Infobox Greek Dimos
name = Thessaloniki
name_local = Θεσσαλονίκη
prefec = Thessaloniki
caption_skyline = The
White Tower of Thessalonikiwas used as a prison during the era of the Ottoman Empire. Today it is a museum and the landmark of the city.
districts = 16
party = ND
since = 1 January, 1999
elevation_min = 0
elevation_max = 20
population = 363987
population_metro = 1057825
population_as_of = 2001
area = 17.8
area_metro = 108.088
lat_deg = 40
lat_min = 38
lon_deg = 22
lon_min = 57
postal_code = 53x xx, 54x xx, 55x xx, 56x xx
area_code = 2310
licence = Ν
website = [http://www.thessalonikicity.gr www.thessalonikicity.gr]
Thessaloniki ( _el. Θεσσαλονίκη, IPA-all|θesaloˈniki) , Thessalonica, or Salonica is the second-largest city in
Greeceand the capital of Macedonia, the nation's largest region. It is honorarily called the "Συμπρωτεύουσα" "Symprotevousa" (lit. co-capital) of Greece, as it was once called the "συμβασιλεύουσα" "symbasilevousa" (co-queen) of the Byzantine Empire. It is the largest city in the wider geographical region of Macedonia. The Thessaloniki Urban Areaextends around the Thermaic Gulffor approximately convert|17|km|mi|0 and comprises 16 municipalities. According to the 2001 census, the municipality of Thessaloniki had a population of 363,987, while the metropolitan population has approximately one million inhabitants.
Thessaloniki is Greece's second major economic, industrial, commercial and political centre, and a major transportation hub for the rest of southeastern Europe; its commercial port is also of great importance for Greece and its southeast European hinterland. It has been traditional for the country's Prime Minister to set out his government's policies for each coming year in a speech at the annual
Thessaloniki International Trade Fair.
Thessaloniki retains several Ottoman and Jewish structures as well as a large number of Byzantine architectural monuments. The city has hosted an annual International Trade Fair, the
Thessaloniki International Film Festival, and the largest bi-annual meeting of the Greek diaspora. [http://en.sae.gr/?id=12401&tag=Conventions]
All variations for the city's name derive from the original (and current) appellation 'Thessaloniki'. The alternative name "Salonica", formerly the common name used in some
western European languages, is derived from a variant form Σαλονίκη ("Saloníki") in popular Greek speech. The city's name is also rendered "Thessaloníki" or "Saloníki" with a dark l typical of Macedonian Greek. [cite book |last= Ανδριώτης (Andriotis) |first= Νικόλαος Π. (Nikolaos P.) |year= 1995 |title= Ιστορία της ελληνικής γλώσσας: (τέσσερις μελέτες) (History of the Greek language: four studies) |publisher= Ίδρυμα Τριανταφυλλίδη |location=Θεσσαλονίκη (Thessaloniki) |isbn=960-231-058-8 |language=Greek] [cite book |last= Vitti |first= Mario |year=2001 |title= Storia della letteratura neogreca |publisher=Carocci |location=Roma |isbn=88-430-1680-6 |language=Italian] Names in other languages prominent in the city's history include سلانيك in Ottoman Turkish and "Selânik" in modern Turkish, "Solun" ( Cyrillic: Солун) in the Slavic languages of the region, "Sãrunã" in Aromanian, and "Selanik" in Ladino. It is also known as 'Thess' by Anglophonic diaspora Greeks who returned to Greece and by the international forces stationed in the various ex-Yugoslav territories and who visit the city for their short breaks.
The city was founded around
315 BCby the King Cassander of Macedon, on or near the site of the ancient town of Thermaand twenty-six other local villages. He named it after his wife Thessalonike, a half-sister of Alexander the Great("Thessalo-nikē" means the "victory of Thessalians"). It was an autonomous part of the Kingdom of Macedon. After the fall of the kingdom of Macedon in 168 BC, Thessalonica became a city of the Roman Republic. It grew to be an important trade-hub located on the Via Egnatiaand facilitating trade between Europe and Asia. The city became the capital of one of the four Roman districts of Macedonia.
