Labiodental nasal

Labiodental nasal

The labiodental nasal is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is IPA|ɱ, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is F. The IPA symbol is a lowercase letter "m" with a leftward hook protruding from the lower right of the letter. Occasionally it is instead transcribed as an with a dental diacritic: IPA| [m̪] .

It is pronounced very similarly to the bilabial nasal IPA| [m] , except instead of the lips touching each other, the lower lip touches the upper teeth. The position of the lips and teeth is generally the same as for the production of the other labiodental consonants, like [f] and [v] , though closure is obviously incomplete for the fricatives.

The labiodental nasal has not been confirmed to exist as a separate phoneme in any language. It has been reported from the Kukuya dialect of Teke, where it is "accompanied by strong protrusion of both lips". However, there is some doubt that a true stop can be made by this gesture. [Harvcoltxt|Ladefoged & Maddieson|1996|p=18]

Nevertheless, it is extremely common phonetically, as it is the nearly universal allophone of IPA|/m/ (and sometimes IPA|/n/) before the labiodental fricatives IPA| [f] and IPA| [v] , as in English "comfort" or "circumvent".


Features of the labiodental nasal:

* Its manner of articulation is stop, which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract.
* Its place of articulation is labiodental which means it is articulated with the lower lips and the upper teeth.
* Its phonation type is voiced, which means the vocal cords are vibrating during the articulation.
* It is a nasal consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the nose.
* It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by allowing the airstream to flow over the middle of the tongue, rather than the sides.
* The airstream mechanism is pulmonic egressive, which means it is articulated by pushing air out of the lungs and through the vocal tract, rather than from the glottis or the mouth.


ee also

* List of phonetics topics



*Harvard reference
last = Ladefoged
first= Peter
authorlink=Peter Ladefoged
last2 = Maddieson
first2= Ian
authorlink2=Ian Maddieson
year= 1996
title=Sounds of the World's Languages

*Harvard reference
last = Martínez-Celdrán
first= Eugenio
last2 = Fernández-Planas
first2= Ana Ma.
last3 = Carrera-Sabaté
first3 = Josefina
year= 2003
title=Castilian Spanish
journal=Journal of the International Phonetic Association

*Harvard reference
last = Rogers
first = Derek
last2 = d'Arcangeli
first2 = Luciana
year= 2004
journal=Journal of the International Phonetic Association

*Harvard reference
last = Verhoeven
first= Jo
year= 2005
title=Belgian Standard Dutch
journal=Journal of the International Phonetic Association

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