Middle East

Middle East
Middle East
Middle East
Countries 18–38 (varying definitions)
Languages Middle East: Arabic, Aramaic, Azerbaijani, French, Greek, Hebrew, Kurdish, Persian, Turkish
Greater Middle East: Arabic, Armenian, Azerbaijani, Balochi, Dari, French, Greek, Georgian, Hebrew, Kurdish, Pashto, Persian, Somali, Tamazight, Tigrinya, Turkish, Urdu
Time Zones UTC +3:30 (Iran) to UTC +2:00 (Egypt) (traditional definition)
Largest Cities In rank order: Cairo, Tehran, Baghdad, Riyadh, Jeddah

The Middle East is a region that encompasses Western Asia and Northern Africa. It is often used as a synonym for Near East, in opposition to Far East. The corresponding adjective is Middle-Eastern and the derived noun is Middle-Easterner.

The history of the Middle East dates back to ancient times, and throughout its history, the Middle East has been a major centre of world affairs. When discussing ancient history, however, the term Near East is more commonly used. The Middle East is also the historical origin of major religions such as Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. The Middle East generally has an arid and hot climate, with several major rivers providing for irrigation to support agriculture in limited areas. Many countries located around the Persian Gulf have large quantities of crude oil. In modern times the Middle East remains a strategically, economically, politically, culturally and religiously sensitive region.[clarification needed] The Middle East expected economic growth rate is at about 4.1% for 2010 and 5.1% in 2011.[1]


This video over Central Africa and the Middle East was taken by the crew of Expedition 29 on board the International Space Station.
This video over the Sahara Desert and the Middle East was taken by the crew of Expedition 29 on board the International Space Station.
A pass beginning over Turkmenistan, east of the Caspian Sea to south-eastern China, just north-west of Hong Kong.


The term "Middle East" may have originated in the 1850s in the British India Office.[2] However, it became more widely known when American naval strategist Alfred Thayer Mahan used the term in 1902[3] to 'designate the area between Arabia and India'.[4][5] During this time the British and Russian Empires were vying for influence in Central Asia, a rivalry which would become known as The Great Game. Mahan realized not only the strategic importance of the region, but also of its center, the Persian Gulf.[6][7] He labeled the area surrounding the Persian Gulf as the Middle East, and said that after the Suez Canal, it was the most important passage for Britain to control in order to keep the Russians from advancing towards British India.[8] Mahan first used the term in his article "The Persian Gulf and International Relations," published in September 1902 in the National Review, a British journal.

The Middle East, if I may adopt a term which I have not seen, will some day need its Malta, as well as its Gibraltar; it does not follow that either will be in the Persian Gulf. Naval force has the quality of mobility which carries with it the privilege of temporary absences; but it needs to find on every scene of operation established bases of refit, of supply, and in case of disaster, of security. The British Navy should have the facility to concentrate in force if occasion arise, about Aden, India, and the Persian Gulf.[9]

Mahan's article was reprinted in The Times and followed in October by a 20 article series entitled "The Middle Eastern Question," written by Sir Ignatius Valentine Chirol. During this series, Sir Ignatius expanded the definition of Middle East to include "those regions of Asia which extend to the borders of India or command the approaches to India."[10] After the series ended in 1903, The Times removed quotation marks from subsequent uses of the term.[11]

Until World War II, it was customary to refer to areas centered around Turkey and the eastern shore of the Mediterranean as the "Near East", while the "Far East" centered on China,[12] and the Middle East then meant the area from Mesopotamia to Burma, namely the area between the Near East and the Far East.[citation needed] In the late 1930s, the British established the Middle East Command, which was based in Cairo, for its military forces in the region. After that time, the term "Middle East" gained broader usage in Europe and the United States, with the Middle East Institute founded in Washington, D.C. in 1946, among other usage.[13]

Criticism and usage

  Central Asia (sometimes associated with the Greater Middle East)

Many have criticized the term Middle East because of its implicit Eurocentrism.[14][15] In contemporary English-language academic & media venues, the term is used by both Europeans and non-Europeans.

