יְרוּשָׁלַיִם (Yerushalayim)
القُدس (al-Quds)
—  City  —
From upper left: Jerusalem skyline viewed from Givat ha'Arba, Mamilla, the Old City and the Dome of the Rock, a souq in the Old City, the Knesset, the Western Wall, the Tower of David and the Old City walls

Emblem of Jerusalem
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): Ir ha-Kodesh (Holy City), Bayt al-Maqdis (House of the Holiness)
Motto: Holiest city in Judaism
Jerusalem is located in Jerusalem
Coordinates: 31°47′N 35°13′E / 31.783°N 35.217°E / 31.783; 35.217Coordinates: 31°47′N 35°13′E / 31.783°N 35.217°E / 31.783; 35.217
District Jerusalem
 – Mayor Nir Barkat
 – City 125,156 dunams (125.2 km2 / 48.3 sq mi)
 – Metro 652 km2 (251.7 sq mi)
Elevation 754 m (2,474 ft)
Population (2009)
 – City 780,200
 – Density 6,183/km2 (16,013.9/sq mi)
 – Metro 1,029,300
Demonym Jerusalemite
Time zone IST (UTC+2)
 – Summer (DST) IDT (UTC+3)
Area code(s) overseas dialing +972; local dialing 02




Timeline · 1000 BC · 721 BC · 597 BC
587 BC · Second Temple Period · 70
614 · 637 · Middle Ages · 1099
1187 · 1244 · 1917 · 1947 · 1948

Religious significance

Judaism · Christianity · Islam
Temple Mount · Western Wall
Dome of the Rock · al-Aqsa Mosque
Holy Sepulchre Church

Demographics · People

Patriarchs · Chief Rabbis
Grand Muftis · Mayors

Names · Positions

Judaization · Islamization


Old City · Archaeological sites
Synagogues · Churches · Mosques
Neighbourhoods · Mountains
East Jerusalem

Other topics

Mayors · Flag · Emblem
Jerusalem Law
Jerusalem Day · Quds Day
Transportation · Education

Emblem of Jerusalem.svg

v · d · e

Jerusalem (Hebrew: יְרוּשָׁלַיִם‎‎ About this sound (audio) , Yerushaláyim, ISO 259-3 Yrušalaym, "Abode of Peace"; Arabic: القُدس About this sound (audio) , al-Quds [al-Sharif], "The Holy Sanctuary") is the capital of Israel, though not internationally recognized as such.[iii] If the area and population of East Jerusalem is included, it is Israel's largest city[1] in both population and area,[2] with a population of 763,800 residents over an area of 125.1 km2 (48.3 sq mi).[3][4][iv] Located in the Judean Mountains, between the Mediterranean Sea and the northern edge of the Dead Sea, modern Jerusalem has grown far beyond the boundaries of the Old City.

Jerusalem is a holy city to the three major Abrahamic religionsJudaism, Christianity and Islam. In Judaism, Jerusalem has been the holiest city since, according to the Biblical Old Testament, King David of Israel first established it as the capital of the united Kingdom of Israel in c. 1000 BCE, and his son Solomon commissioned the building of the First Temple in the city.[5] In Christianity, Jerusalem has been a holy city since, according to the New Testament, Jesus was crucified in c. 30 CE, and 300 years later Saint Helena identified the pilgrimage sites of Jesus' life. In Sunni Islam, Jerusalem is the third-holiest city.[6][7] It became the first Qibla, the focal point for Muslim prayer (Salah) in 610 CE,[8] and, according to Islamic tradition, Muhammad made his Night Journey there ten years later.[9][10] As a result, and despite having an area of only 0.9 square kilometres (0.35 sq mi),[11] the Old City is home to sites of key religious importance, among them the Temple Mount, the Western Wall, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, the Dome of the Rock and al-Aqsa Mosque.

During its long history, Jerusalem has been destroyed twice, besieged 23 times, attacked 52 times, and captured and recaptured 44 times.[12] The oldest part of the city was settled in the 4th millennium BCE, making Jerusalem one of the oldest cities in the world.[13] The old walled city, a World Heritage site, has been traditionally divided into four quarters, although the names used today—the Armenian, Christian, Jewish, and Muslim Quarters—were introduced in the early 19th century.[14] The Old City was nominated for inclusion on the List of World Heritage in Danger by Jordan in 1982.[15]

Today, the status of Jerusalem remains one of the core issues in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. During the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, West Jerusalem was among the areas captured and later annexed by Israel, while East Jerusalem was captured by Jordan. Israel captured East Jerusalem during the 1967 Six-Day War and subsequently annexed it. Currently, Israel's Basic Law refers to Jerusalem as the country's "undivided capital". The international community has rejected the annexation as illegal and treats East Jerusalem as Palestinian territory held by Israel under military occupation.[16][17][18][19] The international community does not recognize Jerusalem as Israel's capital, and the city hosts no foreign embassies.

According to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics, 208,000 Palestinians live in East Jerusalem, which is sought by the Palestinian Authority as a future capital of a future Palestinian state.[20][21][22]

All branches of the Israeli government are located in Jerusalem, including the Knesset (Israel's parliament), the residences of the Prime Minister and President, and the Supreme Court. Jerusalem is home to the Hebrew University and to the Israel Museum with its Shrine of the Book. The Jerusalem Biblical Zoo has ranked consistently as Israel's top tourist attraction for Israelis.[23][24]



A city called Rušalimum or Urušalimum (Foundation of Shalem) [25] appears in ancient Egyptian records as the first two references to Jerusalem, in c. 2000 BCE and c. 1330 BCE respectively.[26] [27] The form Yerushalayim (Jerusalem) first appears in the Bible, in the book of Joshua. This form has the appearance of a portmanteau (blend) of Yireh (an abiding place of the fear and the service of God) [28] and the original root S-L-M and is not a simple phonetic evolution of the form in the Amarna letters. The meaning of the common root S-L-M is unknown but is thought to refer to either "peace" (Salam or Shalom in modern Arabic and Hebrew) or Shalim, the god of dusk in the Canaanite religion.[29][30][31]

Typically the ending -im indicates the plural in Hebrew grammar and -ayim the dual, thus leading to the suggestion that the name refers to the fact that the city sits on two hills.[32][33] However the pronunciation of the last syllable as -ayim appears to be a late development, which had not yet appeared at the time of the Septuagint.

The tradition names the oldest settled neighborhood of Jerusalem, the City of David.[citation needed] "Zion" initially referred to part of the city, but later came to signify the city as a whole and to represent the biblical Land of Israel. In Greek and Latin the city's name was transliterated Hierosolyma (Greek: Ἱεροσόλυμα; in Greek hieròs, ιερός, means holy), although the city was renamed Aelia Capitolina for part of the Roman period of its history.

In Arabic, Jerusalem is most commonly[citation needed] known as القُدس, transliterated as al-Quds and meaning "The Holy". Official Israeli government policy mandates that أُورُشَلِيمَ, transliterated as Ūršalīm, which is the cognate of the Hebrew and English names, be used as the Arabic language name for the city in conjunction with القُدس. أُورُشَلِيمَ-القُدس‎.[34]



Given the city's central position in both Israeli nationalism (Zionism) and Palestinian nationalism, the selectivity required to summarise more than 5,000 years of inhabited history is often[35][36] influenced by ideological bias or background (see Historiography and nationalism). For example, the Jewish periods of the city's history are important to Israeli nationalists (Zionists), whose discourse suggests that modern Jews descend from the Israelites and Maccabees,[37][38] whilst the Islamic, Christian and other non-Jewish periods of the city's history are important to Palestinian nationalism, whose discourse suggests that modern Palestinians descend from all the different peoples who have lived in the region.[39][40] As a result, both sides claim the history of the city has been politicized by the other in order to strengthen their relative claims to the city,[35][35][36][41][42] and that this is borne out by the different focuses the different writers place on the various events and eras in the city's history.

Overview of Jerusalem's historical periods

Ancient period

Stepped Stone Structure, City of Jebus

Ceramic evidence indicates occupation of the City of David, within present-day Jerusalem, as far back as the Copper Age (c. 4th millennium BCE),[13][43] with evidence of a permanent settlement during the early Bronze Age (c. 3000–2800 BCE).[43][44] The Execration Texts (c. 19th century BCE), which refer to a city called Roshlamem or Rosh-ramen[43] and the Amarna letters (c. 14th century BCE) may be the earliest mention of the city.[45][46] Some archaeologists, including Kathleen Kenyon, believe Jerusalem[47] as a city was founded by Northwest Semitic people with organized settlements from around 2600 BCE. According to Jewish tradition, the city was founded by Shem and Eber, ancestors of Abraham. In the biblical account, Jerusalem ("Salem") when first mentioned is ruled by Melchizedek, an ally of Abraham (identified with Shem in legend). Later, in the time of Joshua, Jerusalem lay within territory allocated to the tribe of Benjamin (Joshua 18:28), but continued to be under the independent control of the Jebusites until it was conquered by David and made into the capital of the united Kingdom of Israel (c. 11th century BCE).[48][49][v] Recent excavations of a Large Stone Structure and a nearby Stepped Stone Structure are widely believed[by whom?] to be the remains of King David's palace. The excavations have been interpreted by some archaeologists as lending credence to the biblical narrative, while others disagree.[50]

According to Hebrew scripture, King David reigned for 40 years. The generally accepted estimate of the conclusion of this reign is 970 BCE. The Bible records that David was succeeded by his son Solomon,[51] who built the Holy Temple on Mount Moriah. Solomon's Temple (later known as the First Temple), went on to play a pivotal role in Jewish history as the repository of the Ark of the Covenant.[52] For more than 400 years, until the Babylonian conquest in 587 BCE, Jerusalem was the political capital of the united Kingdom of Israel and then the Kingdom of Judah. During this period, known as the First Temple Period,[53] the Temple was the religious center of the Israelites.[54] On Solomon's death (c. 930 BCE), the ten northern tribes split off to form the Kingdom of Israel. Under the leadership of the House of David and Solomon, Jerusalem remained the capital of the Kingdom of Judah.[55]

When the Assyrians conquered the Kingdom of Israel in 722 BCE, Jerusalem was strengthened by a great influx of refugees from the northern kingdom. The First Temple period ended around 586 BCE, as the Babylonians conquered Judah and Jerusalem, and laid waste to Solomon's Temple.[53] In 538 BCE, after 50 years of Babylonian captivity, Persian King Cyrus the Great invited the Jews to return to Judah to rebuild the Temple.[56] Construction of the Second Temple was completed in 516 BCE, during the reign of Darius the Great, 70 years after the destruction of the First Temple.[57][58] In about 445 BCE, King Artaxerxes I of Persia issued a decree allowing the city and the walls to be rebuilt.[59] Jerusalem resumed its role as capital of Judah and center of Jewish worship.

Classical antiquity

When Macedonian ruler Alexander the Great conquered the Persian Empire, Jerusalem and Judea came under Macedonian control, eventually falling to the Ptolemaic dynasty under Ptolemy I. In 198 BCE, Ptolemy V lost Jerusalem and Judea to the Seleucids under Antiochus III. The Seleucid attempt to recast Jerusalem as a Hellenized city-state came to a head in 168 BCE with the successful Maccabean revolt of Mattathias and his five sons against Antiochus Epiphanes, and their establishment of the Hasmonean Kingdom in 152 BCE with Jerusalem again as its capital. In 63 BCE, Pompey the Great intervened in a Hasmonean struggle for the throne and captured Jerusalem, incorporating Judea into the Roman Republic.[60]

Roman siege and destruction of Jerusalem (David Roberts, 1850)

As Rome became stronger it installed Herod as a Jewish client king. Herod the Great, as he was known, devoted himself to developing and beautifying the city. He built walls, towers and palaces, and expanded the Temple Mount, buttressing the courtyard with blocks of stone weighing up to 100 tons. Under Herod, the area of the Temple Mount doubled in size.[51][61][62] Shortly after Herod's death, in 6 CE Judea came under direct Roman rule as the Iudaea Province,[63] although Herod's descendants through Agrippa II remained client kings of neighbouring territories until 96 CE. Roman rule over Jerusalem and the region began to be challenged with the First Jewish–Roman War, which resulted in the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE. Jerusalem once again served as the capital of Judea during the three-year rebellion known as the Bar Kokhba revolt, beginning in 132 CE. The Romans succeeded in suppressing the revolt in 135 CE. Emperor Hadrian romanized the city, renaming it Aelia Capitolina,[64] and banned the Jews from entering it. Hadrian renamed the entire Iudaea Province Syria Palaestina, after the biblical Philistines, in an attempt to de-Judaize the country.[65][66] The enforcement of the ban on Jews entering Aelia Capitolina continued until the 4th century CE.

