Highway 1 (Israel)

Highway 1 (Israel)


Highway 1
כביש תל אביב - ירושלים
Kvish Tel Aviv - Yerushalayim
דרך יריחו
Derekh Yeriho
Tel Aviv - Jerusalem Highway
Jericho Road
Route information
Length: 100 km (100 mi)
Major junctions
West end: Tel Aviv (Kibbutz Galuyot Interchange)
  • Kibbutz Galuyot Interchange
  • Ganot Interchange
  • Shapirim Interchange
  • Lod Interchange
  • Ben Shemen Interchange
  • Daniel Interchange
  • Latrun Interchange
  • Sha'ar HaGai Interchange
  • Yigael Yadin Interchange
  • Sha'ar Mizrah Interchange
  • Beit HaArava Junction
East end: Jordan River
Major cities: Holon, Rishon LeZion, Yehud, Lod, Modi'in, Beit Shemesh, Mevaseret Zion, Jerusalem, Ma'ale Adummim, Jericho
Highway system

Roads in Israel

Highway 1 passing under Route 412 at Shapirim Interchange

Highway 1 (Hebrew: כביש 1‎, kvish a'hat), is the main highway connecting Tel Aviv with Jerusalem.



The section between Latrun and Jerusalem roughly follows an ancient path connecting Jaffa and Jerusalem. The Jaffa-Jerusalem road was initially paved by the Ottomans in the 1860s and since then served as the main highway to Jerusalem, favored over more topographically convenient routes such as Route 443.

In 1948 the Latrun section of the highway was taken over by Jordan and traffic was diverted to a new route called "Derekh Ha'Gvura" (Road of Bravery), which is now part of Highways 44 and 38. In 1965 the old highway was widened to four lanes between Sha'ar HaGai and Jerusalem, and after the Six Day War the Latrun section was reopened and an interchange was built at Mevaseret Zion (Harel Interchange). During the 1970s a bypass was built around the village of Abu Ghosh, including the construction of Hemed Interchange.

Highway 1 traffic eastward, approaching the Hemed interchange and Abu Ghosh exit

In 1978 a new section opened, connecting Sha'ar HaGai with former Highway 10 (Tel Aviv - Ben Gurion Airport). The new section formed the third freeway in the country, after Highways 2 and 4. Although it is about 10 km longer than the old road (now Highway 44 and Route 424) it is much faster. One of the first passengers on this section was Egyptian President Anwar Sadat during his historic visit to Israel in 1977. This section briefly crosses over the Green Line near Latrun.

The section between Ganot Interchange and Ben Shemen Interchange was widened to six lanes in 1998. During the construction of Highway 6 (1999–2003), Ben Shemen Interchange was completely rebuilt, and a new interchange was built near the village of Kfar Daniel. Named for the adjacent village, the Daniel Interchange is actually a 1 1/2 kilometer straight, eight lane segment where Highways 1 and 6 run concurrently providing 1-west to 6-north and 1-east to 6-south high-speed interchange.

Interchange between Highway 1 and Jerusalem Road 9 under construction

Motza Interchange opened in 1990 and Sha'ar HaGai Interchange opened in 1995. In 1998 the east bound left turn to Abu Ghosh, Ma'ale HaHamisha and Kiryat Anavim was closed. Finally, in 2002 Shoresh Interchange opened, eliminating the last left turn on the highway between Tel Aviv and Jerusalem. Although the Sha'ar HaGai - Jerusalem section is fully grade separated, the road does not meet freeway standards due to narrow shoulders, dangerous turns and difficult slopes, and the speed limit on this section is 80 km/h.

Anava Interchange opened on February 4, 2009 together with the eastern section of Route 431.[1] It is a complex interchange and the first full freeway to freeway interchange in the country, connecting all eight directions between the two freeways without the use of traffic lights.

The section of the highway east of Jerusalem was first built by the British in the 1920s, also along the path of an ancient road to the Dead Sea. This section was under Jordanian control between 1948 and 1967, and renewed access to this road, which is known as the "Jericho Road" (Hebrew: דרך יריחו‎) or the Adummim Ascent (Hebrew: מעלה אדומים‎), was famously noted alongside the reunification of Jerusalem in the famous Israeli song, Jerusalem of Gold.

In the late 1980s, a new road was built north of Jericho Road, between French Hill neighborhood in northern Jerusalem and the town of Ma'ale Adummim. This section was improved by 1995, when it was widened and a new interchange was built at Ma'ale Adummim. A bypass of this section, designed to relieve congestion at Sha'ar Mizrah Junction, opened in 2002, connecting the highway through two 2-lane tunnels under Mount Scopus towards the Hebrew University, Bar-Ilan Street and central Jerusalem. As part of this project, the new HaZeitim interchange was built at the foot of the Mount of Olives.

The sections west and east of Jerusalem are linked by an expressway segment running north of the city centre. Known internally as Yigael Yadin road or 'Jerusalem Road 9', the stretch has divided lanes, but includes two at-grade intersections alongside its interchanges.