The description Middle has also led to some confusion over changing definitions. Before the First World War, "Near East" was used in English to refer to the Balkans and the Ottoman Empire, while "Middle East" referred to Iran, Afghanistan, and Central Asia, and the Caucasus. In contrast, "Far East" referred to the countries of East Asia (e.g. China, Japan, Formosa, Korea, Hong Kong, etc.) Some critics usually advise using an alternative term, such as "Western Asia", which is the official designation used by the UN.

With the disappearance of the Ottoman Empire in 1918, "Near East" largely fell out of common use in English, while "Middle East" came to be applied to the re-emerging countries of the Islamic world. However, the usage of "Near East" was retained by a variety of academic disciplines, including archaeology and ancient history, where it describes an area identical to the term Middle East, which is not used by these disciplines (see Ancient Near East).

The first official use of the term "Middle East" by the United States government was in the 1957 Eisenhower Doctrine, which pertained to the Suez Crisis. Secretary of State John Foster Dulles defined the Middle East as "the area lying between and including Libya on the west and Pakistan on the east, Syria and Iraq on the North and the Arabian peninsula to the south, plus the Sudan and Ethiopia."[12] In 1958, the State Department explained that the terms "Near East" and "Middle East" were interchangeable, and defined the region as including only Egypt, Syria, Israel, Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, and Qatar.[16]

The Associated Press Stylebook says that Near East formerly referred to the farther west countries while Middle East referred to the eastern ones, but that now they are synonymous. It instructs:

Use Middle East unless Near East is used by a source in a story. Mideast is also acceptable, but Middle East is preferred.[17]

At the United Nations, the numerous documents and resolutions about the Middle East are in fact concerned with the Arab–Israeli conflict, in particular the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, and, therefore, with the four states of the Levant. The term Near East is occasionally heard at the UN when referring to this region.[citation needed]


There are terms similar to Near East and Middle East in other European languages, but since it is a relative description, the meanings depend on the country and are different from the English terms generally. In German the term Naher Osten (Near East) is still in common use (nowadays the term Mittlerer Osten is more and more common in press texts translated from English sources, albeit having a distinct meaning) and in Russian Ближний Восток or Blizhniy Vostok, Bulgarian Близкия Изток, Polish Bliski Wschód or Croatian Bliski istok (meaning Near East in all the four Slavic languages) remains as the only appropriate term for the region. However, some languages do have "Middle East" equivalents, such as the French Moyen-Orient, Swedish Mellanöstern, Spanish Oriente Medio or Medio Oriente, and the Italian Medio Oriente.[18]

Perhaps because of the influence of the Western press, the Arabic equivalent of Middle East (Arabic: الشرق الأوسط ash-Sharq al-Awsaṭ), has become standard usage in the mainstream Arabic press, comprehending the same meaning as the term “Middle East” in North American and Western European usage. The designation, Mashriq, also from the Arabic root for east, also denotes a variously defined region around the Levant, the eastern part of the Arabic-speaking world (as opposed to the Maghreb, the western part).[19] The Persian equivalent for Middle East is خاورمیانه (Khāvar-e miyāneh).