In the five centuries following the Bar Kokhba revolt, the city remained under Roman then Byzantine rule. During the 4th century, the Roman Emperor Constantine I constructed Christian sites in Jerusalem, such as the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Jerusalem reached a peak in size and population at the end of the Second Temple Period, when the city covered two square kilometers (0.8 sq mi.) and had a population of 200,000.[65][67] From the days of Constantine until the 7th century, Jews were banned from Jerusalem.[68]

The eastern continuation of the Roman Empire, the Byzantine Empire, maintained control of the city for years. Within the span of a few decades, Jerusalem shifted from Byzantine to Persian rule and returned to Roman-Byzantine dominion once more. Following Sassanid Khosrau II's early 7th century push into Byzantine, advancing through Syria, Sassanid Generals Shahrbaraz and Shahin attacked the Byzantine-controlled city of Jerusalem (Persian: Dej Houdkh). They were aided by the Jews of Palestine, who had risen up against the Byzantines.[69]

In the Siege of Jerusalem (614), after 21 days of relentless siege warfare, Jerusalem was captured. The Byzantine chronicles relate that the Sassanid army and the Jews slaughtered tens of thousands of Christians in the city, an episode which has been the subject of much debate between historians.[70] The conquered city would remain in Sassanid hands for some fifteen years until the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius reconquered it in 629.[69]

Middle Ages

Dome of the Rock viewed through Cotton Gate

Jerusalem is considered the third holiest city (after Mecca and Medina) in the Sunni denomination of Islam. Among Muslims of Islam's earliest era it was referred to as Madinat bayt al-Maqdis ("City of the Temple")[71] which was restricted to the Temple Mount. The rest of the city "...was called Iliya, reflecting the Roman name given the city following the destruction of 70 c.e.: Aelia Capitolina".[72] Later the Temple Mount became known as al-Haram al-Sharif, “The Noble Sanctuary”, while the city around it became known as Bayt al-Maqdis,[73] and later still, al-Quds al-Sharif "The Noble City". The Islamization of Jerusalem began in the first year A.H. (620 CE), when Muslims were instructed to face the city while performing their daily prostrations and, according to Muslim religious tradition, Muhammad's night journey and ascension to heaven took place. After 16 months, the direction of prayer was changed to Mecca.[74] In 638 the Islamic Caliphate extended its dominion to Jerusalem.[75] With the Arab conquest, Jews were allowed back into the city.[76] The Rashidun caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab signed a treaty with Monophysite Christian Patriarch Sophronius, assuring him that Jerusalem's Christian holy places and population would be protected under Muslim rule.[77] When led to pray at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, the holiest site for Christians, the caliph Umar refused to pray in the church so that Muslims would not request converting the church to a mosque. He prayed outside the church, where the Mosque of Umar (Omar) stands to this day, opposite the entrance to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. According to the Gaullic bishop Arculf, who lived in Jerusalem from 679 to 688, the Mosque of Umar was a rectangular wooden structure built over ruins which could accommodate 3,000 worshipers.[78] When the Muslims went to Bayt Al-Maqdes for the first time, They searched for the site of the Far Away Holy Mosque (Al-Masjed Al-Aqsa) that was mentioned in Quran and Hadith according to Islamic beliefs. According to Islamic legend, they found the site full of rubbish, they cleaned it and started using it for prayers thereafter.[citation needed] The Umayyad caliph Abd al-Malik commissioned the construction of the Dome of the Rock in the late 7th century.[79] The 10th century historian al-Muqaddasi writes that Abd al-Malik built the shrine in order to compete in grandeur with Jerusalem's monumental churches.[78] Over the next four hundred years Jerusalem's prominence diminished as Arab powers in the region jockeyed for control.[80]

Medieval illustration of capture of Jerusalem during the First Crusade, 1099

In 1099, The Fatimid ruler expelled the native Christian population before Jerusalem was conquered by the Crusaders, who massacred most of its Muslim and Jewish inhabitants when they took the solidly defended city by assault, after a period of siege; later the Crusaders created the Kingdom of Jerusalem. By early June 1099 Jerusalem’s population had declined from 70,000 to less than 30,000.[81]

In 1187, the city was wrested from the Crusaders by Saladin who permitted Jews and Muslims to return and settle in the city.[82] Under the Ayyubid dynasty of Saladin, a period of huge investment began in the construction of houses, markets, public baths, and pilgrim hostels as well as the establishment of religious endowments. However, for most of the 13th century, Jerusalem declined to the status of a village due to city's fall of strategic value and Ayyubid internecine struggles.[83]

In 1244, Jerusalem was sacked by the Khwarezmian Tartars, who decimated the city's Christian population and drove out the Jews.[84] The Khwarezmian Tartars were driven out by the Ayyubids in 1247. From 1250 to 1517, Jerusalem was ruled by the Mamluks. During this period of time many clashes occurred between the Mamluks on one side and the crusaders and the Mongols on the other side. The area also suffered from many earthquakes and black plague.

Early modern period

David's Citadel and the Ottoman walls

In 1517, Jerusalem and environs fell to the Ottoman Turks, who generally remained in control until 1917.[82] Jerusalem enjoyed a prosperous period of renewal and peace under Suleiman the Magnificent – including the rebuilding of magnificent walls around the Old City. Throughout much of Ottoman rule, Jerusalem remained a provincial, if religiously important center, and did not straddle the main trade route between Damascus and Cairo.[85] The English reference book Modern history or the present state of all nations written in 1744 stated that "Jerusalem is still reckoned the capital city of Palestine".[86]

The Ottomans brought many innovations: modern postal systems run by the various consulates; the use of the wheel for modes of transportation; stagecoach and carriage, the wheelbarrow and the cart; and the oil-lantern, among the first signs of modernization in the city.[87] In the mid 19th century, the Ottomans constructed the first paved road from Jaffa to Jerusalem, and by 1892 the railroad had reached the city.[87]

Modern period

Ben-Zakai Synagogue in 1893

With the annexation of Jerusalem by Muhammad Ali of Egypt in 1831, foreign missions and consulates began to establish a foothold in the city. In 1836, Ibrahim Pasha allowed Jerusalem's Jewish residents to restore four major synagogues, among them the Hurva.[88] In the 1834 Arab revolt in Palestine, Qasim al-Ahmad led his forces from Nablus and attacked Jerusalem, aided by the Abu Ghosh clan, entered the city on 31 May 1834. The Christians and Jews of Jerusalem were subjected to attacks. Ibrahim's Egyptian army routed Qasim's forces in Jerusalem the following month.[89]

Ottoman rule was reinstated in 1840, but many Egyptian Muslims remained in Jerusalem and Jews from Algiers and North Africa began to settle in the city in growing numbers.[88] In the 1840s and 1850s, the international powers began a tug-of-war in Palestine as they sought to extend their protection over the region's religious minorities, a struggle carried out mainly through consular representatives in Jerusalem.[90] According to the Prussian consul, the population in 1845 was 16,410, with 7,120 Jews, 5,000 Muslims, 3,390 Christians, 800 Turkish soldiers and 100 Europeans.[88] The volume of Christian pilgrims increased under the Ottomans, doubling the city's population around Easter time.[91]

In the 1860s, new neighborhoods began to develop outside the Old City walls to house pilgrims and relieve the intense overcrowding and poor sanitation inside the city. The Russian Compound and Mishkenot Sha'ananim were founded in 1860.[92] In 1867 an American Missionary reports an estimated population of Jerusalem of 'above' 15,000, with 4,000 to 5,000 Jews and 6,000 Muslims. Every year there were 5,000 to 6,000 Russian Christian Pilgrims.[93]

British Mandate

General Edmund Allenby enters the Old City of Jerusalem on 11 December 1917

In 1917 after the Battle of Jerusalem, the British Army, led by General Edmund Allenby, captured the city,[94] and in 1922, the League of Nations at the Conference of Lausanne entrusted the United Kingdom to administer the Mandate for Palestine, the neighbouring mandate of Transjordan to the east across the River Jordan, and the Iraq Mandate beyond it.

From 1922 to 1948 the total population of the city rose from 52,000 to 165,000 with two thirds of Jews and one-third of Arabs (Muslims and Christians).[95] The situation between Arabs and Jews in Palestine was not quiet. In Jerusalem, in particular, riots occurred in 1920 and in 1929. Under the British, new garden suburbs were built in the western and northern parts of the city[96][97] and institutions of higher learning such as the Hebrew University were founded.[98]

Division and reunification 1948–1967

Israeli policemen meet a Jordanian Legionnaire near the Mandelbaum Gate

As the British Mandate for Palestine was expiring, the 1947 UN Partition Plan recommended "the creation of a special international regime in the City of Jerusalem, constituting it as a corpus separatum under the administration of the UN."[99] The international regime (which also included the city of Bethlehem) was to remain in force for a period of ten years, whereupon a referendum was to be held in which the residents were to decide the future regime of their city. However, this plan was not implemented, as the 1948 war erupted, while the British withdrew from Palestine and Israel declared its independence.[100] The war led to displacement of Arab and Jewish populations in the city. The 1,500 residents of the Jewish Quarter of the Old City were expelled and a few hundred taken prisoner when the Arab Legion captured the quarter on 28 May.[101][102] The Arab Legion also attacked Western Jerusalem with snipers.[103] Arab residents of Katamon, Talbiya, and the German Colony were driven from their homes. By the end of the war Israel had control of 12 of Jerusalem's 15 Arab residential quarters. An estimated minimum of 30,000 people had become refugees.[104][105]

The war of 1948 resulted in Jerusalem being divided, with the old walled city lying entirely on the Jordanian side of the line. A no-man's land between East and West Jerusalem came into being in November 1948: Moshe Dayan, commander of the Israeli forces in Jerusalem, met with his Jordanian counterpart Abdullah el Tell in a deserted house in Jerusalem’s Musrara neighborhood and marked out their respective positions: Israel’s position in red and Jordan's in green. This rough map, which was not meant as an official one, became the final line in the 1949 Armistice Agreements, which divided the city and left Mount Scopus as an Israeli exclave inside East Jerusalem.[106] Barbed wire and concrete barriers ran down the center of the city, passing close by Jaffa Gate on the western side of the old walled city, and a crossing point was established at Mandelbaum Gate slightly to the north of the old walled city. Military skirmishes frequently threatened the ceasefire. After the establishment of the State of Israel, Jerusalem was declared its capital. Jordan formally annexed East Jerusalem in 1950, subjecting it to Jordanian law.[100][107] Only the United Kingdom and Pakistan formally recognized such annexation, which, in regard to Jerusalem, was on a de facto basis.[108] Also, it is dubious if Pakistan recognized Jordan's annexation.[109][110]

After 1948, since the old walled city in its entirety was to the east of the armistice line, Jordan was able to take control of all the holy places therein, and contrary to the terms of the armistice agreement, denied Jews access to Jewish holy sites, many of which were desecrated. Jordan allowed only very limited access to Christian holy sites.[111] Of the 58 synagogues in the Old City, half were either razed or converted to stables and hen-houses over the course of the next 19 years, including the Hurva and the Tiferet Yisrael Synagogue. The Jewish Cemetery on the Mount of Olives was desecrated, with gravestones used as to build roads and latrines.[112] Many other historic and religiously significant buildings were demolished and replaced by modern structures.[113] During this period, the Dome of the Rock and Al-Aqsa Mosque underwent major renovations.[114] The Jewish Quarter became known as Harat al-Sharaf, and was resettled with refugees from the 1948 war. In 1966 the Jordanian authorities relocated 500 of them to the Shua'fat refugee camp as part of plans to redevelop the area.[115]

Map of East Jerusalem

In 1967, despite Israeli pleas that Jordan remain neutral during the Six-Day War, Jordanian forces attacked Israeli-held West Jerusalem on the war's second day. After hand to hand fighting between Israeli and Jordanian soldiers on the Temple Mount, the Israel Defense Force captured East Jerusalem, along with the entire West Bank. East Jerusalem, along with some nearby West Bank territory, was subsequently annexed by Israel. On 27 June 1967, a few weeks after the war ended, Israel extended its law and jurisdiction to East Jerusalem and some surrounding area, incorporating it into the Jerusalem Municipality.[116] Although at the time Israel informed the United Nations that its measures constituted administrative and municipal integration rather than annexation, later rulings by the Israeli Supreme Court indicated that the eastern sector of Jerusalem had become part of Israel. In 1980, Israel passed the Jerusalem Law as an addition to its Basic Laws, which declared Jerusalem the "complete and united" capital of Israel.[117]

Jewish and Christian access to the holy sites inside the old walled city was restored. Israel left the Temple Mount under the jurisdiction of an Islamic waqf, but opened the Western Wall to Jewish access. The Moroccan Quarter, which was located adjacent to the Western Wall, was evacuated and razed[118] to make way for a plaza for those visiting the wall.[119] In the following days, Arabs living in the Jewish Quarter were also evicted. On April 18, 1968, the Israeli Treasury Ministry official expropriated the land of the former Moroccan Quarter and the Jewish Quarter for public use, and offered 200 Jordanian dinars to each displaced Arab family.

Israel subsequently built Jewish neighbourhoods in East Jerusalem, and settled Jews in Arab neighborhoods.[120] Following the annexation, Israel conducted a census of Arab residents in the areas annexed. Residents present at the time of the census were given permanent residency status, with the option of applying for citizenship.

The annexation of East Jerusalem was met with international criticism. Following the passing of the Jerusalem Law, the United Nations Security Council passed a resolution that declared the law "a violation of international law" and requested all member states to withdraw all remaining embassies from the city.[121]


The status of the city, and especially its holy places, remains a core issue in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. The Israeli government has approved building plans in the Muslim Quarter of the Old City[122] in order to expand the Jewish presence in East Jerusalem, while prominent Islamic leaders have made claims that Jews have no historical connection to Jerusalem, alleging that the 2,500-year old Western Wall was constructed as part of a mosque.[123] Palestinians envision East Jerusalem as the capital of a future Palestinian state,[124][125] and the city's borders have been the subject of bilateral talks. A strong longing for peace is symbolized by the Peace Monument (with farming tools made out of scrap weapons), facing the Old City wall near the former Israeli-Jordanian border and quoting from the book of Isaiah in Arabic and Hebrew.[126]


Jerusalem is situated on the southern spur of a plateau in the Judean Mountains, which include the Mount of Olives (East) and Mount Scopus (North East). The elevation of the Old City is approximately 760 m (2,490 ft).[127] The whole of Jerusalem is surrounded by valleys and dry riverbeds (wadis). The Kidron, Hinnom, and Tyropoeon Valleys intersect in an area just south of the Old City of Jerusalem.[128] The Kidron Valley runs to the east of the Old City and separates the Mount of Olives from the city proper. Along the southern side of old Jerusalem is the Valley of Hinnom, a steep ravine associated in biblical eschatology with the concept of Gehenna or Hell.[129] The Tyropoeon Valley commenced in the northwest near the Damascus Gate, ran south-southeasterly through the center of the Old City down to the Pool of Siloam, and divided the lower part into two hills, the Temple Mount to the east, and the rest of the city to the west (the lower and the upper cities described by Josephus). Today, this valley is hidden by debris that has accumulated over the centuries.[128] In biblical times, Jerusalem was surrounded by forests of almond, olive and pine trees. Over centuries of warfare and neglect, these forests were destroyed. Farmers in the Jerusalem region thus built stone terraces along the slopes to hold back the soil, a feature still very much in evidence in the Jerusalem landscape.[citation needed]

Water supply has always been a major problem in Jerusalem, as attested to by the intricate network of ancient aqueducts, tunnels, pools and cisterns found in the city.[130]

Jerusalem is 60 kilometers (37 mi)[131] east of Tel Aviv and the Mediterranean Sea. On the opposite side of the city, approximately 35 kilometers (22 mi)[132] away, is the Dead Sea, the lowest body of water on Earth. Neighboring cities and towns include Bethlehem and Beit Jala to the south, Abu Dis and Ma'ale Adumim to the east, Mevaseret Zion to the west, and Ramallah and Giv'at Ze'ev to the north.[133][134][135]


