:"For the astrological concept, see Rāshi (Jyotiṣa)."Rabbi Shlomo Yitzhaki, ( _he. רבי שלמה יצחקי), better known by the acronym Rashi (Hebrew: ‏רש"י‎), (
February 22, 1040– July 13, 1105), was a rabbifrom France, famed as the author of the first comprehensive commentaries on the Talmud, Torah and Tanakh(Hebrew Bible). Acclaimed for his ability to present the basic meaning of the text in a concise yet lucid fashion, Rashi appeals to both learned scholars and beginning students, and his works remain a centerpiece of contemporary Jewish study. His commentaries, which appear in all printed editions of the Talmud and most printed editions of the Torah (notably the Chumash), are an indispensable aid to both casual and serious students of Judaism's primary texts.
Troyes, Rashi departed while in his teens to study at the Yeshivotof Mainzand Worms. He returned to Troyes and founded his own yeshiva in 1067. Scholars believe that Rashi's commentary on the Talmud grew out of the lectures he gave to his students in his yeshiva, and evolved with the questions and answers they raised. Rashi completed this commentary in the last years of his life. It was immediately accepted as authoritative by all Jewish communities, Ashkenazi and Sephardi alike. His commentary, which covers nearly all of the Babylonian Talmud (a total of 30 tractates), has been included in every edition of the Talmud since its first printing in the 1520s.
Rashi's surname Yitzhaki derives from his father's name, Yitzhak. The acronym is sometimes also fancifully expanded as Rabban Shel Israel (רבן של ישראל), Teacher of Israel [i.e. the Jewish People] ), or as Rabbenu SheYichyeh" (רבינו שיחיה), our Rabbi, may he live.
Birth and early life
Rashi was the only child born to his parents, at
Troyes, Champagne, northern France. On his father Yitzchak's side, he has been claimed by many to be a 33rd generation descendant of Rabbi Yochanan Hasandlar, who was a fourth generation descendant of "Rabban" Gamaliel"Hazaken" (the Elder) who was reputedly descended from the royal house of King David. Rashi himself, in his voluminous writings made no such claim at all. The major early rabbinical source about his ancestry, Responsum No. 29 by Rabbi Solomon Luria, makes no such claim either. [cite book | last = Hurwitz | first = Simon | authorlink = Solomon Luria | coauthors = | title = The Responsa of Solomon Luria | publisher = | year = 1938 | location = New York, New York | pages = 146–151 | url = | doi = | id = | isbn = ] [ cite journal|title=Can We Prove Descent from King David?|journal=Avotaynu: The International Review of Jewish Genealogy|year=1992|first=David|last=Einsiedler|coauthors=|volume=VIII|issue=3(Fall) |pages=29|id= |url=http://www.jewishgen.org/Rabbinic/journal/descent.htm|format=|accessdate=2008-06-11 ] His mother's brother was Rabbi Simon the Elder, community leader of Mainz. [ cite web|url=http://www.jewishgen.org/rabbinic/infofiles/avotaynu.htm |title=Index to Articles on Rabbinic Genealogy in Avotaynu: The International Review of Jewish Genealogy |accessdate=2008-06-11 |work= Avotaynu: The International Review of Jewish Genealogy ]
Several legends surrounding Rashi's birth have passed into Jewish folklore. Two of the most famous stories concern his conception and birth:
Rashi's parents were childless for many years. One day, his father, a poor
vintner, found a valuable gem (some versions say a pearl). A bishop (or mighty lord) wished to acquire this jewel for decorating the church (or his vestments), however rather than have this jewel be used for such a purpose, Yitzchak threw it into the Seine. When he arrived home, a man was waiting for him. "You threw the gemstone into the water so it wouldn't be used for idolatry," the man told him. "Now your wife will have a son who will illuminate the world with his Torah." This harbinger was none other than the Prophet Elijah; the following year, Yitzchak and his wife were blessed with a son.
