name = Gothenburg
native_name = Göteborg
dot_x = 128
dot_y = 116
dot_map_caption = Location of Gothenburg in
dot_mapsize = 280px
image_shield = Göteborg vapen.svg
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_type1 = Municipality
Gothenburg Municipality, Härryda Municipality, Partille Municipalityand Mölndal Municipalitycite web |title=Tätorter 2005 |publisher= Statistics Sweden|url=http://w41.scb.se/templates/Publikation____186288.asp |language=Swedish |accessdate=2008-05-15]
subdivision_type2 = County
Västra Götaland County
subdivision_type3 = Province
established_title3 = Charter
established_date3 = 1621
area_footnotes = cite web |title=Tätorternas landareal, folkmängd och invånare per km2 2000 och 2005 |publisher=
Statistics Sweden|url=http://www.scb.se/statistik/MI/MI0810/2005A01B/T%E4torternami0810tab1.xls |format=xls |language=Swedish |accessdate=2008-05-15]
area_total_km2 = 450
area_water_km2 = 14.5
area_water_percent = 3.2
area_urban_km2 = 198.16
area_metro_km2 = 3717
population_as_of = 2008
population_footnotes = [http://www.goteborg.se/statistik]
population_total = 495,563
population_density_km2 = 1083
population_metro = 900,322|population_density_metro_km2 = 238
population_urban = 510,491
population_density_urban_km2 = 2576
timezone = CET
utc_offset = +1
timezone_DST = CEST
utc_offset_DST = +2
latd=57 |latm=42 |lats= |latNS=N
longd=11 |longm=58 |longs= |longEW=E
website = [http://www10.goteborg.se/english/ www.goteborg.se]
Gothenburg (Swedish: Audio|sv-Göteborg.ogg|"Göteborg") IPA|/jœte'bɔrj/) is a city, a municipality, and an urban area on the west-coast of
Sweden. It is the capital of Västra Götaland County(West Gothia).
As of 2006, the population was 489,787 in the municipality and 510,491 in the urban area, making it the second largest city in Sweden, after
Stockholmand the fifth largest amongst the Nordic countries. The metropolitan area, a statistical area encompassing thirteen municipalities of which one is located in Halland County, has approximately 900,000 inhabitants.
The City of Gothenburg was founded in 1621 by King
Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden. It is situated by the sea at the mouth of Göta Älv, the river running through the city, and is the largest sea port of the Nordic countries. [http://www.ne.se/jsp/search/article.jsp?i_art_id=189651&i_word=G%f6teborg&i_whole_article=true&i_history=1 Swedish National Encyclopedia (password needed)] ] Gothenburg is also a significant university city with a large student population of both the University of Gothenburg, which is Scandinavia's largest university, and Chalmers University of Technology.
The city was named after the
Geats (Swedish: "Götar" varied: Geatas, Gautar, Goths, Gotar, Gøtar, Götar), the inhabitants of Gothia, now southern Sweden - i.e. "Defense of the Geats". [Hellquist, E. Svensk etymologisk ordbok. Pamp, B. Ortnamnen i Sverige. Svenska ortnamnsarkiv. AWE/Gebers serie om ortnamnen i våra landskap.] The river on which the city sits is the "Götaälv" or Gothia River. "Göta borg" is the fort on the Göta River, built to protect the port, which was created to be Sweden's commercial window to the west.
In Dutch, Scots, German and English — all languages with a long history of being spoken in the trade and maritime-oriented city — the name "Gothenburg" has traditionally been used for the city. The French form of the city name is "Gothembourg". "Gottenburg" can also be seen in some older English texts. These traditional forms are now sometimes replaced with the use of the Swedish "Göteborg", for example by the Göteborg Opera, Göteborg Ballet, Göteborg International Film Festival, and by the city itself (in English, the City of Göteborg). Many British newspapers, and the U.S. Navy, also refer to the city in English as Göteborg. Effective February 1, 2008, however, Göteborgs Universitet, previously named Göteborg University in English, changed to the
University of Gothenburg. Other old variations in Swedish are "Götheborgh", and the most common, "Götheborg".