The city is characterized by a Mediterranean climate, with hot, dry summers, and mild, wet winters. Snow flurries usually occur once or twice a winter, although the city experiences heavy snowfall every three to four years, on average, with short-lived accumulation. January is the coldest month of the year, with an average temperature of 9.1 °C (48.4 °F); July and August are the hottest months, with an average temperature of 24.2 °C (75.6 °F), and the summer months are usually rainless. The average annual precipitation is around 550 mm (22 in), with rain occurring almost entirely between October and May.[136] Jerusalem has nearly 3,400 annual sunshine hours.[citation needed]

Most of the air pollution in Jerusalem comes from vehicular traffic.[137] Many main streets in Jerusalem were not built to accommodate such a large volume of traffic, leading to traffic congestion and more carbon monoxide released into the air. Industrial pollution inside the city is sparse, but emissions from factories on the Israeli Mediterranean coast can travel eastward and settle over the city.[137][138]

Climate data for Jerusalem (1881–2007)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 23.4
Average high °C (°F) 11.8
Daily mean °C (°F) 9.1
Average low °C (°F) 6.4
Record low °C (°F) −6.7
Rainfall mm (inches) 133.2
humidity 72 69 63 58 41 44 52 57 58 56 61 69 58.3
Avg. rainy days 12.9 11.7 9.6 4.4 1.3 0 0 0 0.3 3.6 7.3 10.9 62
Sunshine hours 192.2 226.3 243.6 267.0 331.7 381.0 384.4 365.8 309.0 275.9 228.0 192.2 3,397.1
Source no. 1: Israel Meteorological Service[139][140]
Source no. 2: Hong Kong Observatory for data of sunshine hours[141]


Population of Jerusalem
Year Total
1844 15,510
1876 25,030
1896 45,420
1922 62,578
1931 90,053
1944 157,000
1948 165,000
1967 263,307
1980 407,100
1985 457,700
1990 524,400
1995 617,000
2000 657,500
2005 706,400
2010 776,000

In December 2007, Jerusalem had a population of 747,600—64% were Jewish, 32% Muslim, and 2% Christian.[3] At the end of 2005, the population density was 5,750.4 /km2 (14,893 /sq mi).[2][142] According to a study published in 2000, the percentage of Jews in the city's population had been decreasing; this was attributed to a higher Muslim birth rate, and Jewish residents leaving. The study also found that about nine percent of the Old City's 32,488 people were Jews.[143]

Kiryat Sanz, a Haredi neighborhood

In 2005, 2,850 new immigrants settled in Jerusalem, mostly from the United States, France and the former Soviet Union. In terms of the local population, the number of outgoing residents exceeds the number of incoming residents. In 2005, 16,000 left Jerusalem and only 10,000 moved in.[2] Nevertheless, the population of Jerusalem continues to rise due to the high birth rate, especially in the Haredi Jewish and Arabcommunities. Consequently, the total fertility rate in Jerusalem (4.02) is higher than in Tel Aviv (1.98) and well above the national average of 2.90. The average size of Jerusalem's 180,000 households is 3.8 people.[2]

In 2005, the total population grew by 13,000 (1.8%)—similar to Israeli national average, but the religious and ethnic composition is shifting. While 31% of the Jewish population is made up of children below the age fifteen, the figure for the Arab population is 42%.[2] This would seem to corroborate the observation that the percentage of Jews in Jerusalem has declined over the past four decades. In 1967, Jews accounted for 74 percent of the population, while the figure for 2006 is down nine percent.[144] Possible factors are the high cost of housing, fewer job opportunities and the increasingly religious character of the city, although proportionally, young Haredim are leaving in higher numbers.[citation needed] Many people are moving to the suburbs and coastal cities in search of cheaper housing and a more secular lifestyle.[145] In 2009, the percentage of Haredim in the city was increasing. As of 2009, out of 150,100 schoolchildren, 59,900 or 40% are in state-run secular and National Religious schools, while 90,200 or 60% are in Haredi schools. This correlates with the high number of children in Haredi families.[146][147]

While some Israelis see Jerusalem as poor, rundown and riddled with religious and political tension, the city has been a magnet for Palestinians, offering more jobs and opportunity than any city in the West Bank or Gaza Strip. Palestinian officials have encouraged Arabs over the years to stay in the city to maintain their claim.[148][149] Palestinians are attracted to the access to jobs, healthcare, social security, other benefits, and quality of life Israel provides to Jerusalem residents.[150] Arab residents of Jerusalem who choose not to have Israeli citizenship are granted an Israeli identity card that allows them to pass through checkpoints with relative ease and to travel throughout Israel, making it easier to find work. Residents also are entitled to the subsidized healthcare and social security benefits Israel provides its citizens. Arabs in Jerusalem can send their children to Israeli-run schools, although not every neighborhood has one, and universities. Israeli doctors and highly regarded hospitals such as Hadassah Medical Center are available to residents.[151]

Demographics and the Jewish-Arab population divide play a major role in the dispute over Jerusalem. In 1998, the Jerusalem Development Authority proposed expanding city limits to the west to include more areas heavily populated with Jews.[152]

Sheikh Jarrah, a predominantly Arab neighborhood in East Jerusalem, with the Jerusalem city center in the background.

Urban planning issues

Critics of efforts to promote a Jewish majority in Jerusalem say that government planning policies are motivated by demographic considerations and seek to limit Arab construction while promoting Jewish construction.[153] According to a World Bank report, the number of recorded building violations between 1996 and 2000 was four and half times higher in Jewish neighborhoods but four times fewer demolition orders were issued in West Jerusalem than in East Jerusalem; Arabs in Jerusalem were less likely to receive construction permits than Jews, and "the authorities are much more likely to take action against Palestinian violators" than Jewish violators of the permit process.[154] In recent years, private Jewish foundations have received permission from the government to develop projects on disputed lands, such as the City of David archaeological park in the 60% Arab neighborhood of Silwan (adjacent to the Old City),[155] and the Museum of Tolerance on Mamilla cemetery (adjacent to Zion Square).[154][156] Opponents view such urban planning moves as geared towards the Judaization of Jerusalem.[157][158][159]

Local government

Safra Square, Jerusalem City Hall

The Jerusalem City Council is a body of 31 elected members headed by the mayor, who serves a five-year term and appoints eight deputies. The former mayor of Jerusalem, Uri Lupolianski, was elected in 2003.[160] In the November 2008 city elections, Nir Barkat came out as the winner and is now the mayor. Apart from the mayor and his deputies, City Council members receive no salaries and work on a voluntary basis. The longest-serving Jerusalem mayor was Teddy Kollek, who spent 28 years—-six consecutive terms-—in office. Most of the meetings of the Jerusalem City Council are private, but each month, it holds a session that is open to the public.[160] Within the city council, religious political parties form an especially powerful faction, accounting for the majority of its seats.[161] The headquarters of the Jerusalem Municipality and the mayor's office are at Safra Square (Kikar Safra) on Jaffa Road. The municipal complex, comprising two modern buildings and ten renovated historic buildings surrounding a large plaza, opened in 1993.[162] The city falls under the Jerusalem District, with Jerusalem as the district's capital.

Political status

The Knesset building in Givat Ram
Israeli Foreign Ministry building

Under the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine passed by the UN in 1947, Jerusalem was envisaged to become a corpus separatum administered by the United Nations. While the Jewish leaders accepted the partition plan, the Arab leadership (the Arab Higher Committee in Palestine and the Arab League) rejected it, opposing any partition.[163][164] In the war of 1948, the western part of the city was occupied by forces of the nascent state of Israel, while the eastern part was occupied by Jordan. The international community largely considers the legal status of Jerusalem to derive from the partition plan, and correspondingly refuses to recognize Israeli sovereignty in the city. On 5 December 1949, the State of Israel's first Prime Minister, David Ben-Gurion, proclaimed Jerusalem as Israel's capital,[165] and since then all branches of the Israeli governmentlegislative, judicial, and executive—have resided there, except for the Ministry of Defense, located at HaKirya in Tel Aviv.[166] At the time of the proclamation, Jerusalem was divided between Israel and Jordan and thus only West Jerusalem was proclaimed Israel's capital. Following the Six-Day War, Israel annexed East Jerusalem, and a provision stipulating that the city was the united capital of Israel was added to the country's Basic Law.[167] The status of a "united Jerusalem" as Israel's "eternal capital"[165][168] has been a matter of immense controversy within the international community. Although some countries maintain consulates in Jerusalem, all embassies are located outside the city proper, mostly in Tel Aviv.[169][170] Due to the non-recognition of Jerusalem as Israel's capital, some non-Israeli press use Tel Aviv as a metonym for Israel.[171][172][173][174]

The non-binding United Nations Security Council Resolution 478, passed on 20 August 1980, declared that the Basic Law was "null and void and must be rescinded forthwith". Member states were advised to withdraw their diplomatic representation from Jerusalem as a punitive measure. Most of the remaining countries with embassies in Jerusalem complied with the resolution by relocating them to Tel Aviv, where many embassies already resided prior to Resolution 478. Currently, there are no embassies located within the city limits of Jerusalem, although there are embassies in Mevaseret Zion, on the outskirts of Jerusalem, and four consulates in the city itself.[170] In 1995, the United States Congress had planned to move its embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem with the passage of the Jerusalem Embassy Act.[175] However, U.S. presidents have argued that Congressional resolutions regarding the status of Jerusalem are merely advisory. The Constitution reserves foreign relations as an executive power, and as such, the United States embassy is still in Tel Aviv.[176]

On 28 October 2009, United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon warned that Jerusalem must be the capital of both Israel and Palestine if peace is to be achieved.[177]

The Palestinian National Authority views East Jerusalem as occupied territory according to United Nations Security Council Resolution 242. The Palestinian Authority claims all of East Jerusalem, including the Temple Mount, as the capital of the State of Palestine, and claims that West Jerusalem is also subject to permanent status negotiations. However, it has stated that it would be willing to consider alternative solutions, such as making Jerusalem an open city.[178]

In 2010, Israel approved legislation giving Jerusalem the highest national priority status in Israel. The law prioritized construction throughout the city, and offered grants and tax benefits to residents to make housing, infrastructure, education, employment, business, tourism, and cultural events more affordable. Communications Minister Moshe Kahlon said that the bill sent "a clear, unequivocal political message that Jerusalem will not be divided", and that "all those within the Palestinian and international community who expect the current Israeli government to accept any demands regarding Israel's sovereignty over it's [sic] capital are mistaken and misleading".[179]

Government precinct and national institutions

Beit Aghion, the official residence of the Prime Minister

Most national institutions of Israel are located in Jerusalem. The city is home to the Knesset,[180] the Supreme Court,[181] the official residences of the President and Prime Minister, the Cabinet, all ministries except the Ministry of Defense, and the Bank of Israel. Prior to the creation of the State of Israel, Jerusalem served as the administrative capital of the British Mandate for Palestine, which included present-day Israel and Jordan.[182] From 1949 until 1967, West Jerusalem served as Israel's capital, but was not recognized as such internationally because UN General Assembly Resolution 194 envisaged Jerusalem as an international city. As a result of the Six-Day War in 1967, the whole of Jerusalem came under Israeli control. On 27 June 1967, the government of Levi Eshkol extended Israeli law and jurisdiction to East Jerusalem, but agreed that administration of the Temple Mount compound would be maintained by the Jordanian waqf, under the Jordanian Ministry of Religious Endowments.[183] In 1988, Israel ordered the closure of Orient House, home of the Arab Studies Society, but also the headquarters of the Palestine Liberation Organization, for security reasons. The building reopened in 1992 as a Palestinian guesthouse.[184][185] The Oslo Accords stated that the final status of Jerusalem would be determined by negotiations with the Palestinian National Authority, which regards East Jerusalem as the capital of a future Palestinian state.[20] Mahmoud Abbas has said that any agreement that did not not include East Jerusalem as the capital of Palestine would be unacceptable,[186] while Benjamin Netanyahu has similarly stated that Jerusalem would remain the undivided capital of Israel. Due to its proximity to the city, especially the Temple Mount, Abu Dis, a Palestinian town bordering Jerusalem, has been proposed as the future capital of a Palestinian state by Israel. Israel has not incorporated Abu Dis within its security wall around Jerusalem. The Palestinian Authority has built a possible future parliament building for the Palestinian Legislative Council in the town, and all its Jerusalem Affairs Offices are also located in Abu Dis.[187]

Religious significance

The Western Wall, known as the Kotel
The al-Aqsa Mosque, a sacred site for Muslims

Jerusalem has been sacred to Judaism for roughly 3000 years, to Christianity for around 2000 years, and to Islam for approximately 1400 years. The 2000 Statistical Yearbook of Jerusalem lists 1204 synagogues, 158 churches, and 73 mosques within the city.[188] Despite efforts to maintain peaceful religious coexistence, some sites, such as the Temple Mount, have been a continuous source of friction and controversy.

