Melchizedek

Melchizedek
Melchizedek

Meeting of Abraham and Melchizedek — by Dieric Bouts the Elder, 1464–67
Priest, King of Salem
Honored in Judaism, Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, Armenian Apostolic Church, Anglican Communion, Mormonism, Lutheranism, Ismailism

Melchizedek or Malki Tzedek (Hebrew מַלְכִּי־צֶדֶק malḵ-i ṣédeq) translated as "my king (is) righteous(ness)") is a king and priest mentioned during the Abram narrative in the 14th chapter of the Book of Genesis.

He is introduced as the king of Salem, and priest of El Elyon ("The highest God"). He brings out bread and wine and blesses Abram and El Elyon.[1] Chazalic literature, specifically Targum Jonathan, Targum Yerushalmi, and the Babylonian Talmud, presents the name (מלכי־צדק) as a nickname title for Shem, the son of Noah.[2]

Contents

Spelling

In the majority of Masoretic (Hebrew) text the name is written in as two words ("malki zedek").[3] Whereas in the Septuagint, New Testament, Latin Vulgate and Authorised King James Version he appears as one word.[4]

Etymology

The Epistle to the Hebrews,[5] along with Philo[6] and Josephus,[7][8] interpret the name as meaning "the king",[9] and "tzedek", meaning "righteous(ness)" or "justice".[10] This interpretation is upheld by modern scholars because in the Dead Sea Scroll 4QAmram 2.3 is found the opposite name Melchi-resha ("king of evil") for a chief angel of darkness.[11]

Based on the detail that the word "malki" contains a possessive pronoun, connoting a meaning of "my king", the Ramban opines that the name implies "my king is tzedek" -based on the notion that the city of Salem is associated with the attribute of "Tzedek" (Righteousness).[12]

Lebanese Protestant scholar Kamal Salibi cites Arabic cognates[which?] to suggest that the words "malki zedek" can be interpreted as mouthful of offering, so that the verse begins And food the king of Salem brought out, bread and wine ... [13] The implication is to say that the king (whether of Sodom or of Salem) brought out food, then blessed Abraham and El Elyon. If the Albright reading, "a king allied to him"[14][15] is also accepted, this would then imply that the whole interchange was with the King of Sodom.

Theophoric association

Some scholars provide a theophoric association on the latter part of the name, Ṣedeq ("righteousness") as an epithet of a Canaanite god,[16], translating to "Sedeq is my king/lord". Ṣedeq and El Elyon ("God most high") may have been two epithets of the same Jebusite god, identified as an astral deity, perhaps eponymous of Salem itself: Salim or Shalem (שלם) is attested as a god, presumably identified with the evening star,[disambiguation needed ] in Ugaritic mythology; URUŠalim in this case would be the city of Salim, the Jebusite astral deity.[17]

Parallel theophoric names, with Sedeq replaced by Yahu, are those of Malchijah and Adonijah, both biblical characters placed in the time of David.[18]

Bible commentators associate Meleḵi-ṣedeq מלכי־צדק) as a parallel to the king Adoni-ṣedeq אדני־צדק), with the common denominator of both being king of Salem.[19]

Samaritan variance

Genesis calls Melchizedek "king of Salem", traditionally taken to be the name for Jerusalem prior to the Binding of Isaac.[20]

The Samaritan Pentateuch reads "שלמו" (lit. "his peace" or in contextual flow "allied with him") in place of the Masoretic "שלם" (Salem). With the difference being the altering of the final Mem into the two letters מ (middle Mem) and ו (vav).

William F. Albright has proposed that "king of Salem" is a corruption of an original text which he reconstructed as: "And Melchizedek, a king allied to him [14] The New American Bible makes a similar note.[15]

Even if the "king of Salem" reading is correct, the equation with Jerusalem co-existed with another tradition which identified "Salem" as a place on the slopes of Mount Gerizim which served as the capital of the ancient kingdom of Israel. The tradition is associated with the Samaritans, for whom Gerizim (and not Jerusalem) is the site intended for the Temple, and thus serves an obvious sectarian purpose. Yet, it is not solely associated with the Samaritans, being found also in the 3rd or 2nd century BC Book of Jubilees and even in the Septuagint version of Genesis.[21]

In Judaism

In the Hebrew Bible, Genesis 14

Melchizedek is mentioned twice in the Hebrew Bible, the first in Genesis and the second in psalms. The first mentioning , as part of the larger story of which tells how Abram returns from defeating king Chedorlaomer and meets with Bera the king of Sodom,[22] at which point:

And Melchizedek king of Salem brought out bread and wine: and he was [is] the priest of the most high God. And he blessed him, and said, "Blessed be Abram to the most high God, possessor of heaven and earth, And blessed be the most high God, which hath delivered thine enemies into thy hand". And he gave him tithe from all.
Genesis 14:18-20