Another legend tells that Yitzchak decided to move temporarily to the city of
Worms, Germany. He and his wife lived in the Jewish quarter and attended the small synagogue there, awaiting the birth of their child. One day, as Yitzchak's wife was walking down the narrow alley, two large carriages came charging through the alley. There was no room to escape; she turned to the wall and pressed herself against it. According to legend, the wall softened and accommodated her pregnant form. The carriages rushed by and she was unscathed. To this day, an indentation in the size, height and shape of a woman's pregnant belly in the wall of the Rashi Shul(1175) is shown to visitors to the city. [Liber, pages 38-39]
According to tradition, Rashi was first brought to learn Torah by his father on
Shavuotday at the age of five. His father was his main Torah teacher until his death when Rashi was still a youth. At the age of 17 Rashi married, and in the manner of young Torah scholars of the time, soon after went to learn in the yeshivaof Rabbi Yaakov ben Yakarin Worms, returning to his wife at the end of each semester. When Rabbi Yaakov died in 1064, Rashi continued learning in Worms for another year in the yeshiva of his relative, Rabbi Isaac ben Eliezer Halevi, who was also chief rabbi of Worms. Then he moved to Mainz, where he studied under another of his relatives, Rabbi Isaac ben Judah, the rabbinic head of Mainz and one of the leading sages of the Lorraine region straddling France and Germany.
Rashi's teachers were students of
Rabbeinu Gershomand Rabbi Eliezer Hagadol, leading Talmudists of the previous generation. From his teachers, Rashi imbibed all the oral traditions pertaining to the Talmud as they had been passed down for centuries, as well as an understanding of the Talmud's unique logic and form of argument. Rashi's fellow yeshiva students contributed to the learning with their knowledge of international business, commodities production, farming, craftsmanship, sailing and soldiering. Rashi took concise, copious notes of everything he learned in yeshiva, incorporating much of this material in his later commentaries.
Return to Troyes
He returned to Troyes at the age of 25, after which time his mother died, and he was asked to join the Troyes "
beth din" (rabbinical court). He also began answering halakhic questions. Upon the death of the head of the "beth din", Rabbi Zerach ben Abraham, Rashi assumed the court's leadership and answered hundreds of halakhic queries.
About 1070, he founded a yeshiva which attracted many disciples. It is thought by some that Rashi earned his living as a vintner since Rashi shows an extensive knowledge of its utensils and process, but there is no evidence for this. [cite journal |url=http://seforim.blogspot.com/2007/08/mayer-i-gruber-how-did-rashi-make.html |title=How Did Rashi Make a Living? |author=Mayer I. Gruber |unused_data=|the Seforim blog] Although there are many legends about his travels, Rashi likely never went further than from the
Seineto the Rhine; the utmost limit of his travels were the yeshivot of Lorraine.
In 1096, the
People's Crusadeswept through the Lorraine, murdering 12,000 Jews and uprooting whole communities. Among those murdered in Worms were the three sons of Rabbi Isaac ben Eliezer Halevi, Rashi's teacher. Rashi wrote several Selichot(penitential poems) mourning the slaughter and the destruction of the region's great yeshivot. Seven of Rashi's Selichot still exist, including "Adonai Elohei Hatz'vaot", which is recited on the eve of Rosh Hashanah, and "Az Terem Nimtehu", which is recited on the Fast of Gedalia.
Rashi returned to help rebuild the destroyed Jewish Community of Worms, and rededicated the synagogue. He composed a liturgical poem, "Titnem Leherpa", cursing those responsible for the destruction:"Make them a mockery, a curse, a disgrace;heap upon them a furious wrath and hateful vengeance;cast fear and panic upon them;send angels of destruction against them.and cut them down to the last man." Marching through Hungary, the Crusaders came into repeated conflict with the local population, and lost a quarter of their number.
Rashi had no sons, but his three daughters, Yocheved, Miriam and Rachel, all married Talmudic scholars. Yocheved married
Meir ben Shmuel—their four sons were Shmuel (the Rashbam) (1085-1174), Yaakov ( Rabbeinu Tam) (c. 1100- c. 1171), and Yitzchak (the Rivam)—who were known as the Baalei Tosafos—and the grammarian Shlomo, who died young. Yocheved's daughter, Chanah, was a teacher of laws and customs relevant to women. Rashi's daughter Miriam married Judah ben Nathan; their daughter, named Alvina, was a learned woman whose customs served as the basis for later halakhic decisions. Their son Yom Tov later moved to Paris and headed a yeshiva there. Rachel married (and divorced) Eliezer ben Shemiah. Rumours exist that his daughters put on tefillin (Jewish Ritual objects). However, both commentaries from Rashi and his grandsons the Baalei Tosafos on the Talmud Eruvin shows their view that such actions are not acceptable under Jewish law, even as early as the Davidic reign of ancient Israel.
Commentary on the Talmud
Rashi wrote the first comprehensive commentary on the Talmud. His commentary, drawing on his knowledge of the entire contents of the Talmud, attempts to provide a full explanation of the words and of the logical structure of each Talmudic passage. Unlike other commentators, Rashi does not paraphrase or exclude any part of the text, but elucidates phrase by phrase. Often he provides punctuation in the unpunctuated text, explaining, for example, "This is a question"; "He says this in surprise," "He repeats this in agreement," etc.