Church of the Holy Sepulchre

Jerusalem has been sacred to the Jews since King David proclaimed it his capital in the 10th century BCE. Jerusalem was the site of Solomon's Temple and the Second Temple.[5] Although not mentioned in the Torah / Pentateuch,[189] it is mentioned in the Bible 632 times. Today, the Western Wall, a remnant of the wall surrounding the Second Temple, is a Jewish holy site second only to the Holy of Holies on the Temple Mount itself.[190] Synagogues around the world are traditionally built with the Holy Ark facing Jerusalem,[191] and Arks within Jerusalem face the "Holy of Holies".[192] As prescribed in the Mishna and codified in the Shulchan Aruch, daily prayers are recited while facing towards Jerusalem and the Temple Mount. Many Jews have "Mizrach" plaques hung on a wall of their homes to indicate the direction of prayer.[192][193]

Christianity reveres Jerusalem not only for its Old Testament history but also for its significance in the life of Jesus. According to the New Testament, Jesus was brought to Jerusalem soon after his birth[194] and later in his life cleansed the Second Temple.[195] The Cenacle, believed to be the site of Jesus' Last Supper, is located on Mount Zion in the same building that houses the Tomb of King David.[196][197] Another prominent Christian site in Jerusalem is Golgotha, the site of the crucifixion. The Gospel of John describes it as being located outside Jerusalem,[198] but recent archaeological evidence suggests Golgotha is a short distance from the Old City walls, within the present-day confines of the city.[199] The land currently occupied by the Church of the Holy Sepulchre is considered one of the top candidates for Golgotha and thus has been a Christian pilgrimage site for the past two thousand years.[199][200][201]

Jerusalem is considered by some as the third-holiest city in Sunni Islam.[6] For approximately a year, before it was permanently switched to the Kabaa in Mecca, the qibla (direction of prayer) for Muslims was Jerusalem.[202] The city's lasting place in Islam, however, is primarily due to Muhammad's Night of Ascension (c. CE 620). Muslims believe Muhammad was miraculously transported one night from Mecca to the Temple Mount in Jerusalem, whereupon he ascended to Heaven to meet previous prophets of Islam.[203][204] The first verse in the Qur'an's Surat al-Isra notes the destination of Muhammad's journey as al-Aqsa (the farthest) mosque,[205] in assumed reference to the location in Jerusalem. Today, the Temple Mount is topped by two Islamic landmarks intended to commemorate the event—al-Aqsa Mosque, derived from the name mentioned in the Qur'an, and the Dome of the Rock, which stands over the Foundation Stone, from which Muslims believe Muhammad ascended to Heaven.[206]


The Shrine of the Book, housing the Dead Sea Scrolls, at the Israel Museum

Although Jerusalem is known primarily for its religious significance, the city is also home to many artistic and cultural venues. The Israel Museum attracts nearly one million visitors a year, approximately one-third of them tourists.[207] The 20-acre (81,000 m2) museum complex comprises several buildings featuring special exhibits and extensive collections of Judaica, archaeological findings, and Israeli and European art. The Dead Sea scrolls, discovered in the mid-20th century in the Qumran caves near the Dead Sea, are housed in the Museum's Shrine of the Book.[208]

The Youth Wing, which mounts changing exhibits and runs an extensive art education program, is visited by 100,000 children a year. The museum has a large outdoor sculpture garden, and a scale-model of the Second Temple.[207] The Rockefeller Museum, located in East Jerusalem, was the first archaeological museum in the Middle East. It was built in 1938 during the British Mandate.[209][210]

The Jerusalem Theater at night

Yad Vashem, Israel's national memorial to the victims of the Holocaust, houses the world's largest library of Holocaust-related information,[211] with an estimated 100,000 books and articles. The complex contains a state-of-the-art museum that explores the genocide of the Jews through exhibits that focus on the personal stories of individuals and families killed in the Holocaust and an art gallery featuring the work of artists who perished. Yad Vashem also commemorates the 1.5 million Jewish children murdered by the Nazis, and honors the Righteous among the Nations.[212] The Museum on the Seam, which explores issues of coexistence through art, is situated on the road dividing eastern and western Jerusalem.[213]

The Jerusalem Symphony Orchestra, established in the 1940s,[214] has appeared around the world.[214] Other arts facilities include the International Convention Center (Binyanei HaUma) near the entrance to city, where the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra plays, the Jerusalem Cinemateque, the Gerard Behar Center (formerly Beit Ha'am) in downtown Jerusalem, the Jerusalem Music Center in Yemin Moshe,[215] and the Targ Music Center in Ein Kerem. The Israel Festival, featuring indoor and outdoor performances by local and international singers, concerts, plays and street theater, has been held annually since 1961; for the past 25 years, Jerusalem has been the major organizer of this event. The Jerusalem Theater in the Talbiya neighborhood hosts over 150 concerts a year, as well as theater and dance companies and performing artists from overseas.[216] The Khan Theater, located in a caravansarai opposite the old Jerusalem train station, is the city's only repertoire theater.[217] The station itself has become a venue for cultural events in recent years, as the site of Shav'ua Hasefer, an annual week-long book fair, and outdoor music performances.[218] The Jerusalem Film Festival is held annually, screening Israeli and international films.[219]

The Ticho House, in downtown Jerusalem, houses the paintings of Anna Ticho and the Judaica collections of her husband, an ophthalmologist who opened Jerusalem's first eye clinic in this building in 1912.[220] Al-Hoash, established in 2004, is a gallery for the preservation of Palestinian art.[221]

Jerusalem was declared the Capital of Arab Culture in 2009.[222] Jerusalem is home to the Palestinian National Theatre, which engages in cultural preservation as well as innovation, working to rekindle Palestinian interest in the arts.[223] The Edward Said National Conservatory of Music sponsors the Palestine Youth Orchestra[224] which toured the Gulf states and other Middle East countries in 2009.[225] The Islamic Museum on the Temple Mount, established in 1923, houses many Islamic artifacts, from tiny kohl flasks and rare manuscripts to giant marble columns.[226] While Israel approves and financially supports Arab cultural activities, Arab Capital of Culture events were banned because they were sponsored by the Palestine National Authority.[222] In 2009, a four-day culture festival was held in the Beit 'Anan suburb of Jerusalem, attended by more than 15,000 people[227]

The Abraham Fund[228] and the Jerusalem Intercultural Center] (JICC)[229] promote joint Jewish-Palestinian cultural projects. The Jerusalem Center for Middle Eastern Music and Dance[230] is open to Arabs and Jews, and offers workshops on Jewish-Arab dialogue through the arts.[231] The Jewish-Arab Youth Orchestra performs both European classical and Middle Eastern music.[232]

In 2006, a 38 km (24 mi) Jerusalem Trail was opened, a hiking trail that goes to many cultural sites and national parks in and around Jerusalem.

In 2008, the Tolerance Monument, an outdoor sculpture by Czesław Dźwigaj, was erected on a hill between Jewish Armon HaNetziv and Arab Jebl Mukaber as a symbol of Jerusalem's quest for peace.[233]


Hadar Mall, Talpiot
Har Hotzvim high-tech park

Historically, Jerusalem's economy was supported almost exclusively by religious pilgrims, as it was located far from the major ports of Jaffa and Gaza.[234] Jerusalem's religious landmarks today remain the top draw for foreign visitors, with the majority of tourists visiting the Western Wall and the Old City,[2] but in the past half-century it has become increasingly clear that Jerusalem's providence cannot solely be sustained by its religious significance.[234]

Although many statistics indicate economic growth in the city, since 1967 East Jerusalem has lagged behind the development of West Jerusalem.[234] Nevertheless, the percentage of households with employed persons is higher for Arab households (76.1%) than for Jewish households (66.8%). The unemployment rate in Jerusalem (8.3%) is slightly better than the national average (9.0%), although the civilian labor force accounted for less than half of all persons fifteen years or older—lower in comparison to that of Tel Aviv (58.0%) and Haifa (52.4%).[2] Poverty in the city has increased dramatically in recent years; between 2001 and 2007, the number of people below the poverty threshold increased by forty percent.[citation needed] In 2006, the average monthly income for a worker in Jerusalem was NIS5,940 (US$1,410), NIS1,350 less than that for a worker in Tel Aviv.[citation needed] During the British Mandate, a law was passed requiring all buildings to be constructed of Jerusalem stone in order to preserve the unique historic and aesthetic character of the city.[97] Complementing this building code, which is still in force, is the discouragement of heavy industry in Jerusalem; only about 2.2% of Jerusalem's land is zoned for "industry and infrastructure." By comparison, the percentage of land in Tel Aviv zoned for industry and infrastructure is twice as high, and in Haifa, seven times as high.[2] Only 8.5% of the Jerusalem District work force is employed in the manufacturing sector, which is half the national average (15.8%). Higher than average percentages are employed in education (17.9% vs. 12.7%); health and welfare (12.6% vs. 10.7%); community and social services (6.4% vs. 4.7%); hotels and restaurants (6.1% vs. 4.7%); and public administration (8.2% vs. 4.7%).[235] Although Tel Aviv remains Israel's financial center, a growing number of high tech companies are moving to Jerusalem, providing 12,000 jobs in 2006.[236] Northern Jerusalem's Har Hotzvim industrial park is home to some of Israel's major corporations, among them Intel, Teva Pharmaceutical Industries, Ophir Optronics and ECI Telecom. Expansion plans for the park envision one hundred businesses, a fire station, and a school, covering an area of 530,000 m2 (130 acres).[237]

Since the establishment of the State of Israel, the national government has remained a major player in Jerusalem's economy. The government, centered in Jerusalem, generates a large number of jobs, and offers subsidies and incentives for new business initiatives and start-ups.[234]

In 2010, Jerusalem was named the top leisure travel city in Africa and the Middle East by Travel + Leisure magazine.[238]


The airport nearest to Jerusalem is Atarot Airport, between Ramallah and Jerusalem, which was used for domestic flights until its closure in 2001, after the Second Intifada.[239] Since then it has been under the control of the Israel Defense Forces. All air traffic from Atarot was rerouted to Ben Gurion International Airport, Israel's largest and busiest airport, which serves nine million passengers annually.[240]

Egged Bus Cooperative, the second-largest bus company in the world,[241] handles most of the local and intercity bus service. The Dan serves the Bnei Brak-Jerusalem route along with Egged, and Superbus serves the routes between Jerusalem, Modi'in Illit, and Modi'in-Maccabim-Re'ut. The companies operate from Jerusalem Central Bus Station, the city's main bus depot, located on Jaffa Road near the western entrance to Jerusalem from Highway 1. Arab neighborhoods in East Jerusalem and routes between Jerusalem and locations in the West Bank are served by the East Jerusalem Central Bus Station, a transportation hub located near the Old City's Damascus Gate. The Jerusalem Light Rail initiated service in August 2011. According to plans, the first rail line will be capable of transporting an estimated 200,000 people daily, and has 23 stops. The route is from Pisgat Ze'ev in the north via the Old City and city center to Mt. Herzl in the south.

Another work in progress[242] is a new high-speed rail line from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem, which is scheduled to be completed in 2017. Its terminus will be an underground station (80 m (262.47 ft) deep) serving the International Convention Center and the Central Bus Station,[243] and is planned to be extended eventually to Malha station. Israel Railways operates train services to Malha train station from Tel Aviv via Beit Shemesh.[244][245]

Begin Expressway is one of Jerusalem's major north-south thoroughfares; it runs on the western side of the city, merging in the north with Route 443, which continues toward Tel Aviv. Route 60 runs through the center of the city near the Green Line between East and West Jerusalem. Construction is progressing on parts of a 35-kilometer (22 mi) ring road around the city, fostering faster connection between the suburbs.[246][247] The eastern half of the project was conceptualized decades ago, but reaction to the proposed highway is still mixed.[246]


Hand in Hand, a bilingual Jewish-Arab school in Jerusalem

Jerusalem is home to several prestigious universities offering courses in Hebrew, Arabic and English. Founded in 1925, the Hebrew University of Jerusalem has been ranked among the top 100 schools in the world.[248] The Board of Governors has included such prominent Jewish intellectuals as Albert Einstein and Sigmund Freud.[98] The university has produced several Nobel laureates; recent winners associated with Hebrew University include Avram Hershko,[249] David Gross,[250] and Daniel Kahneman.[251] One of the university's major assets is the Jewish National and University Library, which houses over five million books.[252] The library opened in 1892, over three decades before the university was established, and is one of the world's largest repositories of books on Jewish subjects. Today it is both the central library of the university and the national library of Israel.[253] The Hebrew University operates three campuses in Jerusalem, on Mount Scopus, on Giv'at Ram and a medical campus at the Hadassah Ein Kerem hospital.

Al-Quds University was established in 1984[254] to serve as a flagship university for the Arab and Palestinian peoples. It describes itself as the "only Arab university in Jerusalem".[255] New York Bard College and Al-Quds University agreed to open a joint college in a building originally built to house the Palestinian Legislative Council and Yasser Arafat’s office. The college gives Master of Arts in Teaching degrees.[256] Al-Quds University resides southeast of the city proper on a 190,000 square metres (47 acres) Abu Dis campus.[254] Other institutions of higher learning in Jerusalem are the Jerusalem Academy of Music and Dance[257] and Bezalel Academy of Art and Design,[258] whose buildings are located on the campuses of the Hebrew University.

The Jerusalem College of Technology, founded in 1969, combines training in engineering and other high-tech industries with a Jewish studies program.[259] It is one of many schools in Jerusalem, from elementary school and up, that combine secular and religious studies. Numerous religious educational institutions and Yeshivot, including some of the most prestigious yeshivas, among them the Brisk, Chevron, Midrash Shmuel and Mir, are based in the city, with the Mir Yeshiva claiming to be the largest.[260] There were nearly 8,000 twelfth-grade students in Hebrew-language schools during the 2003–2004 school year.[2] However, due to the large portion of students in Haredi Jewish frameworks, only fifty-five percent of twelfth graders took matriculation exams (Bagrut) and only thirty-seven percent were eligible to graduate. Unlike public schools, many Haredi schools do not prepare students to take standardized tests.[2] To attract more university students to Jerusalem, the city has begun to offer a special package of financial incentives and housing subsidies to students who rent apartments in downtown Jerusalem.[261]

Schools for Arabs in Jerusalem and other parts of Israel have been criticized for offering a lower quality education than those catering to Israeli Jewish students.[262] While many schools in the heavily Arab East Jerusalem are filled to capacity and there have been complaints of overcrowding, the Jerusalem Municipality is currently building over a dozen new schools in the city's Arab neighborhoods.[263] Schools in Ras el-Amud and Umm Lison opened in 2008.[264] In March 2007, the Israeli government approved a 5-year plan to build 8,000 new classrooms in the city, 40 percent in the Arab sector and 28 percent in the Haredi sector. A budget of 4.6 billion shekels was allocated for this project.[265] In 2008, Jewish British philanthropists donated $3 million for the construction of schools in Arab East Jerusalem.[264] Arab high school students take the Bagrut matriculation exams, so that much of their curriculum parallels that of other Israeli high schools and includes certain Jewish subjects.[262]


Teddy Stadium, Malha

The two most popular sports are football (soccer) and basketball.[266] Beitar Jerusalem Football Club is one of the most well known in Israel. Fans include political figures who often attend its games.[267] Jerusalem's other major football team, and one of Beitar's top rivals, is Hapoel Jerusalem F.C. Whereas Beitar has been Israel State Cup champion seven times,[268] Hapoel has won the Cup only once. Beitar has won the top league six times, while Hapoel has never succeeded. Beitar plays in the more prestigious Ligat HaAl, while Hapoel is in the second division Liga Leumit. Since its opening in 1992, Teddy Kollek Stadium has been Jerusalem's primary football stadium, with a capacity of 21,600.[269]

In basketball, Hapoel Jerusalem plays in the top division. The club has won the State Cup three times, and the ULEB Cup in 2004.[270]

The popular Palestinian football team is called Jabal Al-Mokaber (since 1976) which plays in West Bank Premier League. The team hails from Mount Scopus at Jerusalem, part of the Asian Football Confederation, and plays at the Faisal Al-Husseini International Stadium at Al-Ram, across the West Bank Barrier.[271][272]