Some textual critics classify the narration as not being derived from any of the usual pentateuchal sources.[23] It has been speculated that verses 18-20 (in which Melchizedek appears) are an informal insertion into the narration, as they interrupt the account of the meeting of Abraham with the king of Sodom.[24]

However, Torah commentarians of the Rishonim era ( 11th to 15th centuries) have explained the seemingly abrupt intrusion of Melchizedek into the narration in various ways; Hezekiah ben Manoah (c.1250) points out that the following verses has Abram refusing any of the king of Sodom's possessions[25] which, if not for the insertion of Melchizedek's hospitality, would prompt the query as to where Abram and his weary men got their refreshments from.[26] The Rashbam, Shmuel ben Meir (11th C.), offers a similar explanation but varies by saying that only Abram's men partook in the booty (originally belonging to the king of Sodom)[27] whereas the Melchizedek intrusion explains that Abram himself was sustained by Melchizedek since he refused to consume of the booty of Sodom.[28] Likewise, the commentary of Chaim ibn Attar (17th C) offers a three-pronged slew of reasons for the Melchizedek insertion.[29]

Tithe recipient

The final verse of the Melchizedek narration provides an ambiguous statement of "And he gave him tithe from all" (v-yiten-lo ma'aser mekol "ויתן לו מעשר מכל") without specification of both who the giving party ("he") was and who was the recipient of the given tithe ("him"). The Septuagint likewise does not specify who "he gave him" (edōken autōi ἔδωκεν αὐτῷ) was.

Targum Jonathan, Josephus, Philo of Alexandria, Abraham ibn Ezra (1089—1164) and Rashi all read Abram as the giver of the tithes to Melchizedek.[30] The Rogatchover Gaon, based on the explanation that it was Abram who presented the tithe, describes that the tithe presented was not the standard tithe (Maaser Rishon) described in the Torah as given on an annual basis, but was of the form of one-time "tribute offering" (trumat ha-mekhes תרומת המכס ; [31]) given with Abram's intent to publicize that God sustains his world with kindness and that tithe-giving merits Gods blessing of monetary wealth.[32]

From a kabbalah point of view, the Zohar commentary to Genesis 14 cites Rabbi Yitzchak as saying that it was God who gave tithe to Abram in the form of removing the Hebrew letter He from his throne of glory and presenting it to the soul of Abram for his benefit.[33]

Rabbi Meir Simcha of Dvinsk (1843–1926) presents that the phrase "And he gave him tithe from all" as a verbal continuation of Melchizedek's speech. Meaning that Melchizedek exclaimed how God has chosen to gift Abram a tenth of God's possession of the entire human race (consisting of seventy nations as described in Genesis) in the form of the seven nations of the land of Canaan - including the cities of Sodom that Abram succeeded in saving. Rabbi Meir Simcha concludes that this type of verbal continuity expressed by Melchizedek is a common form of prophetic expression.[34]

Lebanese Protestant scholar Kamal Salibi (1985) observes that Hebrew: ֹמַעֲשֵׂר, m'sr, which does indeed mean tenth, could also mean just portion and Hebrew: מִכֹּל, m-kl, taken to mean from all, could also mean from food items, so that the whole verse could imply He gave him a morsel of food..[13]

Priest of El Elyon

Genesis 14:18 introduces Melchizedek a "Priest of the Most High God" (El Elyon), a term which is re-used in 14:19, 20, 22. The term "Most High" is used another twenty times of the God of the Israel in the Psalms. Giorgio Levi Della Vida (1944) suspects that this is a late development,[35] and Joseph Fitzmyer (1962) connects Genesis 14 with the mention of a god called "Most High," who may appear according to one of three possible translations of a 750BCE inscription found at Al-Safirah in Syria.[36] Remi Lack (1962) considers that the Genesis verses were taken over by Jewish redactor(s), for whom El was already identified with YHWH, El-Elyon became an epithet for the God of Israel.[37]

Psalm 110

The second and final Hebrew Bible mention of Melchizedek is in Psalm 110:4. The many translations that follow the Septuagint[38] translate such;

"The LORD hath sworn, and will not repent: 'Thou art a priest for ever after the manner of Melchizedek.'." (JPS 1917)

Although the above is the traditional translation of the text, the Hebrew text contains ambiguities[clarification needed] and can be interpreted in various ways, and the New Jewish Publication Society of America Version, (1985 edition), for example, has:

"You are a priest forever, a rightful king by My decree." (JPS 1985)

Another alternative keeps Melchizedek as a personal name but changes the identity of the person addressed: "You are a priest forever by my order (or 'on my account'), O Melchizedek" - here it is Melchizedek who is being addressed throughout the psalm.[39]

The majority of Chazalic literature attributes the primary character of the psalm as King David[40] who was a "righteous king" (מלכי צדק) of Salem (Jerusalem) and, like Melchizedek, had certain priest-like responsibilities, while the Babylonian Talmud understands the chapter as referring to Abram who was victorious in battling to save his brother in law Lot and merited priesthood.[41] The Zohar defines the noted Melchizedek as referring to Ahron the Kohen Gadol (high priest).[42]

Psalm 110:4 is cited in the New Testament letter to the Hebrews as an indicator that Jesus, regarded in the letter as the Messiah, had a right to a priesthood pre-dating the Jewish Aaronic priesthood (Hebrews 5:5-6).