When in 379 the Roman Prefecture of Illyricum was divided between East and West Roman Empires, Thessaloníki became the capital of the new Prefecture of Illyricum. The economic expansion of the city continued through the twelfth century as the rule of the
Komnenoiemperors expanded Byzantine control to the north. Thessaloniki passed out of Byzantine hands in 1204, when Constantinople was captured by the Fourth Crusade. Thessaloníki and its surrounding territory—the Kingdom of Thessalonica—became the largest fief of the Latin Empire. The city was recovered by the Byzantine Empire in 1246 sold it in 1423 to Venice, which held the city until it was captured by the Ottoman Sultan Murad IIon 29 March, 1430. [cf. the account of John Anagnostes.]
During the Ottoman period, the city's Muslim and Jewish population grew. By 1478 Selanik -as the city came to be known in ottoman turkish- had a population of 4,320 Muslims and 6,094 Greek Orthodox, as well as some Catholics, but no Jews. By ca. 1500, the numbers had grown to 7,986 Greeks, 8,575 Muslims, and 3,770 Jews, but by 1519, there were 15,715, 54% of the city's population. The invitation of the
Sephardic Jews expelled from Spain by Ferdinand and Isabella, was an Ottoman demographic strategy aiming to prevent the Greek element from dominating the city.The New Cambridge Medieval History p.779 - Rosamond McKitterick, Christopher Allmand] The city remained the largest Jewish city in the world for at least two centuries, often called "Mother of Israel". Selanik was a sanjakcentre in Rumeli Eyaleti till 1864. It was centre of Selanik Vilayeti, which consisted sanjaks of Selanik, Serez and Drama between 1864-1912.Fact|date=April 2008
From 1870, driven by economic growth, the city's population exploded by 70%, reaching 135,000 in 1917.
First Balkan War, the Ottoman garrison surrendered Salonica to the Greek Army, on November OldStyleDate|8 November|1912|26 October without any resistance. In 1915, during World War I, a large Allied expeditionary force landed at Thessaloniki as the base for a massive offensive against pro-German Bulgaria. In 1916, pro-Venizelist army officers, with the support of the Allies, launched the Movement of National Defence, which resulted in the establishment of a pro-Allied temporary government that controlled northern Greece and the Aegean, against the official government of the King in Athens, which lead the city to be dubbed as "symprotévousa" ("co-capital"). Most of the old town was destroyed by a single fire on OldStyleDate|18 August|1917|5 August, accidentally sparked by French soldiers in encampments at the city. The fire left some 72,000 homeless, many of them Turkish, of a population of approximately 271,157 at the time. Thessaloniki fell to the forces of Nazi Germanyon April 22, 1941, and remained under German occupation until 30 October, 1944. The city suffered considerable damage from Allied bombing, and almost its entire Jewish populationwas exterminated by the Nazis. Barely a thousand Jews survived. Thessaloniki was rebuilt and recovered fairly quickly after the war with large-scale development of new infrastructure and industry throughout the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s.
On 20 June, 1978, the city was hit by a powerful
earthquake, registering a moment magnitude of 6.5. The tremor caused considerable damage to several buildings and even to some of the city's Byzantine monuments; forty people were crushed to death when an entire apartment block collapsed in the central Hippodromio district. Early Christian and Byzantine monuments of Thessaloniki were inscribed on the UNESCOWorld Heritage list in 1988, and Thessaloniki later became European City of Culture 1997. In 2004 the city hosted a number of the football events forming part of the 2004 Summer Olympics. Thessaloniki unsuccessfully bid for the 2008 World EXPO, this time won by Zaragozain Spain, but another planned bid for 2017 was announced in September 2006 and is now in full development.
As Thessaloniki is the second largest city in
Greece, and an influential city in Northern Greece, it functions as the capital of the Central Macedonia Periphery, Thessaloniki Prefecture, and Thessaloniki Municipality.