In the 16th and 17th century, the configuration of Sweden's borders made Gothenburg strategically important as the Swedish gateway to the west, lying on the west coast in the narrow area between the territories of
Denmark-Norway. After several failed attempts, Gothenburg was successfully founded in 1621 by King Gustavus Adolphus (Gustaf II Adolf). The city was heavily influenced by the Dutch. Dutch city planners were contracted to build the city as they had the skills needed to build in the marshy areas around the city. The town was planned after Dutch cities to have canals like Amsterdam, and the blueprint for the canals of Gothenburg are actually the same as those used for Jakarta.Fact|date=February 2007 The Dutchmen initially won political power and it was not until 1652, when the last Dutch politician in the city's council died, that the Swedes acquired political power over Gothenburg.Henriksson, Dick and Älveby, Rustan. (1994). "Vårt Levebröd - Göteborgregionens näringsliv Igår, I dag och I morgon". Publisher: Akademiförlaget. Page 5. ISBN 91-24-16635-9 ] During the Dutch period the town followed Dutch town laws and there were propositions to make Dutch the official language in the town.
Along with the Dutch, the town also was influenced by the Scottish, that came to settle down in Gothenburg. Many became people of high profile and one such person was
William Chalmers, who donated his fortunes to create what later became Chalmers University of Technology. The Scottish influence can still be felt in Gothenburg in present day as names like Glennand Morgan, which in the rest of Sweden usually are rare, are not uncommon in Gothenburg, and the use of a Scottish sounding "r" in the local dialect.
The Gothenburg coat of arms was based on the lion of the
coat of arms of Sweden, symbolically holding a shield with the national emblem, the Three Crowns, to defend against its enemies.
Treaty of Roskilde(1658) Denmark-Norway ceded the then Danish province Halland, to the south, and the Norwegian province of Bohus County or " Bohuslän" to the north, leaving Gothenburg in a less exposed position. Gothenburg was able to grow into an important port and trade centre on the west coast thanks to the fact that it was the only city on the west coast that was granted, together with Marstrand, the rights to trade with merchants from other countries.
In the 18th century, fishing was the most important industry. However, in 1731 the
Swedish East India Companywas founded, and the city flourished due to its foreign trade with highly profitable commercial expeditions to Asian countries.
The harbour developed into Sweden's main harbour for trade towards the west, and with the
Swedish emigration to North Americaincreasing, Gothenburg became Sweden's main point of departure. The impact of Gothenburg as a main port of embarkation for Swedish emigrants is reflected by Gothenburg, Nebraska, a small Swedish settlement in the United States.
With the 19th century, Gothenburg evolved into a modern industrial city that continued on into the 20th century. The population increased tenfold in the century, from 13,000 (1800) to 130,000 (1900). In the 20th century major companies that developed included
SKF(est. 1907) and Volvo(est. 1926).
In more recent years however, the industrial section has faced a recession, which has spurred the development of new sectors such as increased merchandising, tourism and cultural and educational institutions. Fact|date=February 2008
Gothenburg is located on the west coast, in Southwestern Sweden, approximately half way between the capitals
Copenhagen, Denmark, and Oslo, Norway. The location at the mouth of the river Göta älv, which feeds into Kattegatt, an arm of the North Sea, has helped the city grow in significance as a trading city. Due to the Gulf Stream the city has a mild climate and quite a lot of rain.
archipelagoof Gothenburg consists of rough, barren rocks and cliffs, which also is typical for the coast of Bohuslän.
The Gothenburg Metropolitan Area extends to the municipalities of Ale,
Härryda, Kungälv, Lerum, Mölndal, Partille, Stenungsund, Tjörn, Öckeröin Västra Götaland County, and Kungsbackain Halland County.
Gothenburg has an
oceanic climateaccording to Köppen climate classification. Due to its high northern latitude, temperatures are pretty mild both in winter and summer, mainly because of the Gulf Stream.During the summer, daylight extends 17 hours, whereas it lasts only around 7 hours in winter.
Summers are warm and pleasant with average high temperatures of 22°C (72°F) and lows of 13°C (55°F), but temperatures of 25 - 30°C (77 - 86°F) occurs on many days during the summer.Winters are cold and windy with temperatures around the freezing point. Winters are much warmer than other places in same latitude, and are not colder than cities in Canada and northern United States.
Precipitation is regular but generally light throughout the year. Snow mainly occurs from january to March. Snow cover occurs but usually does not remain very long.