Territories and regions

Traditional definition of the Middle East

Country, with flag Area Population Density Capital GDP (Total) Per capita Currency Government Official languages
km2 sq mi /km2 /sq mi
 Bahrain 665 257 656,397 987 2,560 Manama $26.970 billion (2008) $34,605 (2008) Bahraini Dinar Constitutional monarchy Arabic
 Cyprus 9,250 3,570 792,604 90 230 Nicosia $22.703 billion (2008) $29,830 (2008) Euro, Turkish lira Presidential republic Greek, Turkish
 Egypt 1,002,450 387,050 77,498,000 74 190 Cairo $442.640 billion (2008) $5,898 (2008) Egyptian pound Military junta Arabic
 Iran 1,648,195 636,372 71,208,000 42 110 Tehran $819.799 billion (2008) $11,250 (2008) Iranian rial Islamic republic Persian
 Iraq 437,072 168,754 31,001,816 70.93 183.7 Baghdad $202.3 billion (2008) $6,500 (2008) Iraqi dinar Parliamentary republic Arabic, Kurdish
 Israel 20,770 8,020 7,465,000 290 750 Jerusalem2 $200.630 billion (2008) $28,206 (2008) Israeli new sheqel Parliamentary democracy Hebrew, Arabic
 Jordan 92,300 35,600 6,407,085 58 150 Amman $32.112 billion (2008) $5,314 (2008) Jordanian dinar Constitutional monarchy Arabic
 Kuwait 17,820 6,880 3,100,000 119 310 Kuwait City $137.190 billion (2008) $39,849 (2008) Kuwaiti dinar Constitutional monarchy Arabic
 Lebanon 10,452 4,036 4,224,000 354 920 Beirut $58.576 billion (2010) $14,988 (2010) Lebanese pound Republic Arabic, French
 Oman 212,460 82,030 3,200,000 13 34 Muscat $66.889 billion (2008) $24,153 (2008) Omani Rial Absolute monarchy Arabic
 Gaza Strip (not fully sovereign) 360 140 1,376,289 3,823 9,900 Gaza $770 million (2008) $2,900 (2008) Israeli new sheqel Autonomous republic Palestinian National Authority Hamas Arabic
 West Bank (not fully sovereign) 5,860 2,2603 2,500,0005 432 1,1203,4 Ramallah Israeli new sheqel Autonomous republic Palestinian National Authority Fatah Arabic
 Qatar 11,437 4,416 793,341 69 180 Doha $94.249 billion (2008) $85,867 (2008) Qatari Riyal Constitutional monarchy Arabic
 Saudi Arabia 1,960,582 756,985 23,513,330 12 31 Riyadh $593.385 billion (2008) $23,834 (2008) Riyal Absolute monarchy Arabic
 Syria 185,180 71,500 22,505,000 93 240 Damascus $105.238 billion (2010) $5,043 (2010) Syrian pound Presidential republic Arabic
 Turkey1 783,562 302,535 73,914,000 91 240 Ankara $1.028 trillion[20] (2008) $13,920[20][21] (2008) Turkish lira Parliamentary democracy Turkish
 United Arab Emirates 82,880 32,000 5,432,746 30 78 Abu Dhabi $184.984 billion (2008) $38,830 (2008) UAE dirham Federal Constitutional monarchy Arabic
 Yemen 527,970 203,850 23,701,257 35 91 Sanaá $55.433 billion (2008) $2,412 (2008) Yemeni rial Semi-presidential republic Arabic