The architectural map of Thessaloniki has been a direct result of the city's position at the center of all historical developments in the Balkans. Aside from its commercial importance, Thessaloniki was, for many centuries, the military and administrative hub of the region, and beyond this the transportation link between Europe and
Merchants, traders and refugees from across Europe came to the city, including Jews joining the city's earlier population. The authorities replaced part of the city's earliest Byzantine walls to allow it to expand, which it did, to the east and west along the coast. The need for commercial and public buildings in this new era of prosperity led to a marked shift in architectural direction and the construction of large edifices in the city center, in lots formerly occupied by small, shabby one-family homes. During this time, the city saw the building of banks, large hotels, theaters, warehouses, and factories. The city layout changed after 1870, when the seaside fortifications gave way to extensive piers, and many of the oldest walls of the city were demolished including those surrounding the White Tower.
The expansion of
Eleftherias Squaretowards the sea completed the new commercial hub of the city. The western districts are classified as a the working class section, near the factories and industrial activity; the middle and upper classes gradually moved to the east suburbs of the town from the center, leaving the latter mostly business dominated. The most decisive and unforeseen moment in the city's modern history was 1917. A devastating fire swept through the city that year and burned uncontrollably for 32 hours. It destroyed the city's historic center and a large part of its architectural heritage, including many buildings of rare beauty.
A team of architects and urban planners led by Ernest Hebrard, a French architect chose the Byzantine era as the basis for their (re)building designs. The new city plan included axes, diagonal streets and monumental squares, with a street grid that would channel traffic smoothly. The plan of 1917 included provisions for the future population explosion and an adequate street and road network that would have been sufficient even today. It contained sites for public and significant buildings, the restoration of important Byzantine churches and landmarks and of Ottoman mosques, whereas the whole of the
Upper City, near the fortifications, was declared a heritage site. The plan also included a site for the campus of the future University of Thessaloniki, which was never fully realized, although today's University campus incorporates some of Hebrard's ideas nonetheless.
An important element of the plan was to achieve a fine balance between contemporary urban planning and architectural ideas, and the city's tradition and history. These plans were never to be fully implemented, and the city lacks a full administrative district to this day. Nevertheless, this aspect of the plan influenced a number of building and planning decisions throughout the 20th century, with inevitable adaptations to service the population explosion of the last 50 years.
White Tower of Thessaloniki( _el. Λευκός Πύργος "Lefkos Pyrgos"), widely regarded as the symbol of the city.
Arch and Tomb of Galeriusis more commonly known as the "Kamara" and ornately decorated, crafted with a reddish-coloured stone.
*The Upper Town or 'Ano Poli' is what remains of Ottoman Thessaloniki, with beautiful wooden houses overhanging the winding streets all the way up to the Eptapyrgio at the top of the city. The Ano Poli also contains some of the city's oldest and most important churches, particularly Osios David, St. Nicolaos Orphanos and Vlatades Monastery.
*The Church of
Aghios Demetriosis the most important church in the entire city. Lying above the remains of the agora and the Roman Forum, the church has three side-chapels, a museum, and underground catacombs that also include Saint Demetrios' imprisonment chamber; he is the patron saint of the city.
OTE Tower, a TV tower is the center of the Thessaloniki Expo Center. A revolving restaurantoffers spectacular views of the city.
*The waterfront is Thessaloniki's major draw. The promenade of Nikis Avenue runs from the White Tower of Thessaloniki to the giant palace that is now a ferry terminal, and plentiful cafés, restaurants and shops line the waterfront.
Arch and Tomb of Galerius, or the Church of Aghios Georgios, is a circular church lacking the classic Orthodox iconostasis. The church is built upon former Roman and Greek pagan ruins.
Aristotelous Squareextends all the way from Nikis Avenue on the waterfront to the Church of Panayia Halkeion. The square, shaped like a bottle, is lined with tall "archondika", or mansions of the affluent, that have now been converted to shops and hotels. A large park lies at the north end of the square, and Thessaloniki's thriving old market is just one block away to the east and west.