Typical temperatures and precipitation for each month: [ [http://www.weather.com/outlook/travel/businesstraveler/wxclimatology/monthly/graph/SWXX0007?from=36hr_bottomnav_business Goteborg, "The Official Visitors Guide", Climate]
2006- 07-18] Infobox Weather
location = Göteborg
Jan_Hi_°F =36 |Jan_REC_Hi_°F =
Feb_Hi_°F =36 |Feb_REC_Hi_°F =
Mar_Hi_°F =43 |Mar_REC_Hi_°F =
Apr_Hi_°F =52 |Apr_REC_Hi_°F =
May_Hi_°F = 63 |May_REC_Hi_°F =
Jun_Hi_°F = 70 |Jun_REC_Hi_°F =
Jul_Hi_°F = 72 |Jul_REC_Hi_°F =
Aug_Hi_°F = 72 |Aug_REC_Hi_°F =
Sep_Hi_°F =63 |Sep_REC_Hi_°F =
Oct_Hi_°F =56 |Oct_REC_Hi_°F =
Nov_Hi_°F =45 |Nov_REC_Hi_°F =
Dec_Hi_°F =39 |Dec_REC_Hi_°F =
Year_Hi_°F =54 |Year_REC_Hi_°F =
Jan_Lo_°F = 29 |Jan_REC_Lo_°F =
Feb_Lo_°F =27 |Feb_REC_Lo_°F =
Mar_Lo_°F = 32 |Mar_REC_Lo_°F =
Apr_Lo_°F = 38 |Apr_REC_Lo_°F =
May_Lo_°F = 47 |May_REC_Lo_°F =
Jun_Lo_°F = 54 |Jun_REC_Lo_°F =
Jul_Lo_°F =57 |Jul_REC_Lo_°F =
Aug_Lo_°F = 56 |Aug_REC_Lo_°F =
Sep_Lo_°F =51 |Sep_REC_Lo_°F =
Oct_Lo_°F = 45 |Oct_REC_Lo_°F =
Nov_Lo_°F = 37 |Nov_REC_Lo_°F =
Dec_Lo_°F =31 |Dec_REC_Lo_°F =
Year_Lo_°F =42 |Year_REC_Lo_°F =
source =World Weather Information Service cite web
url =http://www.worldweather.org/096/c01042.htm| title =Weather Information for Gothenburg| accessmonthday =Aug 6| accessyear = 2008
publisher =World Weather Information Service] | language = ]
accessdate = 2008-01-06
The sea, trade and industrial history of the city is evident in the cultural life of Gothenburg. The biggest attraction in the city is the amusement park
Liseberg(see Sites of interest). Another fact related to the industrial heritage of the city is that many of the cultural institutions, as well as hospitals and the university, were created thanks to donations from rich merchants and industrialists, for example the Röhss Museum.
The 1923 Gothenburg Industrial Exhibition saw the creation of the art museum and a number of other institutions. The event culture of the city was an important factor behind the creation of a number of other sport and cultural institutions.
There are many free theatre ensembles in the city, besides institutions like
Gothenburg City Theatre, Backa Theatre(youth theatre), and Folkteatern.
Gothenburg Film Festival, held each year, is the biggest film festival in Scandinavia. [ [http://www.filmfestival.org/filmfestival/page/en/information/festivalen Göteborg International Film Festival 2008: Göteborg International Film Festival ] ] Similarly, the Gothenburg Book Fair, held every year in September, is the largest such event in Scandinavia.
There are very few houses left from the 17th century when the city was founded, since all but the military and royal houses were built of wood. [
Nationalencyklopedin(NE), The Swedish National Encyclopedia (Most of this section is based on NE) ] One example is Skansen Crown.
The first major architecturally interesting period is the 18th century when the East India Company made Gothenburg an important trade city. Imposing stone houses with a Classical look were erected around the canals. One example from this period is the East India House, which today houses Gothenburg’s City Museum. In the 19th century the wealthy bourgeoisie begun to move outside the city walls which had protected the city when the Union of Denmark and Norway was still a threat. The style now was an eclectic, academic, somewhat over decorated style which the middle-class favoured. The working class lived in the overcrowded city district Haga, in wooden houses.
In the 19th century the first important town plan after the founding of city was created, which led to the construction of the main street,
Kungsportsavenyn.The perhaps most significant type of houses of the city, Landshövdingehusen, were built in the end of the 19th century; three storey-houses with the first floor in stone and the other two in wood.