Rabbinic interpretation

The narrative preceding Melchizedek's introduction presents a picture of Melchizedek's involvement in the events of his era. The narration details Abram's rescue of his nephew Lot and his spectacular defeat of multiple kings, and goes on to define the meeting place of Melchizedek and Abram as "Emek HaShaveh which is Emek HaMelech". The meeting site has been associated with Emek Yehoshaphat (the Valley of Josaphat).[43] Targum Onkelos describes the meeting location's size as "a plot the size of a king's Riis".[44] Midrashic exegesis describes how a large group of governors and kings convened in unison to pay homage to the victor Abram and desired to make him a deity, at which point he declined, attributing his victory to God's might and will alone.[45]

The chronological work Seder ha-Dorot (published 1769) quotes that Melchizedek was the first to initiate and complete a wall in circumference of the city,[46] and had to exit Salem to reach Abram and his men. Upon exiting Salem, he presented to them "bread and wine" with the intent to refresh them from their journey.[47] Following the premise that Melchizedek was indeed Shem, he was 465 years old at the time and Abram was 75 years of age.[46]

Chazalic literature, unanimously identifies Melchizedek as Shem son of Noah (Targum Yonathan to Genesis chap. 14, Genesis Rabbah 46:7, Babylonian Talmud to Tractate Nedarim 32b).

Middle eastern land distribution demonstrating the land of Canaan governed by Cham

There is, however, disagreement amongst Rishonim as to whether Salem was Melchizedek/Shem's allocated residence by his father Noah or whether he was a foreigner in Salem which was considered the rightful land of his brother Cham. The Ramban is of the opinion that the land was rightfully owned and governed by the offspring of Cham, and explains that Melchizedek/Shem left his home country and came to Salem as a foreigner wishing to serve God as a Kohen.[48] Whereas Rashi maintains that the land of Canaan was initially allotted to Shem, by Noah his father, and the offspring of Cham conquered the land by forced expansion.[49]

Transition of the Priesthood

Although Melchizedek is the first person in the Torah to be titled a Kohen (priest), the medrash records that he was preceded in priesthood (kehuna) by Adam.[50] Rabbinic commentarians to the Torah explain that Melchizedek — essentially Shem — was given the priesthood (Hebrew; kehuna) by receipt of his father Noah's blessing "G-d beatified Yefeth and will dwell in the house of Shem";[51] i.e., he will merit to serve and host G-d as a Kohen.[52]

Torah Laws require that the Kohen (priest) must be a patrilineal descendant of a prior Kohen.[53] Leviticus Rabbah maintains that God intended to permanently bring forth the priesthood ("Kehuna") through Melchizedek’s patrilineal descendants, but since Melchizedek preceded Abram's blessing to that of God,[54] God instead chose to bring the priesthood ("kehuna") forth from Abram’s descendants.[55] As the text states in regard to Melchizedek; "and he is a Kohen",[56] meaning himself in the exclusive sense and not his patrilineal descendants.[57]

The Ohr HaChayim commentary presents that G-d was not angered by Melchizedek's preceding Abram's blessing to that of G-d, since Abram was rightfully deemed worthy of precedence for independently coming to recognize G-d amidst a world of Paganism, but Melchizedek willingly gave the priesthood to Abram upon recognizing his outstanding uniqueness and G-dly character traits.[58]

Rabbinic authorities defer as to whether Kehuna was given to Abram there and then[59] or after the demise of Melchizedek.[60]

The Medrash records that Shem functioned as kohen gadol (high priest) in that he taught Torah to the Patriarchs before it was publicly given at Mount Sinai, while the official title of High Priest was conferred upon Aaron after the erection of the Tabernacle.

Midrash text

The Midrash quotes multiple aspects of both Melchizedek and Abram; The Rabbis taught that Melchizedek acted as a priest and handed down Adam’s robes to Abram (Numbers Rabbah 4:8).