As in his commentary on the Tanakh, Rashi frequently illustrates the meaning of the text using analogies to the professions, crafts, and sports of his day. He also translates difficult Hebrew or
Aramaicwords into the spoken French languageof his day, giving latter-day scholars a window into the vocabulary and pronunciation of Old French.
Rashi also exerted a decisive influence on establishing the correct text of the Talmud. Up to and including his age, texts of each Talmudic tractate were copied by hand and circulated in yeshivas. Errors often crept in: sometimes a copyist would switch words around, and other times incorporate a student's marginal notes into the main text. Rashi compared different manuscripts and readings in
Tosefta, Jerusalem Talmud, Midrash, Targum, and the writings of the Geonim, and determined which readings should be preferred. However, in his humility, he deferred to scholars who disagreed with him. For example, in Chulin 4a, he comments about a phrase, "We do not read this. But as for those who do, this is the explanation…"
Rashi's commentary, which covers nearly all of the Babylonian Talmud (a total of 30 tractates), has been included in every version of the Talmud since its first printing in the fifteenth century. It is always situated towards the middle of the opened book display; i.e., on the side of the page closest to the binding.
Some of the other printed commentaries which are attributed to Rashi were composed by others, primarily his students. In some commentaries, the text indicates that Rashi died before completing the tractate, and that it was completed by a student. This is true of the tractate Makkot, the concluding portions of which were composed by his son-in-law, Rabbi Judah ben Nathan, and of the tractate
Bava Batra, finished (in a more detailed style) by his grandson, the Rashbam. There is a legend that the commentary on Nedarim, which is clearly not his, was actually composed by his daughters.
Rashi's commentary on the Talmud continues to be a key basis for contemporary rabbinic scholarship and interpretation.
Commentary on the Tanakh
Rashi's commentary on the Tanakh and especially the Chumash is the essential companion for any study at any level, beginning, intermediate and advanced. Drawing on the breadth of Midrashic, Talmudic and Aggadic literature (including literature that is no longer extant), as well as his knowledge of grammar, halakhah, and how things work, Rashi clarifies the "simple" meaning of the text so that a bright child of five could understand it. [cite web |url=http://www.chabad.org.il/Magazines/Article.asp?ArticleID=3822&CategoryID=957 |title=רבן של ישראל (Hebrew) |author=Mordechai Menashe Laufer] At the same time, his commentary forms the foundation for some of the most profound legal analysis and mystical discourses that came after it. Scholars debate why Rashi chose a particular Midrash to illustrate a point, or why he used certain words and phrases and not others. Rabbi
Shneur Zalman of Liadiwrote that “Rashi’s commentary on Torah is the ‘wine of Torah’. It opens the heart and uncovers one’s essential love and fear of G-d." [ [http://www.chabad.org/library/article_cdo/aid/476620/jewish/Rashis-Method-of-Biblical-Commentary.htm Rashi's Method of Biblical Commentary] ]
Legend also surrounds the writing of this commentary, which is seen by many to have been written with "Ruach Hakodesh" - Divine inspiration - to explain its mass appeal. Rabbi
Chaim Joseph David Azulaiwrote in his Shem HaGedolim: "Apparently, Rashi wrote his commentary by using a secret [technique to gain Godly inspration] , and therefore he fasted 613 times [before undertaking this project] ". According to others, Rashi wrote three versions of his commentary—one long, one short, and one mid-length; the latter version is the one we have today.
Scholars believe that Rashi's commentary on the Torah grew out of the lectures he gave to his students in his yeshiva, and evolved with the questions and answers they raised on it. Rashi only completed this commentary in the last years of his life. It was immediately accepted as authoritative by all Jewish communities, Ashkenazi and Sephardi alike.
The first dated Hebrew printed book was Rashi's commentary on the Chumash, printed by Abraham ben Garton in
Reggio di Calabria, Italy, 18 February 1475. (This version did not include the text of the Chumash itself.)
Rashi wrote commentaries on all the books of Tanakh except Chronicles (I & II). Scholars believe that the commentary which appears under Rashi's name in those books was compiled by the students of Rabbi Saadiah of the Rhine, who incorporated material from Rashi's yeshiva. Rashi's students, Rabbi Shemaya and Rabbi Yosef, edited the final commentary on the Torah; some of their own notes and additions also made their way into the version we have today.