A very important period in the architectural history of the city was the early 20th century, when the National Romantic style dominated. Among the many monumental building erected the
Masthugget Churchcan be mentioned.
And in the beginning of the 1920s, when the city celebrated its 300th anniversary, the
Götaplatsensquare with its Neo-Classical look was built.
After this the predominant style in Gothenburg and rest of Sweden was Functionalism which especially dominated the suburbs like
Västra Frölundaand Bergsjön. In the 1950s the big stadium Ulleviwas erected when Sweden hosted the 1958 World Cup in football.
The modern architecture of the city is being formed by such architects as
Gert Wingårdhwho started as a Post-Modernistin the 1980s.
A further remarkable construction is Brudaremossen TV Tower, one of the few
partially guyed towers in the world.
Gothenburg has a rich music life - the
Gothenburg Symphony Orchestrais the best known when it comes to classical music. Gothenburg also was the birthplace of the Swedish composer Kurt Atterberg. Bands like The Soundtrack of Our Livesand Ace of Baseare well known pop representatives of the city. There is also an active indie scene. For example, the musician Jens Lekmanwas born in the suburb of Angeredand named his 2007 release " Night Falls Over Kortedala" after another suburb ( Kortedala).
The city is also noted for being the centre of the
melodic death metalmovement (sometimes even called "The Gothenburg sound"). Gothenburg metal is unique and distinct because of its mixture of melody and harmony and sometimes progressive guitar riffs and solos. Often, keyboards and clean singing are incorporated (instead of just using the traditional death growls). Gothenburg's own At the Gates, In Flamesand Dark Tranquillityare credited with pioneering this melodic style, although first made by Michael Amottof Arch Enemy, Spiritual Beggars, ex-Carcass and ex- Carnage. Another well known band in the Gothenburg scene is Soilwork, although they reign from Helsingborg. Gothenburg metal has influenced numerous significant death metal and metalcore scenes across Europe and the rest of the world, including Finland, the United States, and Canada. Fact|date=June 2007
Food and drink
Gothenburg, with its location by the sea, is famous for its many fish dishes and varieties of these dishes. Various fish restaurants exist in the city, all from low-class shacks to world-class eateries. The city also has a number of star chefs – over the past decade, seven of the
Swedish Chef of the YearAwards have been won by Gothenburgers. [ [http://travel.nytimes.com/2007/09/23/travel/tmagazine/10well-goteborg-t.html?pagewanted=2&ref=tmagazine New York Times article] ] A popular place to buy fish ingredients is the Feskekôrka("Fish Church"); an indoor fish market, which got its name from the building's resemblance to a Gothic church. Five Gothenburg restaurants have a star in the 2008 Michelin Guide: "28 +", "Basement", "Fond", "Kock&Vin" and "Sjömagasinet". [Information from the tourist company Göteborg & Co, website www.goteborg.com]
As in all of Sweden, a variety of sports are followed, including but not limited to
ice hockey, football, basketball, and team handball. There is a varied amateur and professional sports clubs scene. Gothenburg is the birthplace of football in Swedenas the first football match in Swedenwas played there in 1892. The city's three major clubs, IFK Göteborg, Örgryte ISand GAISshare a total of 34 Swedish Championships between them. IFK has also won the UEFA Cuptwice. Other notable clubs include BK Häcken(football), Pixbo Wallenstam IBK( floorball), multiple national team handballchampion Redbergslids IK, and three time national ice hockey champion Frölunda HC.
The city's most notable sports venues are
Scandinavium( ice hockey), and Ullevi(multisport). A new football stadium is currently under construction, the name of which is yet to be decided (provisional name: Nya Gamla Ullevi).
As Swedens's second largest city after
Stockholm, Gothenburg has hosted a number of international sporting events including the 1958 FIFA World Cup, the 1992 European Football Championship, the 1993 and the 2002 World Men's Handball Championship, the 1995 World Championships in Athletics, the 1997 World Championships in Swimming(Short track), the 2002 Ice Hockey World Championships, the 2004 UEFA Cupfinal, the 2006, the 2006 European Championships in Athletics, and the 2008 World Figure Skating Championships. Annual events held in the city are the Gothia Cupand the Göteborgsvarvet.