The Jerusalem Half Marathon is an annual event in which runners from all over the world compete on a course that takes in some of the city's most famous sights. In addition to the 21.0975 kilometres (13.1094 mi) Half Marathon, runners can also opt for the shorter 10 km (6.2 mi) Fun Run. Both runs start and finish at the stadium in Givat Ram.[273][274]

Notable residents

King David

Twin towns and sister cities

See List of Israeli twin towns and sister cities and List of twin towns and sister cities in the Palestinian territories

See also

Panorama of the Temple Mount, including Al-Aqsa Mosque, and Dome of the Rock, from the Mount of Olives


i.   ^ The website for Jerusalem is available in three languages—Hebrew, English, and Arabic.
ii.   ^ Jerusalem in other languages: Arabic Bibles use أورشليم Ûrshalîm (Ûrushalîm); official Arabic in Israel: أورشليم القدس, Ûrshalîm-al-Quds (combining the Biblical and common usage Arabic names)
iii.   ^ Jerusalem is the capital under Israeli law. The presidential residence, government offices, supreme court and parliament (Knesset) are located there. The Palestinian Authority foresees East Jerusalem as the capital of its future state. The UN and most countries do not recognize Jerusalem as Israel's capital, taking the position that the final status of Jerusalem is pending future negotiations between Israel and the Palestinian Authority. Most countries maintain their embassies in Tel Aviv and its suburbs or suburbs of Jerusalem, such as Mevaseret Zion (see CIA Factbook and Map of IsraelPDF (319 KB)) See Positions on Jerusalem for more information.
iv.   ^ Statistics regarding the demographics of Jerusalem refer to the unified and expanded Israeli municipality, which includes the pre-1967 Israeli and Jordanian municipalities as well as several additional Palestinian villages and neighborhoods to the northeast. Some of the Palestinian villages and neighborhoods have been relinquished to the West Bank de facto by way of the Israeli West Bank barrier,[152] but their legal statuses have not been reverted.
v.   ^ a b Much of the information regarding King David's conquest of Jerusalem comes from Biblical accounts, but modern-day historians have begun to give them credit due to a 1993 excavation.[279]
vi.   ^ Sources disagree on the timing of the creation of the Pact of Umar (Omar). Whereas some say the Pact originated during Umar's lifetime but was later expanded,[280][281] others say the Pact was created after his death and retroactively attributed to him.[282] Further still, other historians believe the ideas in the Pact pre-date Islam and Umar entirely.[283]