Rabbi Isaac the Babylonian said that Melchizedek was born circumcised (Genesis Rabbah 43:6). Melchizedek called Jerusalem “Salem.” (Genesis Rabbah 56:10.) The Rabbis said that Melchizedek instructed Abram in the Torah. (Genesis Rabbah 43:6.) Rabbi Eleazar said that Melchizedek’s school was one of three places where the Holy Spirit (Ruach HaKodesh) manifested Himself (Babylonian Talmud Makkot 23b).

Rabbi Judah said in Rabbi Nehorai's name that Melchizedek’s blessing yielded prosperity for Abram, Isaac, and Jacob (Genesis Rabbah 43:8). Ephraim Miksha'ah the disciple of Rabbi Meir said in the latter's name that Tamar descended from Melchizedek (Genesis Rabbah 85:10).

Rabbi Hana bar Bizna citing Rabbi Simeon Hasida identified Melchizedek as one of the four craftsmen of whom Zechariah wrote in Zechariah 2:3. (Babylonian Talmud Sukkah 52b; see also Song of Songs Rabbah 2:33 (crediting Rabbi Berekiah in the name of Rabbi Isaac).) The Talmud teaches that David wrote the Book of Psalms, including in it the work of the elders, including Melchizedek.[61]

Thus according to some rabbis[who?] confusion over Melchizedek being both King and Priest is solved by knowing that Shem was also a progenitor of the Davidic Monarchy, which descended from both Judah and Tamar, who was the daughter (or granddaughter by some opinions) of Shem.[original research?]

In the Zohar

The Zohar (redacted by Moses de León c.1290s) finds in “Melchizedek king of Salem” a reference to “the King Who rules with complete sovereignty,” or according to another explanation, that “Melchizedek” alludes to the lower world and “king of Salem” to the upper world (Zohar 1:86b-87a). The Zohar's commentary on Genesis 14 cites a Rabbi Yitzchak as saying that it was God who gave tithe to Abram in the form of removing the Hebrew letter He from his throne of glory and presenting it to the soul of Abram for his benefit.[citation needed] The letter he is the letter God added to Abram's name to become "Abra-ha-m" in Genesis.

Dead Sea Scrolls

11Q13

11Q13 (11QMelch) is a fragment (that can be dated to the end of the 2nd or start of the 1st century BC) of a text about Melchizedek found in Cave 11 at Qumran in the Israeli Dead Sea area and which comprises part of the Dead Sea Scrolls. In this eschatological text, Melchizedek is seen as a divine being and Hebrew titles as Elohim are applied to him. According to this text Melchizedek will proclaim the "Day of Atonement" and he will atone for the people who are predestined to him. He also will judge the peoples.[62]

1QapGen

The Genesis Apocryphon repeats information from Genesis.[63]

Philo

Philo identifies Melchizedek with the Logos as priest of God,[64] and honoured as an untutored priesthood.[65]

Josephus

Josephus refers to Melchizedek as a "Canaanite chief" in War of the Jews, but as a priest in Antiquities of the Jews.

Second Book of Enoch

The Second Book of Enoch (also called "Slavonic Enoch") is apparently a Jewish sectarian work of the 1st century AD.[66] The last section of the work, the Exaltation of Melchizedek, tells how Melchizedek was born of a virgin, Sofonim (or Sopanima), the wife of Nir, a brother of Noah. The child came out from his mother after she had died and sat on the bed beside her corpse, already physically developed, clothed, speaking and blessing the Lord, and marked with the badge of priesthood. Forty days later, Melchizedek was taken by the archangel Gabriel (Michael in some manuscripts) to the Garden of Eden and was thus preserved from the Deluge without having to be in Noah's Ark.[67][68]

In Christianity

An image of Melchizedek painted onto the altar side near the Royal Doors at Libotin wooden church, Maramureş County, Romania

Melchizedek is commemorated as one of the Holy Forefathers in the Calendar of Saints of the Armenian Apostolic Church on July 26. He is mentioned in the Roman Canon, the First Eucharistic Prayer of the Roman rite, and also figures in the current Roman Martyrology, or Martyrologium Romanum as a commemoration on August 26.[69]

New Testament

In the New Testament, references to Melchizedek appear only in the Letter to the Hebrews (later 1st century AD), though these are extensive (Hebrews 5: 6, 10; 6: 20; 7: 1, 10, 11, 15, 17, 21). Jesus Christ is there identified as a priest forever in the order of Melchizedek quoting from Ps. 110:4.[70] and so Jesus assumes the role of High Priest once and for all. Abraham's transfer of goods to Melchizedek is seen to imply that Melchizedek is superior to Abraham, in that Abraham is tithing to him. Thus, Melchizedek's (Jesus') priesthood is superior to the Aaronic priesthood, and the Temple in Jerusalem is now unnecessary.