Due to the Gothenburg's advantageous location in the centre of Scandinavia, trade and shipping have always played a major role in the city's economic history, and they continue to do so. Gothenburg port has come to be the largest harbour in the whole of
Apart from trade, the second pillar of Gothenburg has traditionally been manufacturing, and industry which significantly contributes to the city's wealth. Major companies operating plants in the area include
SKF, Volvo, and Ericsson. Volvo Cars is the largest employer in Gothenburg, not including jobs in supply companies. The blue collar industries which have dominated the city for long are still important factors in the city's economy, but they are being gradually replaced by high tech industries.
Historically, Gothenburg was home base of the 18th century
Swedish East India Company.
Gothenburg, as with most Swedish metropolitan areas, has a large immigrant population. [ [http://www.scb.se/statistik/_publikationer/LE0102_2006A01_BR_BE51ST0702.pdf Statistics Sweden] ] According to Statistics Sweden in 2005, there are 108,480 immigrants resident in Gothenburg, [ [http://www.goteborg.se/prod%5Csk%5Cstatistik%5Cstatistikr5.nsf/0/B34393B5228E361BC1257145003B48F3/$File/20.09.xls Exceldocument from the townships homepage] ] which is about 20% of the population, out of which 10% are from
Iranand 9% from Finland. The Iranian population, as well as other immigrants from the Middle East(notably Iraq), Somaliaand former Yugoslavia, is concentrated in Angered(most notably Hjällbo and Hammarkullen) and other suburbs in the north east ( Bergsjön), while other immigrants from Scandinavia, Southern Europe(notably Portugal, Italyand Greece) and Eastern Europeare far less segregated.
Gothenburg has two universities, both of which started off as colleges founded by private donations in the 19th century. The (public)
University of Gothenburghas approximately 50,000 students and is the largest university in Scandinavia[ [http://www.gu.se/english/about_the_university/ About the university - University of Gothenburg ] ] and one of the most versatile in Sweden. Chalmers University of Technologyis a notable private university located in Johanneberg 2 km south of inner city.
There are also four
folk high schools ("Arbetarrörelsens Folkhögskola i Göteborg", "Folkhögskolan i Angered", "Göteborgs Folkhögskola", and "Kvinnofolkhögskolan").
Gothenburg has some 25-30 high schools. Three of the more notable schools are
Hvitfeldtska gymnasiet, Sigrid Rudebecks Gymnasiumand Göteborgs Högre Samskola. There is also some high-schools connected to big Swedish companies. One is SKF Technical high-school(belonging to SKF)and Gothenburgs technical high-school(belonging to Volvo).
Points of interest
Gothenburg is a popular destination for tourists on the Swedish west-coast, and offers a number of cultural and architectural highlights.
The main boulevard is called
Kungsportsavenyn(commonly known as "Avenyn", "The Avenue"). It is about one kilometre long and starts at Götaplatsen— which is the location of the Gothenburg Museum of Art, the city's theatre, and the city library — and stretches out all the way to Kungsportsplatsenin the old city centre of Gothenburg, crossing a canal and a small park. The "Avenyn" was created in the 1860s and 1870s as a result of an international architecture contest, and is the product of a period of extensive town planning and re-modelling. [Guide till Sveriges arkitektur, red. Waern, Caldenby, Arkitektur förlag] . "Avenyn" has Gothenburg's biggest concentration of pubs and clubs.
Scandinavia's largest shopping center,
Nordstan, is located in central Gothenburg. Gothenburg's Haga district is known for its picturesque wooden houses and its cafés.
Gothenburg Operahouse was inaugurated in 1994, and is an architectural landmark situated right next to the Göta älvriver. Museums include the Gothenburg Museum of Art, Göteborgs Konsthall, Röhss Museum, and several museums of sea and navigation history, natural history, the sciences, and East India. The Museum of World Culture[http://www.varldskulturmuseet.se/smvk/jsp/polopoly.jsp?d=126&l=sv_SE] was inaugurated in 2004.
Göteborg Botanical Garden[ [http://w3.goteborg.se/botaniska/engelska/english_start.html Göteborg Botanical Garden] ] is considered to be one of the most important botanical gardens in Europewith three stars in the French Guide Rouge. Next to the botanical garden is Gothenburg's largest park, Slottsskogen, where the Natural History Museum (Naturhistoriska Museet) is located. The park is also home to the city's oldest observatorie.
