- Highway 1 (Israel)
כביש תל אביב - ירושלים
Kvish Tel Aviv - Yerushalayim
Tel Aviv - Jerusalem Highway
Route information Length: 100 km (100 mi) Major junctions West end: Tel Aviv (Kibbutz Galuyot Interchange)
- Kibbutz Galuyot Interchange
- Ganot Interchange
- Shapirim Interchange
- Lod Interchange
- Ben Shemen Interchange
- Daniel Interchange
- Latrun Interchange
- Sha'ar HaGai Interchange
- Yigael Yadin Interchange
- Sha'ar Mizrah Interchange
- Beit HaArava Junction
East end: Jordan River Location Major cities: Holon, Rishon LeZion, Yehud, Lod, Modi'in, Beit Shemesh, Mevaseret Zion, Jerusalem, Ma'ale Adummim, Jericho Highway system
Highway 1 (Hebrew: כביש 1, kvish a'hat), is the main highway connecting Tel Aviv with Jerusalem.
The section between Latrun and Jerusalem roughly follows an ancient path connecting Jaffa and Jerusalem. The Jaffa-Jerusalem road was initially paved by the Ottomans in the 1860s and since then served as the main highway to Jerusalem, favored over more topographically convenient routes such as Route 443.
In 1948 the Latrun section of the highway was taken over by Jordan and traffic was diverted to a new route called "Derekh Ha'Gvura" (Road of Bravery), which is now part of Highways 44 and 38. In 1965 the old highway was widened to four lanes between Sha'ar HaGai and Jerusalem, and after the Six Day War the Latrun section was reopened and an interchange was built at Mevaseret Zion (Harel Interchange). During the 1970s a bypass was built around the village of Abu Ghosh, including the construction of Hemed Interchange.
In 1978 a new section opened, connecting Sha'ar HaGai with former Highway 10 (Tel Aviv - Ben Gurion Airport). The new section formed the third freeway in the country, after Highways 2 and 4. Although it is about 10 km longer than the old road (now Highway 44 and Route 424) it is much faster. One of the first passengers on this section was Egyptian President Anwar Sadat during his historic visit to Israel in 1977. This section briefly crosses over the Green Line near Latrun.
The section between Ganot Interchange and Ben Shemen Interchange was widened to six lanes in 1998. During the construction of Highway 6 (1999–2003), Ben Shemen Interchange was completely rebuilt, and a new interchange was built near the village of Kfar Daniel. Named for the adjacent village, the Daniel Interchange is actually a 1 1/2 kilometer straight, eight lane segment where Highways 1 and 6 run concurrently providing 1-west to 6-north and 1-east to 6-south high-speed interchange.
Motza Interchange opened in 1990 and Sha'ar HaGai Interchange opened in 1995. In 1998 the east bound left turn to Abu Ghosh, Ma'ale HaHamisha and Kiryat Anavim was closed. Finally, in 2002 Shoresh Interchange opened, eliminating the last left turn on the highway between Tel Aviv and Jerusalem. Although the Sha'ar HaGai - Jerusalem section is fully grade separated, the road does not meet freeway standards due to narrow shoulders, dangerous turns and difficult slopes, and the speed limit on this section is 80 km/h.
Anava Interchange opened on February 4, 2009 together with the eastern section of Route 431. It is a complex interchange and the first full freeway to freeway interchange in the country, connecting all eight directions between the two freeways without the use of traffic lights.
The section of the highway east of Jerusalem was first built by the British in the 1920s, also along the path of an ancient road to the Dead Sea. This section was under Jordanian control between 1948 and 1967, and renewed access to this road, which is known as the "Jericho Road" (Hebrew: דרך יריחו) or the Adummim Ascent (Hebrew: מעלה אדומים), was famously noted alongside the reunification of Jerusalem in the famous Israeli song, Jerusalem of Gold.
In the late 1980s, a new road was built north of Jericho Road, between French Hill neighborhood in northern Jerusalem and the town of Ma'ale Adummim. This section was improved by 1995, when it was widened and a new interchange was built at Ma'ale Adummim. A bypass of this section, designed to relieve congestion at Sha'ar Mizrah Junction, opened in 2002, connecting the highway through two 2-lane tunnels under Mount Scopus towards the Hebrew University, Bar-Ilan Street and central Jerusalem. As part of this project, the new HaZeitim interchange was built at the foot of the Mount of Olives.
