- Velarized alveolar lateral approximant
Velarized alveolar lateral approximant ɫ Image IPA number 209 Encoding Entity (decimal)
Unicode (hex) U+026B X-SAMPA
The velarized alveolar lateral approximant, which may actually be pharyngealized, also known as dark l, is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. Velarization and pharyngealization are generally associated with more dental articulations of coronal consonants so that dark l tends to be dental or denti-alveolar while clear l tends to be retracted to an alveolar position.
Features of the velarized alveolar lateral approximant:
- Its manner of articulation is approximant, which means it is produced by narrowing the vocal tract at the place of articulation, but not enough to produce a turbulent airstream.
- Its place of articulation is dental or alveolar, which means it is articulated with the tip (or, more rarely, the blade of the tongue) against the alveolar ridge. It also has a secondary articulation of velarization or pharyngealization, meaning that the back or root of the tongue approaches the soft palate (velum), or the back of the throat, respectively.
- Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
- It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
- It is a lateral consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream over the sides of the tongue, rather than down the middle.
- The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
Language Word IPA Meaning Notes Albanian halla [ˈhaɫa] 'aunt' Arabic Standard الله [ʔɑɫˈɫɑːh] 'God' Also transcribed as ⟨lˤ⟩. See Arabic phonology Bulgarian ъгъл [ˈɤ̞ɡɐɫ] 'corner' Catalan Eastern dialects cel·la [ˈsɛɫːə] 'cell' See Catalan phonology Western dialects alt [ˈaɫ(t)] 'tall' Dutch bal [bɑɫ] 'ball' Postvocalic allophone of /l/. See Dutch phonology English RP and GA peel [pʰiːɫ] 'peel' Can be always dark in North America, Scotland, Australia and New Zealand. See English phonology Scottish English loch [ɫɔx] 'loch' Greek Northern dialects μπάλα/bálla [ˈbaɫa] 'ball' Allophone of /l/ before /a o u/. See Modern Greek phonology Icelandic sigldi [sɪɫdɪ] 'sailed' Rare. See Icelandic phonology Irish lá [ɫɑː] 'day' See Irish phonology Norwegian south-eastern dialects tale [ˈtʰɑːɫə] 'speech', 'to speak' See Norwegian phonology. Allophone after [ɑ(ː)], [ɔ] and [oː] in the South-East. northern dialects spelle [spæɫːe] 'to play' Ossetian Алани [aˈɫaːni] (help·info) 'Alania' Polish Eastern dialects łapa [ˈɫapa] 'paw' Corresponds to /w/ in standard Polish. See Polish phonology Portuguese European mil [miɫ̪] 'one thousand' See Portuguese phonology Russian малый [ˈmɑɫ̪ɨj] 'small' See Russian phonology Scots fluir [fɫyːr] 'floor' Scottish Gaelic Mallaig [ˈmaʊɫækʲ] 'Mallaig' See Scottish Gaelic phonology St’át’imcets qaoḻ [qáɫ] 'bad' Taos [kīǣˈwǣɫmã̄] 'be strong' See Taos phonology Turkish kızıl [kɯzɯɫ] 'red' See Turkish phonology West Frisian lân [ɫɔːn] 'land'
- ^ Recasens & Espinosa (2005:4)
- ^ Recasens & Espinosa (2005:4)
- ^ Watson (2002:16)
- ^ Recasens & Espinosa (2005:1, 20)
- ^ Verhoeven (2005:245)
- ^ Booij, Geert. 1999. The Phonology of Dutch. P.8
- ^ Roca & Johnson (1999:73)
- ^ Northern Greek Dialects Portal for the Greek Language
- ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995:93)
- ^ Jones & Ward (1969:168)
- Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 25 (2): 90–94
- Daniel, Jones; Dennis, Ward (1969), The Phonetics of Russian, Cambridge University Press
- Recasens, Daniel; Espinosa, Aina (2005), "Articulatory, positional and coarticulatory characteristics for clear /l/ and dark /l/: evidence from two Catalan dialects", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 35 (1): 1–25
- Roca, Iggy; Johnson, Wyn (1999), A Course in Phonology, Essex: Blackwell Publishing, ISBN 0-631-21346-5
- Verhoeven, Jo (2005), "Belgian Standard Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 35 (2): 243–247
- Watson, Janet (2002), The Phonology and Morphology of Arabic, Oxford University Press
International Phonetic Alphabet IPA topics IPA Phonetics Special topics Encodings Consonants IPA pulmonic consonants chartchart image • audio Place → Labial Coronal Dorsal Radical Glottal ↓ Manner Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Postalv. Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal Nasal m ɱ n̪ n ɳ ɲ ŋ ɴ Plosive p b p̪ b̪ t̪ d̪ t d ʈ ɖ c ɟ k ɡ q ɢ ʡ ʔ Fricative ɸ β f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ ʂ ʐ ç ʝ x ɣ χ ʁ ħ ʕ ʜ ʢ h ɦ Approximant ʋ ɹ ɻ j ɰ Trill ʙ r ɽ͡r ʀ я * Flap or tap ⱱ̟ ⱱ ɾ ɽ ɢ̆ ʡ̯ Lateral Fric. ɬ ɮ ɭ˔̊ ʎ̥˔ ʟ̝̊ Lateral Appr. l ɭ ʎ ʟ Lateral flap ɺ ɺ̠ ʎ̯ Non-pulmonic consonants Clicks ʘ ǀ ǃ ǂ ǁ Implosives ɓ ɗ ʄ ᶑ ɠ ʛ Ejectives pʼ tʼ cʼ ʈʼ kʼ qʼ fʼ θʼ sʼ ɬʼ xʼ χʼ tsʼ tɬʼ cʎ̝̥ʼ tʃʼ ʈʂʼ kxʼ kʟ̝̊ʼ Affricates p̪f ts dz tʃ dʒ tɕ dʑ ʈʂ ɖʐ tɬ dɮ cç ɟʝ Co-articulated consonants Fricatives ɕ ʑ ɧ Approximants ʍ w ɥ ɫ Stops k͡p ɡ͡b ŋ͡m These tables contain phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help] Where symbols appear in pairs, left—right represent the voiceless—voiced consonants. Shaded areas denote pulmonic articulations judged to be impossible. * Symbol not defined in IPA. Chart image Vowels Vowels: IPA help • chart • chart with audio • view
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