Jerusalem Road 9

Twin tunnels and bridges on Jerusalem Road 9

In 2001 Moriah, the Jerusalem Development Company, started building a bypass of the city's oft-congested western entrance, designated as 'Jerusalem Road 9'. Before it was built, travelers from west of Jerusalem who wished to reach the Dead Sea, or vice versa, had no better option than to drive through congested city streets. The road was intended to improve traffic flow in Ramot Alon and nearby neighborhoods.

The 3.6 km road descends from the purpose-built Sha'ar Moriah interchange to allow continuous separate grade access to Yigael Yadin Interchange and the northern and eastern continuation of Highway 1. It includes two 400 meter tunnels (one for eastbound traffic and one for westbound), four bridges over the Sorek stream and two new interchanges.

While the highway was scheduled for completion in early 2005, work was slowed to a near halt between 2003 and 2006 and completion was postponed for over two years.[2]The opening, planned for May 21, 2007, was postponed another two months due to Moriah's failure to complete the required environmental mitigation.[3]Permission to open the road was granted on condition that the company and Jerusalem municipality guarantee completion of environmental mitigation after the opening.[4] Road 9 opened on July 25, 2007 and constitutes part of Highway 1.

Development plans

The eastern section of the highway is being widened to four lanes between Ma'ale Adumim and Jericho. There are also plans to construct a continuous string of four-lane highways from Jerusalem to Amman, thereby shortening the one-way trip between these two cities to one hour. Route 1 would be a part of this string.[citation needed]

Israel Railways is building a new high speed rail line between Tel Aviv and Jerusalem. This line will cross the highway at three points: over a viaduct east of Ben Gurion Airport, in a tunnel at Anava Interchange and in another tunnel at the western entrance to Jerusalem.

To relieve congestion at the entrance to Tel Aviv, an express toll lane was built as a Build-Operate-Transfer project. The project includes additional lanes between Ben Gurion Airport and Kibutz Galuyot Interchange and a large park and ride facility east of Shapirim Interchange.[5] Shapir Engineering started the construction of the park and ride facility in August 2007 and the project is scheduled for completion by December 2010.

Upgrading the section between Sha'ar HaGai and Jerusalem with additional lanes and fewer curves was approved by the Committee on National Projects after many years of opposition by ecological groups and local governmental authorities. According to this plan, the uni-directional Kiryat Ye'arim Interchange will be rebuilt to allow access to eastbound traffic, a long bridge will be built to straighten the dangerous Motza curve and a tunnel under the Castel Mountain with more efficient entry and exit ramps will be built. Additionally, the soil extracted from the tunnel will be used to widen the Shoresh - Sha'ar HaGai section, raising the road by five meters to straighten the curves and widen the road from four to six lanes.[6][7]

Opposition on ecological grounds to the Shoresh-Sha'ar HaGai section which passes through a sensitive nature reserve has been addressed by the inclusion of ecological land bridges to allow for animal migration. Additionally, the quality of life issues raised by the leaders of the nearby communities were all rejected. Work is expected to be completed by 2016, at a cost of over 2.5 billion NIS ($750 million US).[6][7]