The amusement park
Lisebergis located in the central part of the city. Liseberg is Scandinavia's largest amusement park by number of rides, [ [http://www.forbes.com/2005/05/25/cx_sb_0526featslide_6.html?thisSpeed=20000 Forbes Magazine article] ] and the most popular attraction in Sweden by number of visitors per year (>3 millions). Located near Liseberg is a science discovery centre named Universeum.
One of Gothenburg's most popular natural tourist attractions is the
Southern Gothenburg Archipelago, which is a set of many picturesque islands that can be reached by ferry boat. Within the archipelago Älvsborg Fortress, Vinga and Styrsöislands are popular places to visit.
Chicago, Illinois, USA
Shanghai, People's Republic of China
Saint Petersburg, Russia
Port Elizabeth, Republic of South Africa
Gothenburg-Landvetter Airportis an international airport serving the Gothenburg region in Sweden. With 5.2 million passengers in 2005 it is Sweden's second-largest airport. It is operated by the Swedish Civil Aviation Administration (Luftfartsverket). The airport is named after the small town of Landvetter, which is located in the municipality of Härryda. It is 20 km east of Gothenburg. It has two terminals, domestic and international, but all check-in is done in the international terminal now, since all luggage has to be screened.
Gothenburg's second international airport is
Gothenburg City Airportformerly known as Säve Flygplats and Sweden's 7th largest airport  . It is located within the borders of Gothenburg Municipality. Prior to the arrival of Ryanairin 2001, the airport had 9000 passengers per year, only business jets etc. In 2007, more than 700,000 flew from City Airport. In addition to commercial airlines, the airport is also operated by a number of rescue services, including the Swedish Coast Guard. Due to its location many business jets prefer flying to City Airport rather than Landvetter. Gothenburg City Airport can handle planes up to the size of a Boeing 757, an Airbus A320or similar jets. The airport also accommodates General Aviation acitivities, including 2 flying clubs, Aeroklubben i Göteborg, one of Europe's oldest flying clubs Fact|date=July 2007, and Chalmers flygklubb.
The Swedish company
Stena Lineoperates between Gothenburg/ Fredrikshavnin Denmarkand Gothenburg/ Kielin Germany
Englandferry" ("Englandsfärjan") to Newcastle over Kristiansand (run by the Danish company DFDS Seaways) ceased at the end of October 2006, [ [http://www.thelocal.se/article.php?ID=4805&date=20060906 "DFDS scraps Newcastle-Gothenburg line"] , "The Local", 7 September 2006: "Danish shipping company DFDS Seaways is to scrap the only passenger ferry route between Sweden and Britain, with the axing of the Gothenburg-Newcastle route at the end of October."] after being a Gothenburg institution since the 19th century. The company cited high fuel prices and new competitionfrom low-cost air services, especially Ryanair, as being the cause. DFDS Seaways' sister company, DFDS Tor Line, will continue to run scheduled freightships between Gothenburg and several English ports, and these have limited capacity for passengers, but not private vehicles.
Rail and intercity bus
Other major transportation hubs are "Centralstationen" (
Gothenburg Central Station) and the Nils Ericson Terminalwith trains and buses to various destinations in Sweden, as well as connections to Osloand Copenhagen(via Malmö).
Gothenburg is a logistic centre, with transports by train and truck from Sweden and Norway to Gothenburg harbour which is by far the largest port in Scandinavia with a cargo turnover of 36.9 million tonnes a year (2004). [Statistics from the homepage of the [http://www.portgot.com/ Port of Göteborg] ]
With over 80 km of double track the
Gothenburg tramis the largest tram/light rail network in Scandinavia. The bus network, however, is almost as important. There are also some boat and ferry services. The lack of a subway is due to the soft ground on which Göteborg is situated. Tunneling is very expensive in such conditions. There is also a commuter rail in Gothenburg.
East Indiaman Götheborg
Largest European metropolitan areas
Largest cities of the European Union by population within city limits
Notes and references
* [http://www.goteborg.se/english Goteborg.se] - City of Gothenburg website en icon
* [http://www.goteborg.com/en Goteborg.com] - Gothenburg tourism portal en icon
* [http://www.visitsweden.com/VSTemplates/Page____9546.aspx VisitSweden] - visitsweden.com profile of Gothenburg en icon
* [http://www.hotelspecials.se/hotell-goeteborg.htm] - Tourism and accomodation and packages to Gothenburg.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.