- Hellenic Army
The Hellenic Army (Greek: Ελληνικός Στρατός) is the land force of
Greece. The Army of the modern nation of Greece has a history of nearly 190 years and came to its present form, gradually through those years.
Motto of the Hellenic Army is ""Freedom Stems from Valor" (Greek: "Ελεύθερον το Εύψυχον" - "Eleftheron To Efpsihon") and the Hellenic Army Emblem represents the
two-headed eaglelooking both left and right and the white cross in blue background placed in the middle.
The Hellenic Army's objective is to defend Greece's independence, borders, and terrain, and also to guarantee the country's defense. [cite news | title = Hellenic Army | http://www.army.com/Greece/index.html | publisher = Army.com | date =
2006-06-28| accessdate = 2008-03-05]
The modern Hellenic Army was formed shorty after the creation of the State in 1828. The first tactical army battalion was established in August, 1828 after the respective order was given by the first head of state of the independent
Greece, Ioannis Capodistrias. The new tactical army would replace the irregular military bands of the "capetanei" (καπεταναίοι - commanders) who had led the revolt against Ottoman Empirein 1821.
The Hellenic Army has taken part in the following wars:
Greek War of Independence(1821-1830)
* Greco-Turkish War of 1897
First Balkan War(1912-1913)
Second Balkan War(1913)
* Macedonian Front of World War I (1916-1918)
* Allied Expedition to the Ukraine (1919)
* Greco-Turkish War of 1919-1922
Second World War
** German invasion and
Battle of Crete(1941)
North African Campaign(1941-1943)
** Italian Campaign (1944)During World War II, the Army's equipment included the French Rifle Lebel M1886, the French Machinegun St. Etienne M1907, the French machinegun Hotchkiss M1914, the Belgian Rifle Mauser M1930the Austrian Machinegun Schwarzlose M1907/12, the French machinegun Hotchkiss M1928, the Austrian Infantry Rifle Mannchischer-Schonauer M1903, and the French Machinegun Chauchat M1915. [ [http://www.militaryphotos.net/forums/showthread.php?t=95326 28 OCTOBER 1940 - Greece says "NO" to AXIS! - Military Photos ] ]
Greek Civil War(1946-1949)
Turkish invasion of Cyprus(1974)
* War in Afghanistan (2001-present)
Hellenic National Defense General Staff
Hellenic Army General Staff
Γενικό Επιτελείο Στρατού (ΓΕΣ)
***Chief-of-Staff of the Army
***Inspector General of the Army
Γενικός Επιθεωρητής Στρατού / Διοικητής ΔΙΔΟΕΕ
***1st Deputy Chief-of-Staff of the Army
A' Υπαρχηγός ΓΕΣ
***2nd Deputy Chief-of-Staff of the Army
Β' Υπαρχηγός ΓΕΣ
Combat and Support Arms
*Most combat arms are called "Arm" (Όπλον). This term denotes army elements that, more or less, have direct participation in combat.
*Most support branches are called "Corps" (Σώμα), with some exceptions.
Army Units and Formations
After two major reorganizations in the last five years, currently the Hellenic Army consists of two major commands, the Hellenic Army General Staff-HAGS and the Hellenic National Defense General Staff-HNDGS.
Formations under the command of HAGS include the I and IV Army Corps, tasked with the defense of the terrestrial borders; the Supreme Military Command of Interior and Islands, which is responsible for the Aegean islands; the Supreme Military Support Command, which provides logistic support to the Army; and the Order of Battle, Training and Inspection Command, which oversees the administration, education and training of the officer corps. The other component of the Hellenic Army, HNDGS, commands the II Army Corps, which functions as the rapid reaction force of the Hellenic Army and comprises special, elite and aviation forces.
thumb||150px|right|The various uniforms of the Presidential Guard."> "Left to right": Islander, Macedonian, traditional mainland, modernized mainland, Pontic
There are three classes of personnel in the Hellenic Army, namely professional, volunteer and conscript. Conscript enlisted men and non-commissioned officers wear special rank insignia to differentiate them from volunteers. There are currently 109,266 personnel on active duty. Mobilization strength is 575,000 more.
Most professional officers graduate from the Evelpidon Military Academy in Athens ("Στρατιωτική Σχολή Ευελπίδων") and the Corps Officers Military Academy in Thessaloniki ("Στρατιωτική Σχολή Αξιωματικών Σωμάτων"), while the rest graduate from various Military Schools according to their specialization.
In the chain of command, graduates of the two Military Academies in
Athensand Thessalonikiare considered higher in seniority compared to professional officers of the same rank who graduate from specialized Military Schools. The latter officers are followed in seniority by volunteer and finally conscript staff.
The heavy equipment and weaponry of the Hellenic Army is mostly of foreign manufacture, from German, French, American, British and
Russian suppliers. A notable exception is the native-built Leonidas armored fighting vehicle by the Hellenic Vehicles Manufacturer Industry (ELBO).
Equipment runs the gamut from state-of-the art to obsolescent Cold War inventories; the latter are gradually being retired.
Officers Ranks & Insignia
"Please visit main article for detailed description of ranks."
Sources and bibliography
* Dimitris Michalopoulos, "The evolution of the Greek Army (1828-68)", in "War and Society in East Central Europe", vol. XIV, Brooklyn College Press, 1984, pp.317-330. ISBN 0-88033-043-0.
Structure of the Hellenic Army
Formations of the Hellenic Army
Hellenic Army I Army Corps
Hellenic Army II Army Corps
Hellenic Army IV Army Corps
* [http://www.mod.mil.gr/ Hellenic Ministry of Defense - Official Site]
* [http://www.geetha.mil.gr/ Hellenic National Defense General Staff - Official Site]
* [http://www.army.gr/ Hellenic Army General Staff - Official Site]
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