In Nag Hammadi Library

A collection of early Gnostic scripts dating on or before the 4th-century, discovered in 1945 and known as the Nag Hammadi Library, contains a tractate pertaining to Melchizedek. Here it is proposed that Melchizedek is Jesus Christ.[71] Melchizedek, as Jesus Christ, lives, preaches, dies and is resurrected, in a gnostic perspective. The Coming of the Son of God Melchizedek speaks of his return to bring peace, supported by the gods, and he is a priest-king who dispenses justice.[72]

Patristic Beliefs

The Pelagians saw in Melchizedek a man who lived a perfect life.[73]

Evangelical Christian beliefs

Traditional Evangelical Christan denominations, following Luther, teach that Melchizedek was a historical figure and an antitype of Christ.[74] Some[who?] evangelical Christians since the 19th Century or earlier[when?] have taught that Melchizedek was an appearance of the pre-incarnate Christ.[citation needed] Others[who?] teach that Melchizedek was an angel sent by God as a representative.[citation needed]

Purported immortality

Hebrews 7:3 creates some confusion between denominations regarding Melchizedek's nature and background. This is how it stands in the KJV, describing Melchizedek as "Without father, without mother, without descent, having neither beginning of days, nor end of life; but made like unto the Son of God; abideth a priest continually."

Different denominations interpret this in vastly different ways. Some say that Melchizedek is literally like the Son of God (or even is the Son of God) in that he has no father or mother. Others say that he has been adopted into Christ's lineage through the Lord's suffering,[75] still others claim that the verse has been mistranslated, and that Melchizedek's priesthood is without lineage, not Melchizedek himself.[76] Others claim that the verse merely represents Melchizedek's not being a priesthood holder because of lineage (in other words, "without descent" meaning not a descendant of Levi as required by Mosaic Law.)[77]

The Book of the Bee, a 13th C. Syriac text, also offers insights contrary to Melchizedek's purported immortal nature:

NEITHER the fathers nor mother of this Melchizedek were written down in the genealogies; not that he had no natural parents, but that they were not written down. The greater number of the doctors say that he was of the seed of Canaan, whom Noah cursed. In the book of Chronography, however, (the author) affirms and says that he was of the seed of Shem the son of Noah. Shem begat Arphaxar, Arphaxar begat Cainan, and Cainan begat Shâlâh and Mâlâh, Shâlâh was written down in the genealogies; but Mâlâh was not, because his affairs were not sufficiently important to be written down in the genealogies. When Noah died, he commanded Shem concerning the bones of Adam, for they were with them in the ark, and were removed from the land of Eden to this earth. Then Shem entered the ark, and sealed it with his father's seal, and said to his brethren, 'My father commanded me to go and see the sources of the rivers and the seas and the structure of the earth, and to return.' And he said to Mâlâh the father of Melchizedek, and to Yôzâdâk his mother...."[78]

Latter-Day Saint beliefs

The Book of Mormon of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints describes the work of Melchizedek in Salem in Alma 13:17-19. According to Alma, Melchizedek was King over the wicked people of Salem, but because of his righteousness, his people repented of their wickedness and became a peaceful city in accordance with the meaning of that name. With respect to Old Testament prophets, Alma declares that "there were many before [Melchizedek], and also there were many afterwards, but none were greater."

Also, in Joseph Smith's translation of the Bible, Melchizedek is described as "a man of faith, who wrought righteousness; and when a child he feared God, and stopped the mouths of lions." Because he was a righteous and God fearing man, Melchizedek was "ordained a high priest." The Translation also describes Melchizedek as establishing peace in his city and being called "the king of heaven" and "the King of peace" (JST Bible Gen 14:25-40), that he and his people sought to be translated, like Enoch (ancestor of Noah)'s people were. Finally, the Joseph Smith Translation notes that, in Hebrews, when Paul speaks of Melchizedek, the order of the priesthood named for him is without father and mother, etc., and not Melchizedek himself. (JST Bible Heb 7:3)

Other Latter-day Saint views on Melchizedek closely match the King James Bible. The Melchizedek Priesthood is named after him, so as not to over-use the name of Christ, after whom it was originally named Section 107:3-4.

According to the Doctrine and Covenants, Melchizedek is a descendant of Noah (LDS Church Section 84:14; Community of Christ Section 83:2e). There remains controversy whether he was Shem, or a descendant. John Taylor taught the former — perhaps due to Jasher 16:11, which says Adonizedek;[79] Bruce McConkie the latter.