*The Church of Aghia Sofia, also located in the city center, includes the large church and paved alleyways that make the few blocks around it widely known.
*The extensive Byzantine walls of the Upper City ("Ano Poli") and kastro.
*The Kyvernion ("little Palace"); former residence of the King and Queen of Greece; in the
Karabournakiarea, in Eastern Thessaloniki
*The modern Concert Hall of Thessaloniki in the East side of the city, near the Posidonion sports center.
*Thessaloniki Intemational Trade Fair held every September, organised by Helexpo.
*The Seven tower-castle ("Επταπύργιον").
* [http://www.jmth.gr/ Jewish Museum of Thessaloniki] (Museo Djudio de Salonik)
* [http://www.mmca.org.gr/ Macedonian Museum of Contemporary Art]
State Museum of Contemporary Arts[http://www.greekstatemuseum.com] housing an important collection of 1275 Russian avant-garde works of art, collected by George Costakis
*Macedonia-Thrace Folklore and Ethnological Museum, housed in the G. Modiano Mansion
* [http://www.mbp.gr/html/en/index.htm Museum of Byzantine Culture]
* [http://www.amth.gr/ Thessaloniki Archaeological Museum]
* [http://www.cinemuseum.gr Thessaloniki Cinema Museum]
Museum of the Macedonian Struggle
* [http://www.sportmuseum.gr/index.php?lan=1 Thessaloniki Sports Museum]
* [http://www.eyath.gr/eng/4mouseio.htm Water Museum of Thessaloniki]
*White Tower of Thessaloniki, museum and monument
Thessaloniki Science Center & Technology Museum - NOESIS
* [http://www.thmphoto.gr/ Thessaloniki Museum of Photography]
* [http://www.cinemuseum.gr/museum/ Museum of Cinematography]
* [http://web.auth.gr/teloglion/ Teloglion Foundation of Art]
*Artforum Culture Foundation
* [http://www.artforum-culture-foundation.org/ Artforum Research-institute and public-exhibition-hall]
* [http://www.ekbmm.gr/ukindex.html European Center of Byzantine and Postbyzantine Monuments]
* [http://www.ekby.gr/ The Goulandris Natural History Museum]
*Agia Paraskevi, Thessaloniki, archaic cemetery
*The Ancient Agora of Thessaloniki
*Monastery of Latomos at Thessaloniki
*The Roman Palace and Hippodrome
*The extensive city walls
*Trigonian Tower and the Castra area
Although the population of the Municipality of Thessaloniki has declined in the last two censuses, the metropolitan area's population is still growing, as people are moving to the suburbs. Today approximately 1 million people live in the metropolitan area, making it the second largest metropolitan area in Greece after
Thessaloníki is a major port city and an industrial and commercial center. The city's industries center around oil,
steel, petrochemicals, textiles, machinery, flour, cement, pharmaceuticals, and liquor. Being a free port, the city functions as the gateway to the Balkan hinterland. The city is also a major transportation hub for the whole of southeastern Europe, carrying, among other things, trade to and from the newly capitalist countries of the region. A considerable percentage of the city's working force are employed in small- and medium-sized businesses and in the service and the public sectors.
In recent years, the city has begun a process of deindustrialization and a move towards a service based economy. A spate of factory shut downs have occurred in order to take advantage of cheaper labor markets and more lax regulations. Among the largest companies to shut down factories are
Goodyear, [http://www.pfi.gr/ PFI (ΒΦΛ)] , AVEZ (the first industrial factory in northern Greece built in 1926), [http://www.makthes.gr/index.php?name=News&file=article&sid=10661 Information is in Greek from one of the city's largest dailies.] and VIAMIL (ΒΙΑΜΥΛ). Siemens is also considering shutting down their plant in the city.