The sections west and east of Jerusalem are linked by an expressway segment running north of the city centre. Known internally as Yigael Yadin road or 'Jerusalem Road 9', the stretch has divided lanes, but includes two at-grade intersections alongside its interchanges.
Jerusalem Road 9
In 2001 Moriah, the Jerusalem Development Company, started building a bypass of the city's oft-congested western entrance, designated as 'Jerusalem Road 9'. Before it was built, travelers from west of Jerusalem who wished to reach the Dead Sea, or vice versa, had no better option than to drive through congested city streets. The road was intended to improve traffic flow in Ramot Alon and nearby neighborhoods.
The 3.6 km road descends from the purpose-built Sha'ar Moriah interchange to allow continuous separate grade access to Yigael Yadin Interchange and the northern and eastern continuation of Highway 1. It includes two 400 meter tunnels (one for eastbound traffic and one for westbound), four bridges over the Sorek stream and two new interchanges.
While the highway was scheduled for completion in early 2005, work was slowed to a near halt between 2003 and 2006 and completion was postponed for over two years.The opening, planned for May 21, 2007, was postponed another two months due to Moriah's failure to complete the required environmental mitigation.Permission to open the road was granted on condition that the company and Jerusalem municipality guarantee completion of environmental mitigation after the opening. Road 9 opened on July 25, 2007 and constitutes part of Highway 1.
The eastern section of the highway is being widened to four lanes between Ma'ale Adumim and Jericho. There are also plans to construct a continuous string of four-lane highways from Jerusalem to Amman, thereby shortening the one-way trip between these two cities to one hour. Route 1 would be a part of this string.
Israel Railways is building a new high speed rail line between Tel Aviv and Jerusalem. This line will cross the highway at three points: over a viaduct east of Ben Gurion Airport, in a tunnel at Anava Interchange and in another tunnel at the western entrance to Jerusalem.
To relieve congestion at the entrance to Tel Aviv, an express toll lane was built as a Build-Operate-Transfer project. The project includes additional lanes between Ben Gurion Airport and Kibutz Galuyot Interchange and a large park and ride facility east of Shapirim Interchange. Shapir Engineering started the construction of the park and ride facility in August 2007 and the project is scheduled for completion by December 2010.
Upgrading the section between Sha'ar HaGai and Jerusalem with additional lanes and fewer curves was approved by the Committee on National Projects after many years of opposition by ecological groups and local governmental authorities. According to this plan, the uni-directional Kiryat Ye'arim Interchange will be rebuilt to allow access to eastbound traffic, a long bridge will be built to straighten the dangerous Motza curve and a tunnel under the Castel Mountain with more efficient entry and exit ramps will be built. Additionally, the soil extracted from the tunnel will be used to widen the Shoresh - Sha'ar HaGai section, raising the road by five meters to straighten the curves and widen the road from four to six lanes.
Opposition on ecological grounds to the Shoresh-Sha'ar HaGai section which passes through a sensitive nature reserve has been addressed by the inclusion of ecological land bridges to allow for animal migration. Additionally, the quality of life issues raised by the leaders of the nearby communities were all rejected. Work is expected to be completed by 2016, at a cost of over 2.5 billion NIS ($750 million US).