In Islam

There is no mention of Melchizedek in the Qur'an or in early Islamic exegesis or literature. Some later commentators, including Abdullah Yusuf Ali, however, did suggest a link between Melchizedek and Khidr. They referred to St. Paul's allegory of Melchizedek in his Epistle to the Hebrews[80] as a parallel to the Muslim view of Khidr.[81] In Ismailism, however, Melchizedek is of greater importance as one of the 'Permanent Imams'; that is those who guide people through the ages of history.[82]

The Urantia Book

In the 20th-century The Urantia Book, Melchizedek is reported as being the first of the four orders of descending sonship designated as local universe Sons of God, created by the Creator Son and Creative Spirit in collaboration with the Father Melchizedek in the early days of populating the local universe of Nebadon.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Genesis 14:18-20 He is part of a key theme[which?] in the New Testament Book of Hebrews
  2. ^ Targum Yonathan and Targum Yerushalmi to Bereishith 14:18-20. Talmud Bavli to tractate Nedarim 32b et. al.
  3. ^ [Minchath shai http://www.hebrewbooks.org/14036] to genesis (bereishith) 14:18-20
  4. ^ in the Septuagint, New Testament Μελχισεδέκ, in the Latin Vulgate as Melchisedech. In the Authorised King James Version of 1611 as Melchizedek in the Old Testament and Melchisedec in the New Testament
  5. ^ Hebrews 7:2
  6. ^ Philo, Allegorical interpretation of Genesis, 3.79
  7. ^ Josephus. Antiquities of the Jews - 1.180. http://pace.mcmaster.ca/York/york/showText?book=1&chapter=10&textChunk=nieseSection&chunkId=179&text=anti&version=english&direction=&tab=&layout=split. 
  8. ^ Josephus. The Jewish War 6.438. 
  9. ^ apparently based on the Hebrew words "melek", meaning "King" Strong's Concordance: online search with number 4428
  10. ^ Strong's Concordance: online search with number 6666
  11. ^ Pearson, Birger A. (2003). "Melchizedek in Early Judaism, Christianity and Gnosticism". In Stone, Michael E.; Bergren, Theodore A.. Biblical Figures Outside the Bible. p. 181. ISBN 9781563384110. http://books.google.com/?id=eXM1YwCGipMC&printsec=frontcover#PPA182,M1. 
  12. ^ Ramban to genesis 14:18, based on the verse "Righteousness resides in (by) her" (Isaiah 1:21)
  13. ^ a b Kamal Salibi, The Bible Came from Arabia Jonathan Cape, 1985, chapter 12
  14. ^ a b Albright reads melek shelomo (מלך-שלמו), "of his peace", instead of melek Salem, "king of Jerusalem"), brought out bread and wine..." -Albright, W. F. "Abram the Hebrew: A New Archaeological Interpretation", BASOR 163 (1961) 36-54, esp. 52.
  15. ^ a b New American Bible (1980), Genesis 14, fn.5
  16. ^ Delcor, M (1971). "Melchizedek from Genesis to the Qumran Texts and the Epistle to the Hebrews". Journal for the Study of Judaism 2: 115–135, esp. 115–116. 
  17. ^ Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible, s.v. "Elyon", "Shalem".
  18. ^ The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges at Google Books
  19. ^ Ramban, bereishith chap. 14
  20. ^ Targum Onkelos Gen.14-18, Genesis Apocryphon col.22:12-13, see Josephus (op. cit.)
  21. ^ James L. Kugel, Traditions of the Bible, pp.283-284
  22. ^ Genesis 14:17-24 see below
  23. ^ Speiser, E. A. "Genesis. Introduction, translation, and notes" (AB 1; Garden City 1964) p.105; Von Rad, "Genesis", pp.170, 174; Noth, Martin. "A History of Pentateuchal Traditions" (Englewood Cliffs 1972) p.28, n.84.
  24. ^ Gunkel, Hermann. Genesis (Göttingen 1922) pp. 284-285
  25. ^ "if from a string and until a shoe string" -Bereishith 14:23
  26. ^ Chizkuni to Bereishith 14:18
  27. ^ as the later verse reads "aside..for what the young men consumed" -Bereishith 14:24
  28. ^ Rashbam to Bereishith 1418
  29. ^ see ohr hachayim to Bereishit 14:18
  30. ^ Robert Hayward Targums and the transmission of scripture into Judaism 2010 p15 2010 14.16); so Targum Pseudo-Jonathan makes it clear that Abraham paid tithes to Melchizedek, as does the interpretation adopted by Jub. 13.25–27; Josephus Ant. 1.181; Philo Cong. 93, 99; as well as the epistle to the Hebrews.22, Epistle to the Hebrews 7:1-4
  31. ^ such as Moses gave to God in Numbers 31:41 -"Tzafnath Paaneah" to Genesis Chap. 14
  32. ^ Likkutei Sichot vol. 5, lech-lecha talk #2
  33. ^ Zohar Chodosh to Bereishit chap. 14 (the Zohar text, however, does not state that a name change to "Abra-ha-m" occurred at this point).
  34. ^ i.e. beginning in a form of talking to the person directly and ending the speech as speaking for the recipient - Meshech Chochma to Bereishit chap. 14
  35. ^ Della Vida, G. Levi. "El Elyon in Genesis 14:18-20", JBL 63 (1944) pp.1-9
  36. ^ Fitzmyer, J. A. The Aramaic Inscriptions of Sefire, Revised Edition (Bibor 19A; Rome 1995) pp.41, 75
  37. ^ Lack, R. "Les origines de Elyon, le Très-Haut, dans la tradition cultuelle d’Israel", CBQ 24 (1962) pp.44-64
  38. ^ such as the Vulgate, KJV 1611, JPS 1917