1 The figures for Turkey includes Eastern Thrace, which is not a part of Anatolia.

2 Under Israeli law. The UN doesn't recognize Jerusalem as Israel's capital.

3 Includes the whole of the West Bank, according to the pre-1967 boundaries.

4 In addition, there are around 400,000 Israeli settlers in the West Bank, of which half are in East-Jerusalem.

Greater Middle East

Country, with flag Area
Population Density
(per km²)
Capital GDP (Total) Per capita Currency Government Official languages
km2 sq mi /km2 /sq mi
 Afghanistan1 647,500 250,000 31,889,923 46 120 Kabul $21.340 billion (2008) $758 (2008) Afghan afghani Islamic republic Persian, Pashto
 Algeria 2,381,740 919,590 33,333,216 14 36 Algiers $233.098 billion (2008) $6,698 (2008) Algerian dinar Semi-presidential republic Arabic
 Armenia 29,800 11,500 3,262,200 111.7 289 Yerevan $18.715 billion (2008) $5,272 (2008) Armenian dram Semi-presidential republic Armenian
 Azerbaijan 86,600 33,400 8,621,000 97 250 Baku $74.734 billion (2008) $8,620 (2008) Azerbaijani manat Semi-presidential republic Azerbaijani
 Comoros 2,235 863 798,000 275 710 Moroni $772 million (2009) $1,159 (2009) Comorian franc Federal republic Comorian, Arabic, French
 Djibouti 23,200 9,000 496,374 34 88 Djibouti $1.877 billion (2008) $2,392 (2008) Djiboutian franc Parliamentary republic Arabic, French, Somali, Afar
 Eritrea 117,600 45,400 4,401,009 37 96 Asmara $3.739 billion (2008) $747 (2008) Nakfa Provisional government Tigrinya, Arabic
 Georgia 20,460 7,900 4,630,841 99.3 257 Tbilisi $21.812 billion (2008) $4,957 (2008) Georgian lari Semi-presidential republic Georgian
 Kazakhstan 2,724,900 1,052,100 15,217,711 5.4 14 Astana $177.545 billion (2008) $11,416 (2008) Kazakhstani tenge Semi-presidential republic Kazakh, Russian
 Kyrgyzstan 199,900 77,200 5,356,869 26 67 Bishkek $11.580 billion (2008) $2,180 (2008) Kyrgyzstani som Semi-presidential republic Kyrgyz, Russian
 Libya 1,759,540 679,360 6,036,914 3 7.8 Tripoli $90.251 billion (2008) $14,533 (2008) Libyan dinar Provisional: National Transitional Council Arabic
 Mauritania 1,030,700 398,000 3,291,000 70 180 Nouakchott $6.221 billion (2008) $2,052 (2008) Ouguiya Islamic republic Arabic
 Morocco 446,550 172,410 33,757,175 70 180 Rabat $136.728 billion (2008) $4,349 (2008) Moroccan dirham Constitutional monarchy Arabic
 Pakistan 880,940 340,130 169,300,000 206 530 Islamabad $439.558 billion (2008) $2,738 (2008) Pakistani rupee Islamic republic Urdu, English
 Somalia 637,661 246,202 9,925,640 [22] 13 34 Mogadishu $7.890 billion $795[23] Somali shilling Semi-presidential republic Somali, Arabic
 Sudan 1,886,068 728,215 30,894,000 14 36 Khartoum $87.885 billion (2008) $2,305 (2008) Sudanese pound Presidential republic Arabic, English
 Tajikistan 143,100 55,300 7,215,700 45 120 Dushanbe $13.041 billion (2008) $2,019 (2008) Somoni Semi-presidential republic Tajik
 Tunisia 163,610 63,170 10,102,000 62 160 Tunis $82.226 billion (2008) $7,962 (2008) Tunisian dinar Semi-presidential republic Arabic
 Turkmenistan 488,100 188,500 5,110,023 9.9 26 Ashgabat $30.091 billion (2008) $5,710 (2008) Turkmenistani manat Presidential republic Turkmen
 Uzbekistan 447,400 172,700 27,372,000 59 150 Tashkent $71.501 billion (2008) $2,629 (2008) Uzbekistani som Semi-presidential republic Uzbek
 Western Sahara 266,000 103,000 513,000 1.9 4.9 El Aaiun Moroccan dirham Arabic


Notes: 1 Afghanistan is often considered Central Asian[24][25]


The Temple Mount in Jerusalem
The Imam Ali Mosque, an important shrine in Najaf

The Middle East lies at the juncture of Eurasia and Africa and of the Mediterranean Sea and the Indian Ocean. It is the birthplace and spiritual center of religions such as Christianity, Islam, Judaism, Manichaeism, Yezidi, Druze, Yarsan and Mandeanism, and in Iran, Mithraism, Zoroastrianism, Manicheanism, and the Bahá'í Faith. Throughout its history the Middle East has been a major center of world affairs; a strategically, economically, politically, culturally, and religiously sensitive area.

The worlds earliest civilizations, Mesopotamia (Sumer, Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia) and ancient Egypt, originated in the Fertile Crescent and Nile Valley regions of the ancient Near East. These were followed by the Hittite, Greek and Urartian civilisations of Asia Minor, Elam in pre Iranian Persia, as well as the civilizations of the Levant (such as Ebla, Ugarit, Canaan, Aramea, Phoenicia and Israel), Persian and Median civilizations in Iran, North Africa (Carthage/Phonecia) and the Arabian Peninsula (Magan, Sheba, Ubar). The Near East was first largely unified under the Neo Assyrian Empire, then the Achaemenid Empire followed later by the Macedonian Empire and after this to some degree by the Iranian empires (namely the Parthian and Sassanid Empires), the Roman Empire and Byzantine Empire. However, it would be the later Arab Caliphates of the Middle Ages, or Islamic Golden Age which began with the Arab conquest of the region in the 7th century AD, that would first unify the entire Middle East as a distinct region and create the dominant Islamic ethnic identity that largely (but not exclusively) persists today. The Mongols, the Turkish Seljuk and Ottoman empires, the Safavids and the British Empire would also later dominate the region.

The modern Middle East began after World War I, when the Ottoman Empire, which was allied with the Central Powers, was defeated by the British Empire and their allies and partitioned into a number of separate nations, initially under British and French Mandates. Other defining events in this transformation included the establishment of Israel in 1948 and the eventual departure of European powers, notably Britain and France by the end of the 1960s. They were supplanted in some part by the rising influence of the United States from the 1970s onwards.