km Name Type Map Meaning Location Road(s) Crossed Tel Aviv - Jerusalem Highway 0 מחלף קיבוץ גלויות
(Kibutz Galuyot Interchange)
Ingathering of the Exiles Tel Aviv
(Ayalon Highway/Route 461)
4 מחלף גנות
6 מחלף שפירים
7.2 Park and Ride Facility 12 מחלף בן גוריון
(Ben Gurion Interchange)
Named after airport Ben Gurion Intl. Airport
13 מחלף לוד
Named after location Lod
17 מחלף בן שמן
(Ben Shemen Interchange)
Fruitful Ben Shemen
(Highway 6 north-bound/Route 443/Route 444)
21 מחלף דניאל
Named after location Kfar Daniel
23 מחלף ענבה
Anava (Anabe) Stream
31 מחלף לטרון
The Castle (of the Knights) Latrun
35 מחלף שער הגיא
(Sha'ar HaGai Interchange)
Valley Gate Sha'ar HaGai
41 מחלף שורש
42 מחלף קרית יערים
(Kiryat Ye'arim Interchange)
Town of Forests Kiryat Ye'arim
only from East to West
46 מחלף חמד
Loveliness Abu Ghosh, Kiryat Anavim
Ma'ale HaHamisha, Har Adar
Ein Hemed park
50 מחלף הראל
Mountain of God
52 מחלף מוצא
Sorek st. Jerusalem Road 9 53 מחלף שער מוריה
(Sha'ar Moriah Interchange)
Moriah Gate Jerusalem
Western entrance to (Jerusalem)
Ben Gurion Ave. מנהרות שורק
(Sorek Tunnels) - 4 lanes
400 metres Yigael Yadin boulevard 56 מחלף יגאל ידין
(Yigael Yadin Interchange)
Named for Yigael Yadin Jerusalem
57 צומת רמת שלמה
(Ramat Shlomo Junction)
Solomon Hill Jerusalem
Ramat Shlomo neighbourhood
Rabbi Druck st. 59 צומת שער מזרח
(Sha'ar Mizrah Junction)
Eastern Gate Jerusalem
HaGiv'a HaTzarfatit & Shuafat neighbourhoods
Bar-lev Boulevard & Shuafat Road Ma'ale Adumim Road 59.1 מחלף שער מזרח
(Sha'ar Mizrah Interchange)
Eastern Gate Jerusalem
Pisgat Ze'ev neighbourhood
59.3 צומת שדרות משה דיין
(Moshe Dayan Boulevard Junction)
Named after location Jerusalem
Pisgat Ze'ev neighbourhood
Moshe Dayan Boulevard
63 מחלף הזיתים
The Olives Jerusalem
Mount Scopus; only from/to East
El-Hardub st. 68 מחלף אדומים
Mountainside of Red Ma'ale Adumim
Jericho Road 71 צומת אדומים מזרח
(East Adumim Junction)
East Ma'ale Adumim Nofei HaSelah Blvd. 73 Mishor Adumim Industrial Park HaHevra HaCalcalit Blvd 73.2
75.5 צומת כפר אדומים
(Kfar Adumim Junction)
Kfar Adumim local road 76 צומת אלון
Named for Yigal Alon Alon
79.8 צומת מצפה יריחו
(Mitzpe Yeriho Junction)
Overlook of Jericho Mitzpe Yeriho Local road 88.2 צומת אלמוג
Coral Jericho, Almog Local road 90.6 Beit HaArava entrance road 92.2 צומת בית הערבה
(Beit HaArava Junction)
House Of The Arava Beit HaArava
- ^ Route 431 opened tonight. mcity (February 4, 2009). (Hebrew)
- ^ Road 9 project page from Moriah web site.
- ^ Alternate entrance to Jerusalem? Not quite yet. Ynet (July 3, 2007). (Hebrew)
- ^ Road 9 to open. NRG (July 18, 2007). (Hebrew)
- ^ Project information from Ayalon Highways. (Hebrew)
- ^ a b Lior Gutman (2011-04-03). "End of Traffic Jams? Tel Aviv-Jerusalem Highway Upgrade Unanimously Approved". HaCalcalist. http://www.calcalist.co.il/local/articles/0,7340,L-3513710,00.html. Retrieved 2011-05-19. (Hebrew)
- ^ a b "Main highway connecting Tel Aviv with Jerusalem to be upgraded (with photo of eco-bridge)". Israel Trade Commission. 2011-04-26. http://www.israeltrade.org.au/main-highway-connecting-tel-aviv-with-jerusalem-to-be-upgraded/. Retrieved 2011-05-19. (English)
- Highway 9 on Moriah website (Hebrew)
Transportation in Israel RoadsRoutes BusAfikim · Dan · Egged · Egged Ta'avura · Illit · Kavim · Metrodan Beersheba · Metropoline · Nateev Express · Superbus · Connex RailwaysRail transport in Israel · Israel Railways Rapid transit Ports AviationBen Gurion International Airport · El Al · Israir · Arkia · Sun D'Or · CAL Cargo Air Lines · Israel Airports Authority Cable carsHaifa cable cars · Masada cableway By cityBe'er Sheva · Bnei Brak · Jerusalem · Petah Tikva · Tel Aviv Smart CardsRav-KavCategories:
- Limited-access roads in Israel
- Roads in Israel
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.