Voluminous supercommentaries have been published on Rashi's work, including "Gur Aryeh" by Rabbi
Judah Loew(the Maharal), "Sefer ha-Mizrachi" by Rabbi Elijah Mizrachi(the Re'em), and "Yeri'ot Shlomo" by Rabbi Solomon Luria(the Maharshal). Almost all rabbinic literaturepublished since the Middle Agesdiscusses Rashi, either using his view as supporting evidence or debating against it.
Rashi's explanations of the Chumash were also cited extensively in "Postillae Perpetuae" by
Nicholas de Lyra(1292-1340), a French Franciscan, earning that author the name "Simius Solomonis" ("the ape of Solomon (Shlomo)"). De Lyra's book was consulted in preparing the important early (1611) English translation of the Bible (the King James version).
Of note in recent times is Rabbi
Menachem Mendel Schneerson's "novel interpretation" of Rashi's commentary, which was delivered in a series of public talks that began in 1964 and continued for over 25 years [Chaim Miller, [http://www.chabad.org/library/article.asp?AID=476620 Rashi's Method of Biblical Commentary] , Chabad.org.] (these talks are printed for the most part in Likkutei Sichos), and compiled in Hebrew in the 5 volume set of "Biurim LePirush Rashi". Schneerson formulated many basic principles for use in interpretation of Rashi's commentary. [ [http://store.kehotonline.com/index.php?stocknumber=HRE-KLALRS&deptid=&parentid=&page=5&itemsperpage=10 "Klalei Rashi" - The Principles of Rashi] ]
The Schottenstein Edition interlinear translation of the Talmud based its English-language commentary primarily on Rashi, and described his continuing importance as follows: quote|It has been our policy throughout the Schottenstein Edition of the Talmud to give Rashi's interpretation as the primary explanation of the
Gemara. Since it is not possible in a work of this nature to do justice to all of the Rishonim, we have chosen to follow the commentary most learned by people, and the one studied first by virtually all Torah scholars. In this we have followed the ways of our teachers and the Torah masters of the last nine hundred years, who have assigned a pride of place to Rashi's commentary and made it a point of departure for all other commentaries. ["The Schottenstein Edition of the Talmud:Talmud Bavli:Tractate Nedarim. Mesorah Publications Limited, 2000 (General Introduction, unpaginated). (Note: The Schottenstein Edition editors explained further that they chose Ran's commentary for Tractate Nedarim as an exception, based on a belief that the commentary attributed to Rashi for this tractate was not written by Rashi)] .
Similarly, the Gutnick Edition of the Chumash includes Rashi’s commentary in parentheses. [ [http://www.jewishpress.com/displayContent_new.cfm?mode=a§ionid=15&contentid=21611&contentName=Some%20Of%20The%20Rebbe's%20Torah:%20%3Ci%3EThe%20Gutnick%20Chumash%3C/i%3E Jewish Press review of The Gutnick Edition Chumash] ] Without Rashi's commentary, the Talmud would have remained a closed book. With it, any student who has been introduced to its study by a teacher can continue learning on his own, deciphering its language and meaning with the aid of Rashi.
Today, tens of thousands of men, women and children study "Chumash with Rashi" as they review the Torah portion to be read in
synagogueon the upcoming Shabbat. According to Halakha, a man may even study the Rashi on each Torah verse in fulfillment of the requirement to review the Parshatwice with Targum (which normally refers to Targum Onkelos). Since its publication, Rashi's commentary on the Torah is standard in almost all Chumashim produced within the Orthodox Jewish community.
About 300 of Rashi's
responsaand halakhic decisions are extant. These responsa were copied and preserved by his students. "Machzor Vitry" contains Rashi's responsa on prayer; this work was edited by Rabbi Simchah of Vitry, whose son, Rabbi Shmuel, married Rashi's granddaughter Hannah(daughter of Yocheved). "Siddur Rashi", compiled by an unknown student, also contains Rashi's responsa on prayer. Other compilations include "Sefer Hapardes", edited by Rabbi Shemayah, Rashi's student, and "Sefer Haoraah", prepared by Rabbi Nathan Hamachiri.