  39. ^ Kugel, James L. Traditions of the Bible, pp.278-279
  40. ^ based on the text שב לימיני with "Yemini" referring either to King Saul of the tribe of Benjamin (Binyamin) whom David was careful not to overthrow or to the Torah (as per it being referred to as "from his right hand -a fire of religion to them" -Deuteronomy) -Targum Yonathan to Psalm 110
  41. ^ Babylonian Talmud to Nedarim, p. 32
  42. ^ zohar vol. 3 p.53b
  43. ^ Machzor Vitry to Pirkei Avoth4:22
  44. ^ understood by Rashi as 30 Kanns. Of note is the Rogatchover Gaon, who demonstrates that the king's riis is inclusive of the demarcating boundary as part and parcel of the said boundary — Tzafnath Paaneach to Bereishith 14
  45. ^ Rashi to genesis 14:17, quoting medrash aggadahauthored by Rabbi Moshe HaDarshan. Medrash Rabbah
  46. ^ a b seder hadoroth p. 9b.
  47. ^ malbim to genesis chap. 14
  48. ^ Ramban to Bereishith 14:18
  49. ^ Rashi (based on Sifra) to Bereishith 12:6
  50. ^ introduction to Torath HaKohanim (M. Rizikoff)
  51. ^ Genesis 9:27
  52. ^ Maharzav (Rabbi Zev Wolf Einhorn; ?-1862; Lithuania), to Leviticus Rabbah 25:6
  53. ^ Bamidbar 18:7. The Chizkuni to Leviticus reasons that since the kohen father of the household naturally instills in his children the duties of Kehuna from birth and onward making them successful at their Kohanic duties
  54. ^ (in Gen. 14:19-20, a precedence not befitting a kohen who is to be of total service to G-d -Eitz Yosef to Leviticu Rabbah 25:6.
  55. ^ Rabbi Zechariah, quoting Rabbi Ishmael; Leviticus Rabbah 25:6, Babylonian Talmud to Nedarim 32b. Zohar vol. 1 p. 86b.
  56. ^ in Hebrew; "והוא כהן" -Genesis 14
  57. ^ Ohr HaChayim (Rabbi Chaim ben Attar 1696-1742, Morocco) to Genesis 14:18 (first explanation). Eitz Yosef commentary to Leviticus Rabbah 25:6. Zohar vol. 1 p. 86b
  58. ^ Ohr HaChaim to Bereishith 14:18
  59. ^ Maharzav (Z. V. Einhorn) to Leviticus Rabbah 25:6 (since Abraham's demise preceded Shem's by 35 years)
  60. ^ this latter opinon being of the Eitz Yosef commentary to Vayikra Rabbah 25:6
  61. ^ (in Psalm 110). (Babylonian Talmud Baba Batra 14b-15a.)
  62. ^ Wise, Abegg, Cook (1996). The Dead Sea Scrolls: a New Translation. 
  63. ^ The Melchizedek Tradition: A Critical Examination of the Sources p85 Fred L. Horton - 2005 "Interestingly enough, we see that the Genesis Apocryphon offers no unique information about Melchizedek. Josephus gives three items of information not found in the other sources, and Philo four."
  64. ^ Jutta Leonhardt Jewish worship in Philo of Alexandria 2001 p216 "IIl 82 Philo also identifies Melchizedek with the Logos as priest of God. Thus Melchizedek, Although Philo interprets the Jewish first-fruit offering and quotes the Jewish laws, the general context is still Cain's sacrifice."
  65. ^ Fred L. Horton The Melchizedek Tradition: A Critical Examination of the Sources 2005 p170 "In the Genesis Apocryphon Melchizedek is brought into connection with Jerusalem (as he is later in Josephus), and in Philo Melchizedek is honored as the possessor of an unlearned and untutored priesthood, indeed as a representation"
  66. ^ Harry Alan Hahne (2006). Corruption and Redemption of Creation: the Natural World in Romans 8.19-22 and Jewish Apocalyptic Literature. p. 83. ISBN 0567030555. 
  67. ^ 2 Enoch, Chapters 69-72
  68. ^ Morfill, W R (translator). The Book of the Secrets of Enoch. http://www.scribd.com/doc/3678772/The-Book-of-the-Secrets-of-Enoch-WR-Morfill. 
  69. ^ Martyrologium Romanum ex Decreto Sacrosancti Concilii Oecumenici Vaticani II instauratum, auctoritate Ioannis Pauli Pp. II promulgatum, editio [typica] altera, Typis vaticanis, [2004], p. 476.
  70. ^ Hebrews 5:6
  71. ^ Robinson, James M (translator) (1978). The Nag Hammadi Library in English. 
  72. ^ Text of the tractate: http://www.gnosis.org/naghamm/melchiz.html
  73. ^ Philip Edgcumbe Hughes A Commentary on the Epistle to the Hebrews p244
  74. ^ Luther's works: First lectures on the Psalms II, Psalms 76-126 Martin Luther, Hilton C. Oswald - 1976 "After the order of Melchizedek, which is understood, first, in accordance with the name. ... Therefore He is the true Melchizedek. Second, this is understood in accordance with the office, because Melchizedek offered the bread and wine"
  75. ^ Hebrews 7:3 Without father, without mother, without genealogy, having neither beginning of
  76. ^ Joseph Smith Translation: Heb. 7: 3
  77. ^ Melchizedek
  78. ^ Chapter XXI - Of Melchizedek
  79. ^ Melchizedek means “my king is righteous,” Adonizedek “my lord is righteous”
  80. ^ Hebrews, VII, 3
  81. ^ Abdullah Yusuf Ali, Qur'anic Commentary, notes on Surah Kahf, dealing with Khidr.
  82. ^ Concise Encyclopedia of Islam, C. Glasse, Ismailis: "(Ismaili's believe in) a 'permanent Imam' (namely Malik Shulim, Malik Yazdaq, Malik as-Salim - all different names for Melchizedek - Ma'add, the ancestor of the North Arabians, and, again, Ali..."