Thessaloniki is home to a number of festivals and events, including the Thessaloniki International Trade Fair. The Fair has been hosted at the
Thessaloniki International Exhibition Center. Over 300,000 visitors attended in 2007. The Thessaloniki International Film Festival has been established as one of the most important film festivals in Southeastern Europe, with a number of notable film makers such as Francis Ford Coppola, Faye Dunaway, Catherine Deneuve, Irene Papasand Fatih Akıntaking part. The "Documentary Festival", founded in 1999, has focused on documentaries that explore global social and cultural developments, with many of the films presented being candidates for FIPRESCIand Audience Awards. The Dimitriafestival, founded in 1966 and named after the city's patron saintof St. Demetrius, has focused on a wide range of events including music, theatre, dance, local happenings, and exhibitions. The "DMC DJ Championship" has been hosted at the International Trade Fair of Thessalonikiand has become a worldwide event for aspiring DJs and turntablists. The "International Festival of Photography" has taken place every February to mid-April. Exhibitions for the event are sited at museums, heritage landmarks, galleries, bookshops and cafes.
The main football stadiums in the city are the state-owned
Kaftanzoglio Stadium, Toumba Stadiumand Kleanthis Vikelides Stadiumhome grounds of Iraklis, PAOK and Aris respectively, all of whom are founding members of the Greek league. Thessaloniki's major indoor arenas are the state-owned Alexandreio Melathron, PAOK Sports Arenaand the YMCAindoor hall. Other sporting clubs in the city include Apollon based on the eastern suburb of Kalamaria, Agrotikos Asterasbased in Evosmosand YMCA. Thessaloníki has a rich sporting history with its teams winning the first ever panhellenic football[http://www.galanissportsdata.com/football/national/season2008_09/history.asp] , basketball[http://www.galanissportsdata.com/basketball/mena1/season2007_08/history.asp] and water polo[http://sports.pathfinder.gr/other-sports/polo/615322.html] tournaments.
The city has played a major role in the development of basketball in Greece. The local YMCA was the first to introduce the sport to the country while Iraklis won the first Greek championship. [http://www.galanissportsdata.com/basketball/mena1/season2007_08/history.asp] From 1979 to 1993 Aris and PAOK won between them 10 championships, 7 cups and several European titles. Many prominent basketball players of international stature have played for Thessalonikian teams among them:
Nikos Galis, Panagiotis Giannakis, Dimitris Diamantidis, Lazaros Papadopoulos, Fedon Mattheou, Panagiotis Fasoulas, Scott Skiles, Walter Berry, Roy Tarpley, Cliff Levingston, Predrag Stojaković, Branislav Prelević, Zoran Savić, Žarko Paspalj, Slobodan Subotić, Jure Zdovc, Stojko Vranković, José Ortizand İbrahim Kutluay
Since 2000 the volley department of Iraklis has emerged as one of the most successful in Greece [http://www.contra.gr/Volleyball/Hellas/A1Volley/Panathinaikos_Iraklis/196958.html] and Europe [http://www.cev.lu/mmp/online/website/main_menu/volleyball/european_cups/indesit/119/6470/5881/5883/4260_EN.html] [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Men%27s_CEV_Champions_League_2005-06] alike with several domestic and international successes. In October 2007, the first Southeastern European Games were organized in Thessaloniki. [ [http://www.seegames2007.org/site.php?&file=index.xml&lang=el 1οι Αγώνες των χωρών της Νοτιανατολικής Ευρώπης - SEE games - Thessaloniki 2007] ]
Thessaloniki, throughout its history has been home to a number of
politicians, artists, craftsmen, sportsmen, clergyand singersamong others.
Thessaloniki was hit by powerful earthquakes in 620, 667, 700, 1677, 1759, 1902, 1904, 1905, 1932, and 1978. The event in 1978 measured a 6.5 magnitude on the Richter scale. [http://caltecheerl.library.caltech.edu/221/00/7803.pdf PDF file]
Thessaloniki lies on the northern fringe of the
Thermaic Gulf, along its western side, and to its south-eastern side is bordered by Mt. Hortiatis. The city borders the Mediterranean and Mid-European Temperate climates. Annual rainfall has averaged 451 mm (17.75 inches). Snowfall has been sporadic, but has occurred almost annually.
