab Countries information]
* [http://www.winarab.net/ Arab - Arab Articles]
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