  1. ^ Largest city:
    • "… modern Jerusalem, Israel's largest city …" (Erlanger, Steven. Jerusalem, Now, The New York Times, 16 April 2006.)
    • "Jerusalem is Israel's largest city." ("Israel (country)[dead link]", Microsoft Encarta, 2006, p. 3. Retrieved 18 October 2006. Archived 31 October 2009.)
    • "Since 1975 unified Jerusalem has been the largest city in Israel." ("Jerusalem"[dead link], Encyclopædia Britannica Online, 2006. Retrieved 18 October 2006. Archived 21 June 2008)
    • "Jerusalem is the largest city in the State of Israel. It has the largest population, the most Jews and the most non-Jews of all Israeli cities." (Klein, Menachem. Jerusalem: The Future of a Contested City, New York University Press, 1 March 2001, p. 18. ISBN 0-8147-4754-X)
    • "In 1967, Tel Aviv was the largest city in Israel. By 1987, more Jews lived in Jerusalem than the total population of Tel Aviv. Jerusalem had become Israel's premier city." (Friedland, Roger and Hecht, Richard. To Rule Jerusalem, University of California Press, 19 September 2000, p. 192. ISBN 0-520-22092-7).
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Press Release: Jerusalem Day" (PDF). Central Bureau of Statistics. 24 May 2006. Retrieved 10 March 2007. 
  3. ^ a b "TABLE 3. – POPULATION(1) OF LOCALITIES NUMBERING ABOVE 2,000 RESIDENTS AND OTHER RURAL POPULATION ON 31/12/2008" (PDF). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 26 October 2009. 
  4. ^ "Local Authorities in Israel 2007, Publication #1295 – Municipality Profiles – Jerusalem" (in Hebrew) (PDF). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 31 December 2007. 
  5. ^ a b Since the 10th century BCE:[v]
    • "Israel was first forged into a unified nation from Jerusalem some 3,000 years ago, when King David seized the crown and united the twelve tribes from this city ... For a thousand years Jerusalem was the seat of Jewish sovereignty, the household site of kings, the location of its legislative councils and courts. In exile, the Jewish nation came to be identified with the city that had been the site of its ancient capital. Jews, wherever they were, prayed for its restoration." Roger Friedland, Richard D. Hecht. To Rule Jerusalem, University of California Press, 2000, p. 8. ISBN 0-520-22092-7
    • "The Jewish bond to Jerusalem was never broken. For three millennia, Jerusalem has been the center of the Jewish faith, retaining its symbolic value throughout the generations." Jerusalem- the Holy City, Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 23 February 2003. Accessed 24 March 2007.
    • "The centrality of Jerusalem to Judaism is so strong that even secular Jews express their devotion and attachment to the city, and cannot conceive of a modern State of Israel without it.... For Jews Jerusalem is sacred simply because it exists... Though Jerusalem's sacred character goes back three millennia ...". Leslie J. Hoppe. The Holy City: Jerusalem in the theology of the Old Testament, Liturgical Press, 2000, p. 6. ISBN 0-8146-5081-3
    • "Ever since King David made Jerusalem the capital of Israel 3,000 years ago, the city has played a central role in Jewish existence." Mitchell Geoffrey Bard, The Complete Idiot's Guide to the Middle East Conflict, Alpha Books, 2002, p. 330. ISBN 0-02-864410-7
    • "For Jews the city has been the pre-eminent focus of their spiritual, cultural, and national life throughout three millennia." Yossi Feintuch, U.S. Policy on Jerusalem, Greenwood Publishing Group, 1987, p. 1. ISBN 0-313-25700-0
    • "Jerusalem became the center of the Jewish people some 3,000 years ago" Moshe Maoz, Sari Nusseibeh, Jerusalem: Points of Friction – And Beyond, Brill Academic Publishers, 2000, p. 1. ISBN 90-411-8843-6
    • "The Jewish people are inextricably bound to the city of Jerusalem. No other city has played such a dominant role in the history, politics, culture, religion, national life and consciousness of a people as has Jerusalem in the life of Jewry and Judaism. Since King David established the city as the capital of the Jewish state circa 1000 BCE, it has served as the symbol and most profound expression of the Jewish people's identity as a nation." Basic Facts you should know: Jerusalem, Anti-Defamation League, 2007. Retrieved 28 March 2007.
  6. ^ a b Third-holiest city in Islam:
    • Esposito, John L. (2 November 2002). What Everyone Needs to Know about Islam. Oxford University Press. p. 157. ISBN 0195157133. "The Night Journey made Jerusalem the third holiest city in Islam" 
    • Brown, Leon Carl (15 September 2000). "Setting the Stage: Islam and Muslims". Religion and State: The Muslim Approach to Politics. Columbia University Press. p. 11. ISBN 0231120389. "The third holiest city of Islam—Jerusalem—is also very much in the center ..." 
    • Hoppe, Leslie J. (August 2000). The Holy City: Jerusalem in the Theology of the Old Testament. Michael Glazier Books. p. 14. ISBN 0814650813. "Jerusalem has always enjoyed a prominent place in Islam. Jerusalem is often referred to as the third holiest city in Islam ..." 
  7. ^ "Middle East peace plans" by Willard A. Beling": The Aqsa Mosque on the Temple Mount is the third holiest site in Sunni Islam after Mecca and Medina
  8. ^ Lewis, Bernard; Holt, P. M.; Lambton, Ann, eds (1986). Cambridge History of Islam. Cambridge University Press. 
  9. ^ [Quran 17:1–3]
  10. ^ Allen, Edgar (2004). States, Nations, and Borders: The Ethics of Making Boundaries. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521525756. Retrieved 9 June 2008. 
  11. ^ Kollek, Teddy (1977). "Afterword". In John Phillips. A Will to Survive – Israel: the Faces of the Terror 1948-the Faces of Hope Today. Dial Press/James Wade. "about 225 acres (0.91 km2)" 
  12. ^ "Do We Divide the Holiest Holy City?". Moment Magazine. Archived from the original on 3 June 2008. Retrieved 5 March 2008. . According to Eric H. Cline’s tally in Jerusalem Besieged.
  13. ^ a b "Timeline for the History of Jerusalem". Jewish Virtual Library. American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. Retrieved 16 April 2007. 
  14. ^ Ben-Arieh, Yehoshua (1984). Jerusalem in the 19th Century, The Old City. Yad Izhak Ben Zvi & St. Martin's Press. p. 14. ISBN 0312441878. 
  15. ^ "Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls". Retrieved 11 September 2010. 
  16. ^ "Israel plans 1,300 East Jerusalem Jewish settler homes". BBC News. 9 November 2010. "East Jerusalem is regarded as occupied Palestinian territory by the international community, but Israel says it is part of its territory." 
  17. ^ "The status of Jerusalem". The Question of Palestine & the United Nations. United Nations Department of Public Information. "East Jerusalem has been considered, by both the General Assembly and the Security Council, as part of the occupied Palestinian territory." 
  18. ^ Israeli authorities back 600 new East Jerusalem homes BBC 26 February 2010
  19. ^ Resolution 298 September 25, 1971: "Recalling its resolutions ... concerning measures and actions by Israel designed to change the status of the Israeli-occupied section of Jerusalem,..."
  20. ^ a b Segal, Jerome M. (Fall 1997). "Negotiating Jerusalem". The University of Maryland School of Public Policy. Archived from the original on 14 May 2006. Retrieved 25 February 2007. 
  21. ^ Møller, Bjørn (November 2002) (PDF). A Cooperative Structure for Israeli-Palestinian Relations. Working Paper No. 1. Centre for European Policy Studies. Archived from the original on 6 January 2004. Retrieved 16 April 2007. 
  22. ^ Press, Associated (2008-02-09). "Palestinians grow by a million in decade". Retrieved 2011-10-17. 
  23. ^ Rosenblum, Irit. "Haareez Biblical Zoo favorite tourist site in 2006". Haaretz. Israel. Retrieved 11 September 2010. 
  24. ^ Lis, Jonathan. "Jerusalem Zoo is Israel's number one tourist attraction". Haaretz. Israel. Retrieved 2011-09-09. 
  25. ^ Jerusalem, the Holy City by Stephen J. Binz, 2005
  26. ^ G.Johannes Botterweck, Helmer Ringgren (eds.) Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament, (tr.David E.Green) William B.Eerdmann, Grand Rapids Michigan, Cambridge, UK 1990, Vol. VI, p.348
  27. ^ "''The El Amarna Letters from Canaan''". Retrieved 11 September 2010. 
  28. ^ The Legends of the Jews Volume 1 by Louis Ginzberg, Release Date: October, 1998
  29. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". Retrieved 17 March 2010. 
  30. ^ Elon, Amos. Jerusalem. HarperCollins Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0006375316. Retrieved 26 April 2007. "The epithet may have originated in the ancient name of Jerusalem—Salem (after the pagan deity of the city), which is etymologically connected in the Semitic languages with the words for peace (shalom in Hebrew, salam in Arabic)." 
  31. ^ Ringgren, H., Die Religionen des Alten Orients (Göttingen, 1979), 212.
  32. ^ Wallace, Edwin Sherman (August 1977). Jerusalem the Holy. New York: Arno Press. p. 16. ISBN 0405102984. "A similar view was held by those who give the Hebrew dual to the word" 
  33. ^ Smith, George Adam (1907). Jerusalem: The Topography, Economics and History from the Earliest Times to A.D. 70. Hodder and Stoughton. p. 251. ISBN 0790529351. "The termination -aim or -ayim used to be taken as the ordinary termination of the dual of nouns, and was explained as signifying the upper and lower cities"  (see here [1])
  34. ^ "The Official Website of Jerusalem". Municipality of Jerusalem. 19 September 2011. 
  35. ^ a b c Azmi Bishara. "A brief note on Jerusalem". Retrieved 22 September 2010. 
  36. ^ a b Daniel Pipes. "Constructing a Counterfeit History of Jerusalem". Retrieved 22 2010. 
  37. ^ “No city in the world, not even Athens or Rome, ever played as great a role in the life of a nation for so long a time, as Jerusalem has done in the life of the Jewish people.” David Ben-Gurion, 1947
  38. ^ “For three thousand years, Jerusalem has been the center of Jewish hope and longing. No other city has played such a dominant role in the history, culture, religion and consciousness of a people as has Jerusalem in the life of Jewry and Judaism. Throughout centuries of exile, Jerusalem remained alive in the hearts of Jews everywhere as the focal point of Jewish history, the symbol of ancient glory, spiritual fulfillment and modern renewal. This heart and soul of the Jewish people engenders the thought that if you want one simple word to symbolize all of Jewish history, that word would be ‘Jerusalem.’” Teddy Kollek (DC: Washington Institute For Near East Policy, 1990), pp. 19–20.
  39. ^ "Throughout history a great diversity of peoples has moved into the region and made Palestine their homeland: Canaanites, Jebusites, Philistines from Crete, Anatolian and Lydian Greeks, Hebrews, Amorites, Edomites, Nabateans, Arameans, Romans, Arabs, and European crusaders, to name a few. Each of them appropriated different regions that overlapped in time and competed for sovereignty and land. Others, such as Ancient Egyptians, Hittites, Persians, Babylonians, and Mongols, were historical 'events' whose successive occupations were as ravaging as the effects of major earthquakes ... Like shooting stars, the various cultures shine for a brief moment before they fade out of official historical and cultural records of Palestine. The people, however, survive. In their customs and manners, fossils of these ancient civilizations survived until modernity—albeit modernity camouflaged under the veneer of Islam and Arabic culture." Ali Qleibo, Palestinian anthropologist
  40. ^ "(With reference to Palestinians in Ottoman times) Although proud of their Arab heritage and ancestry, the Palestinians considered themselves to be descended not only from Arab conquerors of the seventh century but also from indigenous peoples who had lived in the country since time immemorial, including the ancient Hebrews and the Canaanites before them. Acutely aware of the distinctiveness of Palestinian history, the Palestinians saw themselves as the heirs of its rich associations." Walid Khalidi, 1984, Before Their Diaspora: A Photographic History of the Palestinians, 1876–1948. Institute for Palestine Studies
  41. ^ Eric H. Cline. "How Jews and Arabs Use (and Misuse) the History of Jerusalem to Score Points". Retrieved 22 September 2010. 
  42. ^ Eli E. Hertz. [http:// "One Nation’s Capital Throughout History"]. http:// Retrieved 22 September 2010. 
  43. ^ a b c Freedman, David Noel (1 January 2000). Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Wm B. Eerdmans Publishing. pp. 694–95. ISBN 0802824005. 
  44. ^ Killebrew Ann E. "Biblical Jerusalem: An Archaeological Assessment" in Andrew G. Vaughn and Ann E. Killebrew, eds., "Jerusalem in Bible and Archaeology: The First Temple Period" (SBL Symposium Series 18; Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2003)
  45. ^ Vaughn, Andrew G.; Ann E. Killebrew (1 August 2003). "Jerusalem at the Time of the United Monarchy". Jerusalem in Bible and Archaeology: the First Temple Period. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature. pp. 32–33. ISBN 1589830660. 
  46. ^ Shalem, Yisrael (3 March 1997). "History of Jerusalem from Its Beginning to David". Jerusalem: Life Throughout the Ages in a Holy City. Bar-Ilan University Ingeborg Rennert Center for Jerusalem Studies. Retrieved 18 January 2007. 
  47. ^ the original name URU URU salem KI in Akkadian—listed in the Amarna letters when it was still a fortified well of the Egyptians and ruled by Abi Heba—meant "city of peace"
  48. ^ Greenfeld, Howard (29 March 2005). A Promise Fulfilled: Theodor Herzl, Chaim Weizmann, David Ben-Gurion, and the Creation of the State of Israel. Greenwillow. p. 32. ISBN 006051504X. 
  49. ^ "Timeline". City of David. Ir David Foundation. Retrieved 18 January 2007. 
  50. ^ Erlanger, Steven (5 August 2005). "King David's Palace Is Found, Archaeologist Says". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 May 2007. 
  51. ^ a b Michael, E.; Sharon O. Rusten, Philip Comfort, and Walter A. Elwell (28 February 2005). The Complete Book of When and Where: In The Bible And Throughout History. Tyndale House Publishers, Inc.. pp. 20–1, 67. ISBN 0842355081. 
  52. ^ Merling, David (26 August 1993). "Where is the Ark of the Covenant?". Andrew's University. Retrieved 22 January 2007. 
  53. ^ a b Zank, Michael. "Capital of Judah I (930–722)". Boston University. Retrieved 22 January 2007. 
  54. ^ Jerusalem: Illustrated History Atlas Martin Gilbert, Macmillan Publishing, New York, 1978, p. 11
  55. ^ Zank, Michael. "Capital of Judah (930–586)". Boston University. Retrieved 22 January 2007. 
  56. ^ "Ezra 1:1–4; 6:1–5".;%206:1-5&version=51;. Retrieved 11 September 2010. 
  57. ^ Sicker, Martin (30 January 2001). Between Rome and Jerusalem: 300 Years of Roman-Judaean Relations. Praeger Publishers. p. 2. ISBN 0275971406. 
  58. ^ Zank, Michael. "Center of the Persian Satrapy of Judah (539–323)". Boston University. Retrieved 22 January 2007. 
  59. ^ "Nehemiah 1:3; 2:1–8".;%202:1-8;&version=51;. Retrieved 11 September 2010. 
  60. ^ Schiffman, Lawrence H. (1991). From Text to Tradition: A History of Second Temple and Rabbinic Judaism. Ktav Publishing House. pp. 60–79. ISBN 0-88125-371-5. 
  61. ^ Har-el, Menashe (1977). This Is Jerusalem. Canaan Publishing House. pp. 68–95. ISBN 0866280022. 
  62. ^ Zank, Michael. "The Temple Mount". Boston University. Retrieved 22 January 2007. 
  63. ^ Crossan, John Dominic (26 February 1993). The Historical Jesus: the life of a Mediterranean Jewish peasant (Reprinted ed.). San Francisco: HarperCollins. p. 92. ISBN 0060616296. "from 4 BCE until 6 CE, when Rome, after exiling [Herod Archelaus] to Gaul, assumed direct prefectural control of his territories" 
  64. ^ Lehmann, Clayton Miles. "Palestine: People and Places". The On-line Encyclopedia of the Roman Provinces. The University of South Dakota. Archived from the original on 10 March 2008. Retrieved 18 April 2007. 
  65. ^ a b Lehmann, Clayton Miles (22 February 2007). "Palestine: History". The On-line Encyclopedia of the Roman Provinces. The University of South Dakota. Archived from the original on 10 March 2008. Retrieved 18 April 2007. 
  66. ^ Cohen, Shaye J. D. (1996). "Judaism to Mishnah: 135–220 C.E". In Hershel Shanks. Christianity and Rabbinic Judaism: A Parallel History of their Origins and Early Development. Washington DC: Biblical Archaeology Society. p. 196. 
  67. ^ Har-el, Menashe. This Is Jerusalem. Canaan Publishing House. pp. 68–95. ISBN 0866280022. 
  68. ^ Zank, Michael. "Byzantian Jerusalem". Boston University. Retrieved 1 February 2007. 
  69. ^ a b Conybeare, Frederick C. (1910). The Capture of Jerusalem by the Persians in 614 AD. English Historical Review 25. pp. 502–517. 
  70. ^ Horowitz, Elliot. "Modern Historians and the Persian Conquest of Jerusalem in 614". Jewish Social Studies. Retrieved 20 January 2011. 
  71. ^ Ben-Dov, M. Historical Atlas of Jerusalem. Translated by David Louvish. New York: Continuum, 2002, p. 171
  72. ^ Linquist, J.M., The Temple of Jerusalem, Praeger, London, 2008, p.184
  73. ^ Grabar, Oleg. The Shape of the Holy: Early Islamic Jerusalem. With Contributions by Mohammad al-Asad, Abeer Audeh, Said Nuseibeh. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996, p.112
  74. ^ "The Significance of Jerusalem for Muslims". Retrieved 2011-10-17. 
  75. ^ Jerusalem: Illustrated History Atlas Martin Gilbert, Macmillan Publishing, New York, 1978, p. 7
  76. ^ Gil, Moshe (February 1997). A History of Palestine, 634–1099. Cambridge University Press. pp. 70–71. ISBN 0521599849. 
  77. ^ Runciman, Steven (1951). A History of the Crusades:The First Crusade and the Foundation of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Penguin Books. Vol.1 pp.3–4. ISBN 052134770X. 
  78. ^ a b Shalem, Yisrael. "The Early Arab Period – 638–1099". Ingeborg Rennert Center for Jerusalem Studies, Bar-Ilan University. Retrieved 20 July 2008. 
  79. ^ Hoppe, Leslie J. (August 2000). The Holy City: Jerusalem in the Theology of the Old Testament. Michael Glazier Books. p. 15. ISBN 0814650813. 
  80. ^ Zank, Michael. "Abbasid Period and Fatimid Rule (750–1099)". Boston University. Retrieved 1 February 2007. 
  81. ^ Hull, Michael D. (June 1999). "First Crusade: Siege of Jerusalem". Military History. Retrieved 18 May 2007. 
  82. ^ a b "Main Events in the History of Jerusalem". Jerusalem: The Endless Crusade. The CenturyOne Foundation. 2003. Retrieved 2 February 2007. 
  83. ^ Abu-Lughod, Janet L.; Dumper, Michael (2007). Cities of the Middle East and North Africa: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 209. ISBN 9781576079195.,M1. Retrieved 22 July 2009. 
  84. ^ Jerusalem: Illustrated History Atlas Martin Gilbert, Macmillan Publishing, New York, 1978, p.25.
  85. ^ Amnon Cohen. "Economic Life in Ottoman Jerusalem"; Cambridge University Press, 1989
  86. ^ Salmon, Thomas (1744). Modern history or the present state of all nations. p. 461. Retrieved 28 Jan 2011. 
  87. ^ a b The Jerusalem Mosaic, Hebrew University, 2002
  88. ^ a b c Jerusalem: Illustrated History Atlas Martin Gilbert, Macmillan Publishing, New York, 1978, p. 37
  89. ^ 1834 Palestinian Arab Revolt
  90. ^ Encyclopedia Judaica, Jerusalem, Keter, 1978, Volume 9, "State of Israel (Historical Survey)", pp.304–306
  91. ^ Jerusalem: Illustrated History Atlas Martin Gilbert, Macmillan Publishing, New York, 1978, p.35
  92. ^ Eylon, Lili (April 1999). "Jerusalem: Architecture in the Late Ottoman Period". Focus on Israel. Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 20 April 2007. 
  93. ^ Ellen Clare Miller, Eastern Sketches – notes of scenery, schools and tent life in Syria and Palestine. Edinburgh: William Oliphant and Company. 1871. Page 126: 'It is difficult to obtain a correct estimate of the number of inhabitants of Jerusalem...'
  94. ^ Fromkin, David (1 September 2001). A Peace to End All Peace: The Fall of the Ottoman Empire and the Creation of the Modern Middle East (2nd reprinted ed.). Owl Books e. pp. 312–3. ISBN 0805068848. 
  95. ^ "Chart of the population of Jerusalem". Retrieved 11 September 2010. 
  96. ^ Tamari, Salim (1999). "Jerusalem 1948: The Phantom City" (Reprint). Jerusalem Quarterly File (3). Archived from the original on 9 September 2006. Retrieved 2 February 2007. 
  97. ^ a b Eisenstadt, David (26 August 2002). "The British Mandate". Jerusalem: Life Throughout the Ages in a Holy City. Bar-Ilan University Ingeborg Rennert Center for Jerusalem Studies. Retrieved 10 February 2007. 
  98. ^ a b "History". The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Retrieved 18 March 2007. 
  99. ^ "Considerations Affecting Certain of the Provisions of the General Assembly Resolution on the "Future Government of Palestine": The City of Jerusalem". The United Nations. 22 January 1948. Archived from the original on 26 January 2008.!OpenDocument. Retrieved 3 February 2007. 
  100. ^ a b Lapidoth, Ruth (30 June 1998). "Jerusalem: Legal and Political Background". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 7 August 2007. Retrieved 22 July 2008. 
  101. ^ Benny Morris, 1948 (2008), pp.218–219.
  102. ^ Mordechai Weingarten
  103. ^ Amos Oz, A Tale of Love and Darkness, (2004), ISBN 0151008787
  104. ^ Cattan, Henry (1981) Jerusalem. Croom Helm. ISBN 0 7099 0412 6. Page 51. Number of Arab districts under Jewish control.
  105. ^ Asali, K.J. (1989) Jerusalem in History. Scorpion Publishing. ISBN 0 905906 70 5. Page 259. Estimate of number of refugees. (Michael C. Hudson)
  106. ^ "No Man's Land". Retrieved 11 September 2010. 
  107. ^ "Legal Status in Palestine". Birzeit University Institute of Law. Retrieved 22 July 2008. 
  108. ^ Announcement in the UK House of Commons of the recognition of the State of Israel and also of the annexation of the West Bank by the State of Jordan. Commons Debates (Hansard) 5th series, Vol 474, pp 1137–1141. 27 April 1950. scan (PDF)
  109. ^ S. R. Silverburg, Pakistan and the West Bank: A research note, Middle Eastern Studies, 19:2 (1983) 261–263.
  110. ^ P. R. Kumaraswamy (2000-03) (PDF). Beyond the Veil: Israel-Pakistan Relations. Tel Aviv, Israel: Jaffee Center for Strategic Studies, Tel Aviv University. Archived from the original on 28 June 2007. Retrieved 22 July 2009. 
  111. ^ Martin Gilbert, "Jerusalem: A Tale of One City", The New Republic, 14 Nov. 1994
  112. ^ Oren, M, Six Days of War, ISBN 0-345-46192-4, p307
  113. ^ "Letter From The Permanent Representative Of Israel To The United Nations Addressed To The Secretary-General". United Nations. Retrieved 11 September 2010. 
  114. ^ Greg Noakes (September/October 1994). "Dispute Over Jerusalem Holy Places Disrupts Arab Camp". Washington Report on Middle East Affairs. Retrieved 20 July 2008. 
  115. ^ Doson, Nandita and Sabbah, Abdul Wahad (editors) Stories from our Mothers (2010). ISBN 978 0 9956136 3 0. Pages 18/19.
  116. ^ "13 Law and Administration Ordinance -Amendment No". Retrieved 2 June 2011. 
  117. ^ "Basic Law- Jerusalem- Capital of Israel". Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 20 July 2008. 
  118. ^ Rashid Khalidi, "The Future of Arab Jerusalem" British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, Vol. 19, No. 2 (1992), pp. 133–143
  119. ^ "Jerusalem's Holy Places and the Peace Process". The Washington Institute for Near East Policy. 1988. Retrieved 20 July 2008. 
  120. ^ Bowen, Jeremy. "House-by-house struggle for East Jerusalem". BBC. Retrieved 11 September 2010. 
  121. ^ "Resolution 478 (1980)". United Nations. 1980. Retrieved 30 July 2008. 
  122. ^ "Jewish Inroads in Muslim Quarter: Settlers' Project to Alter Skyline of Jerusalem's Old City" The Washington Post Foreign Service, 11 February 2007; Page A01
  123. ^ "'Western Wall was never part of temple'". Jerusalem Post. 25 October 2007. Archived from the original on 27 October 2007. Retrieved 20 July 2008. 
  124. ^ "No Mid-East advance at UN summit". BBC. 7 September 2000. Retrieved 3 February 2007. 