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  • MELCHIZEDEK — (Heb.: מַלְכִּי צֶדֶק; legitimate/righteous king ; the English spelling follows LXX Melxisedek as opposed to MT Malkizedek), king of Salem (or Jerusalem; cf. Ps. 76:3) according to Genesis 14:18–20. He welcomed abraham after he had defeated the… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Melchizedek — steht für: Melchisedech, eine biblische Figur (englische Schreibweise) Dominion of Melchizedek, ein Phantasiestaat im Südpazifik Diese Seite ist eine Begriffsklärung zur Unterscheidung mehrerer mit demselben Wort bezeich …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Melchizedek — name of a priest king in the Old Testament, from Hebrew Malki tzedeq, lit. king of righteousness, from melekh king; second element related to tzadaq he was righteous, tzaddiq just, righteous …   Etymology dictionary

  • Melchizedek — ☆ Melchizedek [mel kiz′ə dek΄, melkē′zədek΄] n. [Heb malkī tsedheq, lit., king of righteousness] Bible the priest and king of Salem who blessed Abraham: Gen. 14:18 adj. Mormon Ch. designating or of the higher order of priests: cf. AARONIC …   English World dictionary

  • Melchizedek — /mel kiz i dek /, n. 1. a priest and king of Salem. Gen. 14:18. 2. the higher order of priests in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter day Saints. * * * Canaanite king and priest revered by Abraham. In the Book of Genesis, Abraham rescues his… …   Universalium

  • Melchizedek — King of Salem (Jerusalem). After Abraham s victory over Chedorlaomer he was greeted by Melchizedek (Gen. 14:17 ff.) and in return was given a tenth of the captured booty. Described as ‘priest of God most High’ who brought out bread and wine,… …   Dictionary of the Bible

  • Melchizedek —    King of righteousness, the king of Salem (q.v.). All we know of him is recorded in Gen. 14:18 20. He is subsequently mentioned only once in the Old Testament, in Ps. 110:4. The typical significance of his history is set forth in detail in the… …   Easton's Bible Dictionary

  • Melchizedek — noun a) A king and priest mentioned in the book of Genesis; contemporary of Abraham. And Melchizedek king of Salem brought forth bread and wine: and he was the priest of the most high God. b) A very large champagne bottle (named after the King)… …   Wiktionary

  • melchizedek — melˈkizəˌdek adjective Usage: usually capitalized Etymology: after Melchizedek, Biblical priest king (Gen 14:18 ff.) : being the greater or higher order of priesthood in the Mormon Church compare aaronic 2 …   Useful english dictionary

  • Melchizedek in the Urantia Book — is reported as being the first of the four orders of descending sonship designated as local universe Sons of God, created by the Creator Son and Creative Spirit in collaboration with the Father Melchizedek in the early days of populating the… …   Wikipedia

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