The city lies in the transitional climatic zone, so its climate has displayed characteristics of continental as well as Mediterranean climate. The winter is relatively dry, with morning frost being common. Snow has occurred almost annually, but usually has not persisted for many days. During the worst winter spells, temperatures have dropped as low as -10C/14F (Record min. -14C/7F).
Thessaloniki's summers have been hot and their nights humid. Maximum temperatures have generally risen above 30C/86F, but have rarely overshot 40C/104F (Record max. 44C). Rain has been infrequent during summer, and has occurred mainly in the form of thunderstorms.
Public transport in Thessaloniki is currently served only by buses. The bus company operating in the city is called Organismos Astikon Sygkoinonion Thessalonikis (
OASTH), or Thessaloniki Urban Transportation Organization.
The construction of the Thessaloniki Metropolitan Railway began in 2006 and is scheduled for completion in late 2012.cite web |url=http://www.ametro.gr/cgi-bin/showpress.cgi?id=77 |title=CONCLUSION OF CONTRACT FOR THE THESSALONIKI METRO |date=2006-04-07 |accessdate=2007-08-13 |work=Attiko Metro S.A. |publisher=www.ametro.gr] The line is set to extend over convert|9.5|km and include 13 stations, [cite web |url=http://www.ana.gr/anaweb/user/showplain?maindoc=2203508&service=8 |title=Thessaloniki metro "top priority", Public Works minister says |work=Athens News Agency |date=2007-02-12 |publisher=www.ana.gr |accessdate=2007-08-13] and it is expected that the subway will eventually serve 250,000 passengers daily. Some stations of the
Thessaloniki Metrowill house a number of archaeological finds.cite web |url=http://www.ametro.gr/cgi-bin/showpress.cgi?id=88 |title=CONCLUSION THESSALONIKI METRO & ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXCAVATION |date=2007-04-12 |accessdate=2007-08-13 |work=Attiko Metro S.A. |publisher=www.ametro.gr]
Discussions are underway on future expansion, in order to connect the underground with the major transport hubs for the city, the Makedonia Central Bus Station, the
Central Railway Station, and Makedonia International Airport. Expansions to Kalamaria, the easternmost suburb of Thessaloniki, and to Stavroupoli, in the west, are part of the initial construction phase. Expansion plans include the districts of Eleftherio-Kordelio, and the northern districts, such as Toumba.
Thessaloniki was without a motorway link until the 1970s when it was accessed by GR-1/E75 from Athens, GR-4, GR-2, (Via Egnatia) /E90 and GR-12/E85 from Serres and Sofia. In the early 1970s the motorway had reached Thessaloniki and was the last section of the GR-1 to be completed. The city's 6-lane bypass was completed in 1988. It runs from the western, industrial side of the city, to its southeast. Upgraded in 2007, it took in a number of new junctions and improved motorway features. In 2008, the motorway was expanded toward the Egnatia Motorway, northwest of Thessaloniki.
The city is a railway hub for the Balkans, with direct connections to
Sofia, Skopje, Belgrade, Moscow, Vienna, Budapest, Bucharestand Istanbul, alongside Athensand other destinations in Greece. Commuter rail services have recently been established between Thessaloniki and Larissa, covering the journey in an 1 hour 33 min.
Air traffic to and from the city is served by
Makedonia International Airport, for both international and domestic flights. The short length of the airport's two runways means that it does not current support intercontinental flights, although there are plans for a major expansion extending one of the runways into the Thermaic Gulf despite considerable opposition from local environmentalist groups.