In the 20th century, the region's significant stocks of crude oil gave it new strategic and economic importance. Mass production of oil began around 1945, with Saudi Arabia, Iran, Kuwait, Iraq, and the United Arab Emirates having large quantities of oil.[26] Estimated oil reserves, especially in Saudi Arabia and Iran, are some of the highest in the world, and the international oil cartel OPEC is dominated by Middle Eastern countries.

During the Cold War, the Middle East was a theater of ideological struggle between the two superpowers and their allies: NATO and the United States on one side, and the Soviet Union and Warsaw Pact on the other, as they competed to influence regional allies. Of course, besides the political reasons there was also the "ideological conflict" between the two systems. Moreover, as Louise Fawcett argues, among many important areas of contention, or perhaps more accurately of anxiety, were, first, the desires of the superpowers to gain strategic advantage in the region, second, the fact that the region contained some two thirds of the world's oil reserves in a context where oil was becoming increasingly vital to the economy of the Western world [...][27] Within this contextual framework, the United States sought to divert the Arab world from Soviet influence. Throughout the 20th and into the 21st century, the region has experienced both periods of relative peace and tolerance and periods of conflict and war.


Ethnic groups

Various ethnic and religious types present in the Middle East, 19th century

The Middle East is home to numerous ethnic groups, including; Arabs, Turks, Persians, Somalis, Jews, Kurds, Assyrians/Syriacs (Chaldo-Assyrians), Egyptian Copts, Armenians, Arameans, Azeris, Maltese, Circassians, Greeks, Turcomans, Shabaks, Yazidis, Mandeans, Georgians, Roma, Gagauz, Berbers, Mhallami and Samaritans.


According to the International Organization for Migration, there are 13 million first-generation migrants from Arab nations in the world, of which 5.8 reside in other Arab countries. Expatriates from Arab countries contribute to the circulation of financial and human capital in the region and thus significantly promote regional development. In 2009 Arab countries received a total of 35.1 billion USD in remittance in-flows and remittances sent to Jordan, Egypt and Lebanon from other Arab countries are 40 to 190 per cent higher than trade revenues between these and other Arab countries.[28]

Non-Arab Middle Eastern countries such as Turkey, Israel and Iran are also subject to important migration dynamics.

A fair proportion of those migrating from Arab nations are from ethnic and religious minorities facing racial and or religious persecution and are not necessarily ethnic Arabs, Iranians or Turks. Large numbers of Kurds, Jews, Assyrians, Greeks and Armenians as well as many Mandeans have left nations such as Iraq, Iran, Syria and Turkey for these reasons during the last century. In Iran, many religious minorities such as Christians, Baha'i and Zoroastrians have left since the Islamic Revolution of 1979.


The Middle East is very diverse when it comes to religions, many of which originated there. Islam in its many forms is by far the largest religion in the Middle East, but other faiths, such as Judaism and Christianity, are also well represented. There are also important minority religions like Bahá'í, Yazdânism, Zoroastrianism, Mandeanism, Druze, Yarsan, Yazidism and Shabakism.


The three top languages, in terms of numbers of speakers, are Arabic, Persian and Turkish, representing the Afro-Asiatic, Indo-European, and Turkic language families, respectively. Various other languages are also spoken in the Middle East.

Arabic is the most widely spoken language in the Middle East, being official in all the Arab countries. It is also spoken in some adjacent areas in neighbouring Middle Eastern non-Arab countries. It is a member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic languages.

Persian is the second most popular. While it is confined to Iran and some border areas in neghbouring countries, the country is one of the region's largest and most populous. It belongs to the Indo-Iranian branch of the family of Indo-European languages.

The third-most widely spoken language, Turkish, is largely confined to Turkey, which is also one of the region's largest and most populous countries, but it is present in areas in neighboring countries. It is a member of the Turkic languages, which have their origins in Central Asia.

Other languages spoken in the region include Semitic languages such as Hebrew and Mesopotamian Aramaic dialects spoken mainly by Assyrians and Mandeans. Also to be found are Armenian, Azerbaijani, Berber, Circassian, smaller Iranian languages, Kurdish, smaller Turkic languages (such as Gagauz), Shabaki, Yazidi, Roma, Georgian, Greek, and several Modern South Arabian languages such as Geez. Maltese is also linguistically and geographically a Middle Eastern language.