km Name Type Map Meaning Location Road(s) Crossed
Tel Aviv - Jerusalem Highway
0 מחלף קיבוץ גלויות
(Kibutz Galuyot Interchange)
AB-Kreuz-blau.svg ILjunction-galuyot.png Ingathering of the Exiles Tel Aviv ISR-HW20.png ISR-HW461.png
(Ayalon Highway/Route 461)
4 מחלף גנות
(Ganot Interchange)
AB-Kreuz-blau.svg ILjunction-ganot.png Gardens Ganot ISR-HW4 blue.PNG
(Highway 4)
6 מחלף שפירים
(Shapirim Interchange)
AB-AS-blau.svg ILjunction-shapirim.png Named after
Shapirim Stream
Beit Dagan ISR-HW412.png
(Route 412)
7.2 AB-AS-blau.svg ILjunction-parkandride.png Park and Ride Facility
12 מחלף בן גוריון
(Ben Gurion Interchange)
AB-AS-blau.svg ILjunction-bengurion.png Named after airport Ben Gurion Intl. Airport ISR-HW4503.png
(Road 4503)
13 מחלף לוד
(Lod Interchange)
AB-AS-blau.svg ILjunction-lod.png Named after location Lod ISR-HW40.png
(Highway 40)
17 מחלף בן שמן
(Ben Shemen Interchange)
AB-Kreuz-blau.svg ILjunction-benshemen.png Fruitful Ben Shemen ISR-HW6.png ISR-HW443.png ISR-HW444.png
(Highway 6 north-bound/Route 443/Route 444)
21 מחלף דניאל
AB-Kreuz-blau.svg ILjunction-daniel.png Named after location Kfar Daniel ISR-HW6.png
(Highway 6)
23 מחלף ענבה
(Anava Interchange)
AB-Kreuz-blau.svg ILjunction-anava.png Berry
named after
Anava (Anabe) Stream
Kfar Shmuel ISR-HW431BLUE.PNG
(Route 431)
31 מחלף לטרון
(Latrun Interchange)
AB-AS-blau.svg ILjunction-latrun.png The Castle (of the Knights) Latrun ISR-HW3.png
(Highway 3)
35 מחלף שער הגיא
(Sha'ar HaGai Interchange)
AB-AS-blau.svg ILjunction-hagai.png Valley Gate Sha'ar HaGai ISR-HW38.png
(Highway 38)
41 מחלף שורש
AB-AS-blau.svg ILjunction-shoresh.png Root Shoresh ISR-HW3955.png
(Road 3955)
42 מחלף קרית יערים
(Kiryat Ye'arim Interchange)
AB-AS-blau.svg ILjunction-yearim.png Town of Forests Kiryat Ye'arim ISR-HW425.PNG
(Route 425)
only from East to West
46 מחלף חמד
(Hemed Interchange)
AB-AS-blau.svg ILjunction-hemed.png Loveliness Abu Ghosh, Kiryat Anavim
Ma'ale HaHamisha, Har Adar
Ein Hemed park
(Road 3975)
50 מחלף הראל
(Har'el Interchange)
AB-AS-blau.svg ILjunction-harel.png Mountain of God
Har'el Brigade
Mevaseret Zion ISR-HW3985.png
(Road 3985)
52 מחלף מוצא
(Motza Interchange)
AB-AS-blau.svg ILjunction-motza.png Origin Jerusalem
Motza neighbourhood
Sorek st.
Jerusalem Road 9
53 מחלף שער מוריה
(Sha'ar Moriah Interchange)
AB-AS-blau.svg Moriah Gate Jerusalem
Western entrance to (Jerusalem)
Ben Gurion Ave.
מנהרות שורק
(Sorek Tunnels) - 4 lanes
AB-Tunnel.svg AB-Tunnel.svg Sorek Stream
Choice Vine
400 metres
Yigael Yadin boulevard
56 מחלף יגאל ידין
(Yigael Yadin Interchange)
AB-Kreuz-blau.svg ILjunction-yadin.png Named for Yigael Yadin Jerusalem
Ramot neighbourhood
Begin Expressway
57 צומת רמת שלמה
(Ramat Shlomo Junction)
ILramzor2.png Solomon Hill Jerusalem
Ramat Shlomo neighbourhood
Rabbi Druck st.
59 צומת שער מזרח
(Sha'ar Mizrah Junction)
ILramzor2.png ILjunction-shaarmizrah.png Eastern Gate Jerusalem
HaGiv'a HaTzarfatit & Shuafat neighbourhoods
Bar-lev Boulevard & Shuafat Road
Ma'ale Adumim Road
59.1 מחלף שער מזרח
(Sha'ar Mizrah Interchange)
ILramzor2.png ILjunction-shaarmizrah.png Eastern Gate Jerusalem
Pisgat Ze'ev neighbourhood
(Highway 60)
59.3 צומת שדרות משה דיין
(Moshe Dayan Boulevard Junction)
Zeichen 215.svg Named after location Jerusalem
Pisgat Ze'ev neighbourhood

Moshe Dayan Boulevard
63 מחלף הזיתים
(HaZeitim Interchange)
AB-AS-blau.svg ILjunction-zeitim.png The Olives Jerusalem
Mount Scopus; only from/to East
El-Hardub st.
68 מחלף אדומים
(Adumim Interchange)
AB-AS-blau.svg ILjunction-adumim.png Mountainside of Red Ma'ale Adumim ISR-HW417.PNG
(Route 417)
Jericho Road
71 צומת אדומים מזרח
(East Adumim Junction)
ILramzor2.png East Ma'ale Adumim Nofei HaSelah Blvd.
73 ILramzor2.png Mishor Adumim Industrial Park HaHevra HaCalcalit Blvd
73.2 Fareskilt 20.PNG ISR-HW437.PNG
(Route 437)
75.5 צומת כפר אדומים
(Kfar Adumim Junction)
Fareskilt 20.PNG Kfar Adumim local road
76 צומת אלון
(Alon Junction)
Fareskilt 20.PNG Named for Yigal Alon Alon ISR-HW458.PNG
(Route 458)
79.8 צומת מצפה יריחו
(Mitzpe Yeriho Junction)
Fareskilt 20.PNG Overlook of Jericho Mitzpe Yeriho Local road
88.2 צומת אלמוג
(Almog Junction)
Fareskilt 20.PNG Coral Jericho, Almog Local road
90.6 Fareskilt 20.PNG Beit HaArava entrance road
92.2 צומת בית הערבה
(Beit HaArava Junction)
Fareskilt 20.PNG House Of The Arava Beit HaArava ISR-HW90.png
(Highway 90)


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