*Makedonia - Thessaloniki [ [http://www.makthes.gr Makthes] ]
*Efimerida Ton politon
*Spor Tou Vorra
Alexandria, Egypt, since July 12 1993
Bologna, Emilia-Romagna, Italy, since October 20 1984
Bratislava, Slovakia, since April 23 1986
Cologne, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, since May 3 1988
Constanţa, Romania, since July 5 1988
Connecticut, United Statessince March 5 1962[cite web |url=http://hplct.org/tap/cultural_exchange/sister_cities/hartford_sister_cities_internati.htm#Thessaloniki%20Sister%20City |title=Hartford Sister Cities International |accessdate=2008-02-02 |work=Harford Public Library]
Kolkata, Indiasince January 1 2005
Korçë, Albaniasince October 14 2005
Leipzig, Saxony, Germany, since October 17 1984
Limassol, Cyprus, since June 30 1984
Melbourne, Victoria, Australiasince March 19 1984[cite web |url=http://www.melbourne.vic.gov.au/info.cfm?top=161&pg=1643 |title=International relations: Thessaloniki |accessdate=2008-02-02 |work=City of Melbourne]
Nice, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France, since March 20 1992
Plovdiv, Bulgaria, since February 27 1984cite web |url=http://www.thessalonikicity.gr/English/twinning-cities.htm |title=Twinning Cities |work=City of Thessaloniki |accessdate=2008-04-27]
*flagicon|USA San Francisco,
California, United States since August 6 1990[Cite web |url=http://www.sfgov.org/site/visitor_index.asp?id=7717 |title=Fun Facts and Statistics |accessdate=2008-02-02 |work=City and County of San Francisco]
Tel Aviv, Israel, since November 24 1994
Tianjin, China since March 4 2002
Boston, Massachusetts, United Statessince April 21 1996
Brooklyn Center, Minnesota, United Statessince July 5 1993
Budapest, Hungary since April 5 1993
Dnipropetrovsk, Ukrainesince April 18 2003
Gyumri, Armeniasince November 23 2000
Marseille, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France, since June 4 1991
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United Statessince April 1 2004
Saint Petersburg, Russia, since 2003
Shenyang, Chinasince March 23 2000
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History of Greece
Jews in Greece
Great Thessaloniki Fire of 1917
*Apostolos Papagiannopoulos,"Monuments of Thessaloniki", Rekos Ltd, date unknown.
*Apostolos P. Vacalopoulos, "A History of Thessaloniki", Institute for Balkan Studies,1972.
* John R. Melville-Jones, 'Venice and Thessalonica 1423-1430 Vol I, The Venetian Accounts, Vol. II, the Greek Accounts, Unipress, Padova, 2002 and 2006 (the latter work contains English translations of accounts of the events of this period by St Symeon of Thessaloniki and
*"Thessaloniki: Tourist guide and street map", A. Kessopoulos, MalliareÌ„s-Paideia, 1988.
Mark Mazower, "Salonica, City of Ghosts: Christians, Muslims and Jews, 1430-1950", 2004, ISBN 0-375-41298-0.
*"Thessaloniki City Guide", Axon Publications, 2002.
*James C. Skedros, "Saint Demetrios of Thessaloniki: Civic Patron and Divine Protector, 4th-7Th Centuries" (Harvard Theological Studies), Trinity Press International (1999).
*Vilma Hastaoglou-Martinidis (ed.), "Restructuring the City: International Urban Design Competitions for Thessaloniki", Andreas Papadakis, 1999.
* Matthieu Ghilardi, Dynamiques spatiales et reconstitutions paléogéographiques de la plaine de Thessalonique (Grèce) à l'Holocène récent, 2007. Thèse de Doctorat de l'Université de Paris 12 Val-de-Marne, 475 p.
* [http://www.thessalonikicity.gr Municipality of Thessaloniki]
* [http://www.thpa.gr/ Thessaloniki Port Authority]
* [http://www.oasth.gr ΟΑΣΘ - Organisation of Urban Transport of Thessaloniki] (Greek & English)
* [http://www.minpress.gr/minpress/en/index/currevents/currevents-publications.htm Thessaloniki - Photo Archive Documents 1900-1980]
* [http://www.filmfestival.gr/ Thessaloniki Film Festival]
* [http://lahana.org/blog/Thessaloniki%20postcard.htm Thessaloniki - Old postcards]
* [http://www.saloniki.org/ Thessaloniki Info & Links]
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