  125. ^ Khaled Abu Toameh (11 January 2007). "Abbas: Aim guns against occupation". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 3 February 2007. [dead link]
  126. ^ Biblical verses on public display: the Peace Monument
  127. ^ Cabrera, Enrique; Jorge García-Serra (31 December 1998). Drought Management Planning in Water Supply Systems. Springer. p. 304. ISBN 0792352947. "The Old City of Jerusalem (760 m) in the central hills" 
  128. ^ a b Bergsohn, Sam (15 May 2006). "Geography". Cornell University. Archived from the original on 14 July 2007. Retrieved 9 February 2007. 
  129. ^ Walvoord, John; Zachary J. Hayes, Clark H. Pinnock, William Crockett, and Stanley N. Gundry (7 January 1996). "The Metaphorical View". Four Views on Hell. Zondervan. p. 58. ISBN 0310212685. 
  130. ^ "The Water Supply of Jerusalem, Ancient and Modern", E. W. G. Masterman, The Biblical World, Vol. 19, No. 2 (Feb 1902), pp. 87–112, University of Chicago Press[dead link]
  131. ^ Rosen-Zvi, Issachar (June 2004). Taking Space Seriously: Law, Space and Society in Contemporary Israel. Ashgate Publishing. p. 37. ISBN 0754623513. "Thus, for instance, the distance between the four large metropolitan regions are—39 miles" 
  132. ^ Federman, Josef (18 August 2004). "Debate flares anew over Dead Sea Scrolls". AP via MSNBC. Retrieved 9 February 2007. 
  133. ^ "Introduction". The Tell es-Safi/Gath Archaeological Expedition. Bar Ilan University. Archived from the original on 5 February 2008. Retrieved 24 April 2007.  (Image located here [2])
  134. ^ "Map of Israel". Eye On Israel. Retrieved 25 April 2007.  (See map 9 for Jerusalem)
  135. ^ ""One more Obstacle to Peace" – A new Israeli Neighborhood on the lands of Jerusalem city". The Applied Research Institute – Jerusalem. 10 March 2007. Retrieved 24 April 2007.  (Image located here [3])
  136. ^ "Monthly Averages for Jerusalem, Israel". The Weather Channel. Retrieved 7 February 2007. 
  137. ^ a b Ma'oz, Moshe; Sari Nusseibeh (March 2000). Jerusalem: Points of Friction-And Beyond. Brill Academic Publishers. pp. 44–6. ISBN 9041188436. 
  138. ^ Rory Kess (16 September 2007). "Worst ozone pollution in Beit Shemesh, Gush Etzion". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 23 October 2007. [dead link]
  139. ^ "Long Term Climate Information for Israel". June 2011. 
  140. ^ "Record Data in Israel". 
  141. ^ "Climatological Information for Jerusalem, Israel". Hong Kong Observatory. 
  142. ^ "Population and Density per km2 in Localities Numbering Above 5,000 Residents on 31 XII 2005" (PDF). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 2006. Retrieved 11 April 2007. 
  143. ^ "Arab population growth outpaces Jews in Jerusalem" Reuters, 26 September 2000
  144. ^ Sel, Neta. "Jerusalem: More tourists, fewer Jews". YNet.,7340,L-3254277,00.html. Retrieved 10 March 2007. 
  145. ^ Hockstader, Lee. "Jewish Drop In Jerusalem Worries Israel". The Washington Post via Cornell University. Archived from the original on 9 September 2006. Retrieved 10 March 2007. 
  146. ^ "Most Jerusalemites Attend Hareidi-Religious Schools". Arutz Sheva. Retrieved 21 May 2009. 
  147. ^ Nadav Shragai (21 May 2009). "Most of Jerusalem's non-Jewish children live below poverty line". Haaretz. Retrieved 2011-09-09. 
  148. ^ Richard Boudreaux. "Clashing values alter a city's face". Los Angeles Times.,1,1841144.story?page=2&coll=la-util-nationworld-world. Retrieved 22 July 2009. 
  149. ^ Greg Myre. "Israeli Riddle: Love Jerusalem, Hate Living There". New York Times. Retrieved 22 July 2009. 
  150. ^ Ken Ellingwood. "Change cast in concrete". Los Angeles Times.,1,5137437.story?coll=la-util-nationworld-world. Retrieved 22 July 2009. 
  151. ^ Ken Ellingwood. "Change cast in concrete". Los Angeles Times.,1,5853828,full.story. Retrieved 22 July 2009. 
  152. ^ a b Laub, Karin (2 December 2006). "Jerusalem Barrier Causes Major Upheaval". The Associated Press via The Washington Post. Retrieved 10 March 2007. 
  153. ^ Allison Hodgkins, "The Judaization of Jerusalem – Israeli Policies Since 1967"; PASSIA publication No. 101, December 1996, (English, Pp. 88)
  154. ^ a b "Movement and Access Restrictions in the West Bank: Uncertainty and Inefficiency"; World Bank Technical Team, 9 May 2007
  155. ^ Meron Rapoport.Land lords[dead link]; Haaretz, 20 January 2005
  156. ^ Esther Zandberg."The architectural conspiracy of silence"; Haaretz, 24 February 2007
  157. ^ Allison Hodgkins. "The Judaization of Jerusalem – Israeli Policies Since 1967"; PASSIA publication No. 96, December 1996, (English, Pp. 88)
  158. ^ Meron Rapaport. "Group 'Judaizing' East Jerusalem accused of withholding donation sources"; Haaretz, 22 November 2007
  159. ^ Rothchild, Alice. "The Judaization of East Jerusalem"; CommonDreams, 26 November 2007
  160. ^ a b Cidor, Peggy (15 March 2007). "Corridors of Power: A tale of two councils". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 28 March 2007. [dead link]
  161. ^ Coker, Margaret (11 November 2006). "Jerusalem Becomes A Battleground Over Gay Rights Vs. Religious Beliefs". Cox Newspapers. Archived from the original on 23 December 2007. Retrieved 28 March 2007. 
  162. ^ "Safra Square – City Hall". The Municipality of Jerusalem. Retrieved 24 April 2007. 
  163. ^ Plascov, Avi (2008). The Palestinian refugees in Jordan 1948–1957. Routledge. p. 2. ISBN 978-0714631202. Retrieved 11 December 2009. 
  164. ^ Bovis, H. Eugene (1971). The Jerusalem question, 1917–1968. Hoover Institution Press,U.S.. p. 40. ISBN 978-0817932916. Retrieved 11 December 2009. 
  165. ^ a b Ben-Gurion, David (5 December 1949). "Statements of the Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion Regarding Moving the Capital of Israel to Jerusalem". The Knesset. Retrieved 2 April 2007. 
  166. ^ "Jerusalem and Berlin Embassy Relocation Act of 1998". The Library of Congress. Retrieved 12 February 2007. 
  167. ^ "Basic Law: Jerusalem, Capital of Israel". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 30 July 1980. Retrieved 2 April 2007. 
  168. ^ "The Status of Jerusalem". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 14 March 1999. Retrieved 12 February 2007. 
  169. ^ Kellerman, Aharon (January 1993). Society and Settlement: Jewish Land of Israel in the Twentieth Century. State University of New York Press. p. 140. ISBN 0791412954. "[Tel Aviv] also contains most embassies, given the nonrecognition by many countries of Jerusalem as the capital of Israel." 
  170. ^ a b "Embassies and Consulates in Israel". Israel Science and Technology Homepage. Retrieved 3 May 2007. 
  171. ^ Tapsfield, James (18 February 2010). "Israel must co-operate over fake passports, says David Miliband". The Independent (UK). Retrieved 11 September 2010. 
  172. ^ "Dubai Hamas killing pledge by UK foreign secretary". BBC News. 18 February 2010. Retrieved 11 September 2010. 
  173. ^ "EDITORIAL A bloody new year in Gaza". Japan Times. 4 January 2009. Retrieved 11 September 2010. 
  174. ^ Times Online Style Guide – J "Jerusalem must not be used as a metonym or variant for Israel. It is not internationally recognised as the Israeli capital, and its status is one of the central controversies in the Middle East."
  175. ^ "Jerusalem Embassy Act of 1995". U.S. Government Printing Office. 8 November 1995. Retrieved 15 February 2007. 
  176. ^ "Statement on FY 2003 Foreign Relations Authorization Act". Retrieved 23 May 2007. 
  177. ^ "Jerusalem must be capital of both Israel and Palestine, Ban says". United Nations. 28 October 2009. Retrieved 11 September 2010. 
  178. ^ In the Palestine Liberation Organization's Palestinian Declaration of Independence of 1988, Jerusalem is stated to be the capital of the State of Palestine. In 2000 the Palestinian Authority passed a law designating the city as such, and in 2002 this law was ratified by Chairman Yasser Arafat. See Arafat Signs Law Making Jerusalem Palestinian Capital, People's Daily, published October 6, 2002; Arafat names Jerusalem as capital, BBC News, published October 6, 2002.
  179. ^ Tzippe Barrow (25 October 2010). "Bill to Grant Jerusalem Priority Status – Inside Israel – CBN News – Christian News 24–7". Retrieved 1 June 2011. 
  180. ^ "English gateway to the Knesset website". Retrieved 18 May 2007. 
  181. ^ "The State of Israel: The Judicial Authority". Retrieved 18 May 2007. 
  182. ^ Jerusalem as administrative capital of the British Mandate:
    • Orfali, Jacob G. (March 1995). Everywhere You Go, People Are the Same. Ronin Publishing. p. 25. ISBN 0914171755. "In the year 1923, [Jerusalem] became the capital of the British Mandate in Palestine" 
    • Oren-Nordheim, Michael; Ruth Kark (September 2001). Jerusalem and Its Environs: Quarters, Neighborhoods, Villages, 1800–1948. Wayne State University Press. p. 36. ISBN 0814329098. "The three decades of British rule in Palestine (1917/18–1948) were a highly significant phase in the development, with indelible effects on the urban planning and development of the capital – Jerusalem."  Ruth Kark is a professor in the Department of Geography at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
    • Dumper, Michael (15 April 1996). The Politics of Jerusalem Since 1967. Columbia University Press. p. 59. ISBN 0231106408. "...the city that was to become the administrative capital of Mandate Palestine..." 
  183. ^ Dore Gold. "Jerusalem in International Diplomacy". Retrieved 20 July 2008. 
  184. ^ "The New Orient House: A History of Palestinian Hospitality". Retrieved 2011-09-09. 
  185. ^ Klein, Menachem (March 2001). "The PLO and the Palestinian Identity of East Jerusalem". Jerusalem: The Future of a Contested City. New York University Press. p. 189. ISBN 081474754X. 
  186. ^ "No agreement without a Palestinian capital in Jerusalem: Mahmoud Abbas". 10 June 2010. Retrieved 2011-09-09. 
  187. ^ Bard, Mitchell G. Will Israel Survive?
  188. ^ Guinn, David E. (2 October 2006). Protecting Jerusalem's Holy Sites: A Strategy for Negotiating a Sacred Peace (1st ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 142. ISBN 0521866626. 
  189. ^ "Parshat Re'eh: No Jerusalem in Torah - Israel Opinion, Ynetnews". 1995-06-20.,7340,L-3136760,00.html. Retrieved 2011-10-17. 
  190. ^ "What is the Western Wall?". The Kotel. Retrieved 6 March 2007. 
  191. ^ Goldberg, Monique Susskind. "Synagogues". Ask the Rabbi. Schechter Institute of Jewish Studies. Archived from the original on 31 January 2008. Retrieved 10 March 2007. 
  192. ^ a b Segal, Benjamin J. (1987). Returning: The Land of Israel as Focus in Jewish History. Jerusalem, Israel: Department of Education and Culture of the World Zionist Organization. p. 124. Retrieved 10 March 2007. 
  193. ^ The Jewish injunction to pray toward Jerusalem comes in the Orach Chayim section of Shulchan Aruch (94:1) – "When one rises to pray anywhere in the Diaspora, he should face towards the Land of Israel, directing himself also toward Jerusalem, the Temple, and the Holy of Holies."
  194. ^ From the King James Version of the Bible: "And when the days of her purification according to the law of Moses were accomplished, they brought [Jesus] to Jerusalem, to present him to the Lord;" (Luke 2:22)
  195. ^ From the King James Version of the Bible: "And they come to Jerusalem: and Jesus went into the temple, and began to cast out them that sold and bought in the temple, and overthrew the tables of the moneychangers, and the seats of them that sold doves;" (Mark 11:15)
  196. ^ Boas, Adrian J. (12 October 2001). "Physical Remains of Crusader Jerusalem". Jerusalem in the Time of the Crusades. Routledge. p. 112. ISBN 0415230004. "The interesting, if not reliable illustrations of the church on the round maps of Jerusalem show two distinct buildings on Mount Zion: the church of St Mary and the Cenacle (Chapel of the Last Supper) appear as separate buildings." 
  197. ^ Endo, Shusaku (1999). Richard A. Schuchert. ed. A Life of Jesus. Paulist Press. p. 116. ISBN 0809123193. 
  198. ^ From the King James Version of the Bible: "This title then read many of the Jews: for the place where Jesus was crucified was nigh to the city: and it was written in Hebrew, and Greek, and Latin." (John 19:20)
  199. ^ a b Stump, Keith W. (1993). "Where Was Golgotha?". Worldwide Church of God. Retrieved 11 March 2007. 
  200. ^ Ray, Stephen K. (October 2002). St. John's Gospel: A Bible Study Guide and Commentary for Individuals and Groups. San Francisco, CA: Ignatius Press. p. 340. ISBN 0898708214. 
  201. ^ O'Reilly, Sean; James O'Reilly (30 November 2000). PilgrFile: Adventures of the Spirit (1st ed.). Travelers' Tales. p. 14. ISBN 1885211562. "The general consensus is that the Church of the Holy Sepulchre marks the hill called Golgotha, and that the site of the Crucifixion and the last five Stations of the Cross are located under its large black domes." 
  202. ^ Cordesman, Anthony H. (30 October 2005). "The Final Settlement Issues: Asymmetric Values & Asymmetric Warfare". The Israeli-Palestinian War: Escalating to Nowhere. Praeger Security International. p. 62. ISBN 0275987582. 
  203. ^ Peters, Francis E. (20 October 2003). "Muhammad the Prophet of God". The Monotheists: The Peoples of God. Princeton University Press. pp. 95–6. ISBN 0691114609. 
  204. ^ "Sahih Bukhari". Compendium of Muslim Texts. University of Southern California. Retrieved 2011-09-09.  (from an English translation of Sahih Bukhari, Volume IX, Book 93, Number 608)
  205. ^ From Abdullah Yusuf Ali's English translation of the Qur'an: "Glory to (Allah) Who did take His servant for a Journey by night from the Sacred Mosque to the farthest Mosque, whose precincts We did bless,- in order that We might show him some of Our Signs: for He is the One Who heareth and seeth (all things)." (17:1)
  206. ^ "The Early Arab Period – 638–1099". Jerusalem: Life Throughout the Ages in a Holy City. Bar-Ilan University Ingeborg Rennert Center for Jerusalem Studies. March 1997. Retrieved 24 April 2007. 
  207. ^ a b "About the Museum". The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Retrieved 27 February 2007. 
  208. ^ "Shrine of the Book". The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Retrieved 27 February 2007. 
  209. ^ "The Rockefeller Archaeological Museum". The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Retrieved 28 February 2007. 
  210. ^ "The Rockefeller Archaeological Museum: About the Museum: The Permanent Exhibition". The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Archived from the original on 11 December 2007. Retrieved 28 February 2007. 
  211. ^ "Yad Vashem". The Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority. Retrieved 28 February 2007. 
  212. ^ "About Yad Vashem". The Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority. Archived from the original on 17 February 2007. Retrieved 28 February 2007. 
  213. ^ "The Museum". Museum On The Seam. Retrieved 2011-09-09. 
  214. ^ a b "History". Jerusalem Orchestra. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 4 March 2007. 
  215. ^ "Jerusalem Music Center". Retrieved 18 May 2007. 
  216. ^ "The Jerusalem Centre for the Performing Arts". Jerusalem Theater. Archived from the original on 2 February 2007. Retrieved 4 March 2007. 
  217. ^ "About Us". The Khan Theatre. 2004. Retrieved 2011-09-09. 
  218. ^ "Summer Nights Festival 2008". Jerusalem Foundation. Retrieved 20 July 2008. 
  219. ^ "About The Festival". Jerusalem Film Festival. Retrieved 20 July 2008. 
  220. ^ "Ticho House". The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Retrieved 28 February 2007. 
  221. ^ "About Alhoash". Palestinian ART Court. Retrieved 20 July 2008. 
  222. ^ a b "Israel bans Palestinian cultural events – Israel News, Ynetnews". 20 June 1995.,7340,L-3689673,00.html. Retrieved 22 January 2010. 
  223. ^ "History". Palestinian National Theatre. Retrieved 4 March 2007. [dead link]
  224. ^ "Palestine Youth Orchestra". Retrieved 2011-10-17. 
  225. ^ Joel Epstein, "Teaching in Palestine", The Strad June 2009, p. 42.
  226. ^ "List of Palestinian Cultural & Archeological Sites". Jerusalem Media & Communication Centre. Archived from the original on 25 January 2008. Retrieved 20 July 2008. 
  227. ^ "Promoting Palestinian culture presents challenge to occupation and celebrates heritage". Retrieved 11 September 2010. 
  228. ^ "Abraham Fund". Abraham Fund. Retrieved 2011-10-17. 
  229. ^ "Jerusalem Intercultural Center". 2010-11-25. Retrieved 2011-10-17. 
  230. ^ "Jerusalem Center for Middle Eastern Music and Dance". Retrieved 2011-10-17. 
  231. ^ "''”Speaking Art” Conference: Jewish-Arab Dialogue Through the Arts'' at the Jerusalem Intercultural Center". Retrieved 2011-10-17. 
  232. ^ "The Jewish-Arab Youth Orchestra". Retrieved 11 September 2010. 
  233. ^ KERSHNER, Isabel (17 October 2008). "Symbol of Peace Stands at Divide Between Troubled Jerusalem's East and West". New York Times. Retrieved 18 October 2008. 
  234. ^ a b c d Dumper, Michael (15 April 1996). The Politics of Jerusalem Since 1967. Columbia University Press. pp. 207–10. ISBN 0231106408. 
  235. ^ "Employed Persons, by Industry, District and Sub-District of Residence, 2005" (PDF). Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 11 April 2007. 
  236. ^ Gil Zohar (28 June 2007). "Bet your bottom dollar?". The Jerusalem Post. Archived from the original on 3 February 2008. Retrieved 10 July 2007. 
  237. ^ "Har Hotzvim Industrial Park". Har Hotzvim Industrial Park. Retrieved 13 March 2007. 
  238. ^ "World's Best Awards 2010 – Africa and the Middle East". Retrieved 11 July 2010. 
  239. ^ Larry Derfner (2001-01-23). "An Intifada Casualty Named Atarot". The Jewish Journal of Greater Los Angeles. Retrieved 2007-11-07 An Intifada Casualty Named Atarot. 
  240. ^ Smith, Patrick (9 June 2006). "Ask the Pilot". Salon. Retrieved 2011-09-09. 
  241. ^ Solomon, Shoshanna (1 November 2001). "Facets of the Israeli Economy – Transportation". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 14 March 2007. 
  242. ^ Afra, Orit (8 February 2007). "Panacea or pain?". The Jerusalem Post. Archived from the original on 3 February 2008. Retrieved 17 March 2007. 
  243. ^ "Life in Jerusalem – Transportation". Rothberg International Station – Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Retrieved 14 March 2007. 
  244. ^ "Jerusalem – Malha". Israel Railways. Archived from the original on 6 October 2007. Retrieved 14 March 2007. 
  245. ^ "Passenger Lines Map". Israel Railways. Archived from the original on 6 October 2007. Retrieved 14 March 2007. 
  246. ^ a b Burstein, Nathan (19 January 2006). "Running rings around us". The Jerusalem Post. Archived from the original on 3 February 2008. Retrieved 17 March 2007. 
  247. ^ Gil Zohar. "Their way or the highway?". The Jerusalem Post. Archived from the original on 3 February 2008. Retrieved 11 June 2007. 
  248. ^ "Times Higher Education". Times Higher Education. 9 October 2008. Retrieved 5 May 2009. 
  249. ^ Hershko, Avram. "Avram Hershko". The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 18 March 2007. 
  250. ^ Gross, David. "David J. Gross". The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 18 March 2007. 
  251. ^ Kahneman, Daniel. "Daniel Kahneman". The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 18 March 2007. 
  252. ^ "About the Library: Main Collections". Jewish National and University Library. Retrieved 27 March 2007. 
  253. ^ "About the Library: History and Aims". Jewish National and University Library. Retrieved 27 March 2007. 
  254. ^ a b "Science & Technology". al-Quds University. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 19 March 2007. 
  255. ^ "Urgent Appeal". al-Quds University. Archived from the original on 17 March 2007. Retrieved 27 March 2007. 
  256. ^ Bard College and Al-Quds University to Open Joint Campus The Chronicle of Higher Education, February 2008, by Matthew Kalman
  257. ^ Official site of the Jerusalem Academy of Music and Dance: (Hebrew), (English)
  258. ^ Official site of Bezalel Academy of Art and Design: (Hebrew), (English)
  259. ^ "About JCT". Jerusalem College of Technology. Archived from the original on 1 February 2008. Retrieved 25 March 2007. 
  260. ^ Wohlgelernter, Elli (28 December 2000). "The village of Mir, where Torah once flowed". Jewish Agency for Israel. Archived from the original on 2 February 2008. Retrieved 26 March 2007. 
  261. ^ Jonathan Lis (4 May 2005). "The best medicine for Jerusalem". Retrieved 22 July 2009. 
  262. ^ a b "Summary". Second Class Discrimination Against Palestinian Arab Children in Israel's Schools. Human Rights Watch. September 2001. Retrieved 27 March 2007. 
  263. ^ Bridging the gap[dead link]
  264. ^ a b Lis, Jonathan (21 April 2008). "Mayor to raise funds for E. J'lem Arabs to block Hamas". Haaretz. Retrieved 2011-09-09. 
  265. ^ Or Kashti (18 March 2007). "8,000 new classrooms to be built in Arab, ultra-Orthodox schools". Archived from the original on 7 June 2008. Retrieved 22 July 2009. 
  266. ^ Torstrick, Rebecca L. (30 June 2004). Culture and Customs of Israel. Greenwood Press. p. 141. ISBN 0313320918. "The two most popular spectator sports in Israel are football and basketball." 
  267. ^ Griver, Simon (October 1997). "Betar Jerusalem: A Local Sports Legend Exports Talent to Europe's Top Leagues". Israel Magazine via the Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 31 December 2007. Retrieved 7 March 2007. 
  268. ^ "בית"ר ירושלים האתר הרשמי – דף הבית". Retrieved 11 September 2010. 
  269. ^ Eldar, Yishai (1 December 2001). "Jerusalem: Architecture Since 1948". Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 7 March 2007. 
  270. ^ (Hebrew) "Home". Hapoel Migdal Jerusalem. Archived from the original on 2 January 2008. Retrieved 7 March 2007.  (The listing of championship wins are located at the bottom after the completion of the Flash intro.)
  271. ^ "Palestinian Football Association, Jabal Al-Mokaber". Retrieved 2011-10-17. 
  272. ^ Football and the wall: The divided soccer community of Jerusalem, by James Montague, CNN 17 September 2010
  273. ^ "Jerusalem Half Marathon official website". Retrieved 2011-10-17. 
  274. ^ "Events site Half Marathon and Fun Run summary". 3 January 2009. Retrieved 11 September 2010. 
  275. ^ "Online Directory: Israel, Middle East". Sister Cities International. Archived from the original on 17 January 2008. Retrieved 5 April 2007. 
  276. ^ "New York City Global Partners". Retrieved 2011-09-09. 
  277. ^ "Partner Cities (Portal of Prague)". Retrieved 2011-10-17. 
  278. ^ "Jumelage". Fes city. Retrieved 10 December 2010. 
  279. ^ Pellegrino, Charles R. (1 December 1995). Return to Sodom & Gomorrah (Second revised ed.). Harper Paperbacks. p. 271. ISBN 0380726335. "[see footnote]" 
  280. ^ Marcus, Jacob Rader (March 2000). The Jew in the Medieval World: A Source Book, 315–1791 (Revised ed.). Hebrew Union College Press. pp. 13–15. ISBN 087820217X. Retrieved 1 February 2007. 
  281. ^ Jonsson, David J. (19 February 2005). The Clash of Ideologies. Xulon Press. p. 256. ISBN 1597810398. "During the reign of Umar, the Pact of Umar was established." 
  282. ^ Goddard, Hugh (25 April 2001). A History of Christian-Muslim Relations. New Amsterdam Books. p. 46. ISBN 1566633400. "Although the documents are attributed to `Umar, in all probability they actually come from the second Islamic century... The covenant was drawn up in the schools of law, and came to be ascribed, like so much else, to `Umar I" 
  283. ^ Goddard, Hugh (25 April 2001). A History of Christian-Muslim Relations. New Amsterdam Books. p. 47. ISBN 1566633400. "It has recently been suggested that many of the detailed regulations concerning what the ahl al-dhimma were and were not permitted to do come from an earlier historical precedent, namely the regulations which existed in the Sassanian Persian Empire with reference to its religious minorities in Iraq." 