The semi-cursive typeface in which Rashi's commentaries are printed both in the Talmud and Tanakh is often referred to as "Rashi script." This does not mean that Rashi himself used such a script: the typeface is based on a 15th century Sephardic semi-cursive hand. What would be called "Rashi script" was employed by early Hebrew typographers such as the [http://jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=966&letter=S&search=soncino Soncino family] and
Daniel Bomberg, a Christianprinter in Venice, in their editions of commented texts (such as the Mikraot Gedolotand the Talmud, in which Rashi's commentaries prominently figure) to distinguish the rabbinic commentary from the primary text proper, for which a square typeface was used.
Death and legacy
Rashi died on the 29th of Tammuz 4865 (July 13, 1105) at the age of 65. He was buried in Troyes. The approximate location of the cemetery in which he was buried was recorded in "Seder Hadoros", but over time the location of the cemetery was forgotten. A number of years ago, a Sorbonne professor discovered an ancient map depicting the site of the cemetery, which now lay under an open square in the city of Troyes. After this discovery, French Jews erected a large monument in the center of the square—a large, black and white globe featuring a prominent Hebrew letter, "Shin"(ש) (presumably for "Shlomo(שלמה)," Rashi's name). The granite base of the monument is engraved: "Rabbi Shlomo Yitzchaki — Commentator and Guide".
In the summer of 2005, Rabbi
Yisroel Meir Gabbai, who renovates and repairs neglected gravesites of Jewish leaders around the world, erected an additional plaque at this site to alert visitors to the fact that the unmarked square was also a burial ground. The plaque reads, "The place you are standing on is the cemetery of the town of Troyes. Many Rishonimare buried here, among them Rabbi Shlomo, known as Rashi the holy, may his merit protect us". [cite news |url=http://chareidi.shemayisrael.com/archives5765/mattos/MTS65features.htm |title=The Discovery of the Resting Places of Rashi and the Baalei Hatosfos |author=Y. Friedman| publisher=Dei'ah Vedibur |date= 2005-07-25]
Jewish historian Rabbi
Berel Weinhas estimated that 80% of today's Ashkenazi Jewsdescend from Rashi. [cite web |url=http://soccerdad.baltiblogs.com/archives/2005/08/05/rashis_yahrzeit.html |title=Rashi's yahrzeit]
In 2006, the
Jewish National and University Libraryat Hebrew Universityput on an exhibit commemorating the 900th anniversary of Rashi's death (2005), showcasing rare items from the library collection written by Rashi, as well as various works by others concerning Rashi.
* [http://www.dinur.org/resources/resourceCategoryDisplay.aspx?categoryid=446&rsid=478 Resources > Medieval Jewish History > Rabbis > Rashi] The Jewish History Resource Center - Project of the Dinur Center for Research in Jewish History, The
Hebrew University of Jerusalem
* [http://www.rashi900.com/more.asp Biography, the Legend, the Commentator and more] rashi900.com
* [http://www.chabad.org/library/article.asp?AID=111831 Article on chabad.org]
* [http://www.loebtree.com/rashi.html#rashi Family Tree]
* [http://www.rashisdaughters.com Rashi's Daughters: A Novel of Life, Love and Talmud in Medieval France]
* [http://www.rashi900.com/ In honor of the 900th anniversary of his passing]
*Shulman, Yaacov Dovid (1993). "Rashi: The Story of Rabbi Shlomo Yitzchaki". Lakewood, NJ: C.I.S. Publishers. ISBN 1-56062-215-6
*Cantor, Norman F., (1969). Medieval History (second edition) p. 396. Toronto, Canada, The Macmillan Company. ISBN 69-10930.
*cite book |title=Rashi |first=Maurice |last=Liber |others=translated from French by Adele Szold |publisher=
Jewish Publication Society of America|year=1905 |isbn=0976654652 |url=http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/3165
* [http://www.collectionscanada.ca/obj/s4/f2/dsk1/tape9/PQDD_0025/NQ50099.pdf Dissertation 1999, PDF]
* [http://www.jnul.huji.ac.il/dl/mss/rashi/index.html Rashi; an exhibition of his works, from the treasures of the Jewish National and University Library]
* Technique and methodology
** [http://www.rashiyomi.com/ rashiyomi.com]
* Full text resources and translation
** [http://www.chabad.org/article.asp?AID=63255 Complete Tanach with Rashi]
** [http://www.chabad.org/dailystudy/default.asp?AID=6207 Chumash with Rashi (Judaica Press translation)]
** [http://www.tachash.org/chumash/pardate.html Chumash with Rashi (Metsudah translation)]
* Textual Search
** [http://www.rashiyomi.com/query1.htm Lookup Verses] , rashiyomi.com
** [http://www.tachash.org/texis/vtx/chumash Lookup Verses] , tachash.org
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