English is commonly spoken as a second language, especially among the middle and upper classes, in countries such as Egypt, Jordan, Israel, Iran, Iraq, Qatar, Bahrain, United Arab Emirates and Kuwait.[29][30] It is also a main language in some of the Emirates of the United Arab Emirates. French is spoken in Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Lebanon, Morocco, Syria, and Tunisia. Urdu is widely spoken in many Middle Eastern countries, such as Saudi Arabia (where 20-25% of the population is South Asian), the United Arab Emirates (where 50-55% of the population is South Asian), Israel, and Qatar, which have large numbers of Pakistani immigrants. The largest Romanian-speaking community in the Middle East is found in Israel, where as of 1995 Romanian is spoken by 5% of the population.[31][32][33] Russian is also spoken by a large portion of the Israeli population, because of emigration in the late 1990s.


Middle Eastern economies range from being very poor (such as Gaza and Yemen) to extremely wealthy nations (such as Qatar, UAE and Saudi Arabia). Overall, as of 2007, according to the CIA World Factbook, all nations in the Middle East are maintaining a positive rate of growth.

According to the World Bank's World Development Indicators database published on July 1, 2009, the three largest Middle Eastern economies in 2008 were Turkey ($ 794,228,000,000), Saudi Arabia ($ 467,601,000,000) and Iran ($ 385,143,000,000) in terms of Nominal GDP.[34] In regards to nominal GDP per capita, the highest ranking countries are Qatar ($93,204), the UAE ($55,028), Kuwait ($45,920) and Cyprus ($32,745).[35] Turkey ($ 1,028,897,000,000), Iran ($ 839,438,000,000) and Saudi Arabia ($ 589,531,000,000) had the largest economies in terms of GDP-PPP.[20] When it comes to per capita (PPP)-based income, the highest-ranking countries are Qatar ($86,008), Kuwait ($39,915), the UAE ($38,894), Bahrain ($34,662) and Cyprus ($29,853). The lowest-ranking country in the Middle East, in terms of per capita income (PPP), is the autonomous Palestinian Authority of Gaza and the West Bank ($1,100).

The economic structure of Middle Eastern nations are different in the sense that while some nations are heavily dependent on export of only oil and oil-related products (such as Saudi Arabia, the UAE and Kuwait), others have a highly diverse economic base (such as Cyprus, Israel, Turkey and Egypt). Industries of the Middle Eastern region include oil and oil-related products, agriculture, cotton, cattle, dairy, textiles, leather products, surgical instruments, defence equipment (guns, ammunition, tanks, submarines, fighter jets, UAVs, and missiles). Banking is also an important sector of the economies, especially in the case of UAE and Bahrain.

With the exception of Cyprus, Turkey, Egypt, Lebanon and Israel, tourism has been a relatively undeveloped area of the economy, in part because of the socially conservative nature of the region as well as political turmoil in certain regions of the Middle East. In recent years, however, countries such as the UAE, Bahrain, and Jordan have begun attracting greater number of tourists because of improving tourist facilities and the relaxing of tourism-related restrictive policies.

Unemployment is notably high in the Middle East and North Africa region, particularly among young people aged 15–29, a demographic representing 30% of the region’s total population. The total regional unemployment rate in 2005, according to the International Labor Organization, was 13.2%,[36] and among youth is as high as 25%,[37] up to 37% in Morocco and 73% in Syria.[38]

See also




Organizations, programs, and media


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  • Anderson, R., Seibert, R., & Wagner, J. (2006). Politics and Change in the Middle East (8th ed.). Prentice-Hall. 
  • Barzilai, Gad.,Klieman Aharon.,Shidlo Gil (1993). The Gulf Crisis and its Global Aftermath. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-08002. 
  • Barzilai, Gad. (1996). Wars, Internal Conflicts and Political Order. State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-2943-1. 
  • Beaumont, Peter, Gerald H. Blake, J. Malcolm Wagstaff (1988). The Middle East: A Geographical Study. David Fulton. ISBN 0470210400. 
  • Goldschmidt Jr., Arthur (1999). A Concise History of the Middle East. Westview Press. ISBN 0813304717. 

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