Further reading

  • Cheshin, Amir S.; Bill Hutman and Avi Melamed (1999). Separate and Unequal: the Inside Story of Israeli Rule in East Jerusalem Harvard University Press ISBN 978-0-674-80136-3
  • Cline, Eric (2004) Jerusalem Besieged: From Ancient Canaan to Modern Israel. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press ISBN 0-472-11313-5.
  • Collins, Larry, and La Pierre, Dominique (1988). O Jerusalem! Simon and Shuster, N.Y. ISBN 0-671-66241-4
  • Gold, Dore (2007) The Fight for Jerusalem: Radical Islam, The West, and the Future of the Holy City International Publishing Company J-M, Ltd. ISBN 978-1-59698-029-7
  • Köchler, Hans (1981) The Legal Aspects of the Palestine Problem with Special Regard to the Question of Jerusalem Vienna: Braumüller ISBN 3-7003-0278-9
  • The Holy Cities: Jerusalem produced by Danae Film Production, distributed by HDH Communications; 2006
  • Wasserstein, Bernard (2002) Divided Jerusalem: The Struggle for the Holy City New Haven and London: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-09730-1
  • "Keys to Jerusalem: A Brief Overview", The Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Center, Amman, Jordan, 2010.
  • Sebag Montefiore, Simon (2011) Jerusalem: the Biography, London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, ISBN 978-0-297-85265-0

External links





Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужно решить контрольную?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Jerusalem — Jérusalem Wikipédia …   Wikipédia en Français

  • JÉRUSALEM — Métropole en pleine expansion dans tous les domaines et dont l’État d’Israël a fait sa capitale, Jérusalem s’étend sur 10 000 hectares et compte 500 000 habitants en 1989, dont 361 000 Juifs. Parmi ses visages multiples, il en est plusieurs qui… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Jerusalem —    Jerusalem is Israel s largest city and its declared capital. It is a holy city for Jews, Christians, and Muslims. In 1947, when the United Nations voted to partition Palestine into a Jewish state and an Arab state, Jerusalem was to be… …   Historical Dictionary of Israel

  • Jerusālem — (in den Keilinschriften Ursalimmu, in den Hieroglyphen Schalam, griech. und lat. Hierosolyma, hebr. Jeruschalajim, »Wohnung des Friedens«, bei den Arabern El Kuds, »das Heiligtum«, bei den Türken Küdsi Schêrif genannt), die alte Hauptstadt… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Jerusalem — Je*ru sa*lem (j[ e]*r[udd] s[.a]*l[e^]m), n. [Gr. Ieroysalh m, fr. Heb. Y[e^]r[=u]sh[=a]laim.] The chief city of Palestine, intimately associated with the glory of the Jewish nation, and the life and death of Jesus Christ. [1913 Webster]… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Jérusalem d'or — (en hébreu : ירושלים של זהב Yeroushalayim shel zahav) est le titre d une chanson populaire israélienne écrite par Naomi Shemer en 1967 et chantée par Shuli Natan. Elle fut ensuite reprise par de nombreux artistes, notamment par Ofra Haza qui …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Jérusalem — is a grand opera in four acts by Giuseppe Verdi set to a French libretto by Alphonse Royer and Gustave Vaëz which was partly translated and adapted from Verdi s original 1843 Italian opera, I Lombardi alla prima crociata . It was Verdi s first… …   Wikipedia

  • Jerusalem d'or — Jérusalem d or Jérusalem d or (en hébreu : ירושלים של זהב Yeroushalayim chel zahav) est une chanson populaire israélienne écrite et chantée par Naomi Shemer en 1967. La chanson fut écrite à la veille de la guerre des Six Jours et de la… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Jérusalem D'or — (en hébreu : ירושלים של זהב Yeroushalayim chel zahav) est une chanson populaire israélienne écrite et chantée par Naomi Shemer en 1967. La chanson fut écrite à la veille de la guerre des Six Jours et de la conquête par Tsahal de Jérusalem… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Jérusalem en or — Jérusalem d or Jérusalem d or (en hébreu : ירושלים של זהב Yeroushalayim chel zahav) est une chanson populaire israélienne écrite et chantée par Naomi Shemer en 1967. La chanson fut écrite à la veille de la guerre des Six Jours et de la… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Jerusalem [1] — Jerusalem (Gesch.). Die ersten geschichtlichen Einwohner J s waren wahrscheinlich die Jebusiter (s.d.), die sie 50 Jahre nach Melchisedek, welcher[794] der Stadt angeblich den Namen Salem gegeben hatte, eingenommen haben sollen. Sie bauten auf… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”