Timeline of Jerusalem

Timeline of Jerusalem




Timeline · 1000 BC · 721 BC · 597 BC
587 BC · Second Temple Period · 70
614 · 637 · Middle Ages · 1099
1187 · 1244 · 1917 · 1947 · 1948

Religious significance

Judaism · Christianity · Islam
Temple Mount · Western Wall
Dome of the Rock · al-Aqsa Mosque
Holy Sepulchre Church

Demographics · People

Patriarchs · Chief Rabbis
Grand Muftis · Mayors

Names · Positions

Judaization · Islamization


Old City · Archaeological sites
Synagogues · Churches · Mosques
Neighbourhoods · Mountains
East Jerusalem

Other topics

Mayors · Flag · Emblem
Jerusalem Law
Jerusalem Day · Quds Day
Transportation · Education

Emblem of Jerusalem.svg

v · d · e

This is a timeline of major events in the History of Jerusalem; a city that had been fought over sixteen times in its history.[1] During its long history, Jerusalem has been destroyed twice, besieged 23 times, attacked 52 times, and captured and recaptured 44 times.[2]


Ancient period

New Kingdom at its maximum territorial extent in the 15th century BCE
The Levant showing Jerusalem in c. 830 BCE
Neo-Assyrian Empire at its greatest extent
Achaemenid Empire under Darius III

Proto-Canaanite period

  • 4500–3500 BCE: First settlement established near Gihon Spring (earliest archeological evidence)
  • c. 2000 BCE: First known mention of the city (then known as Rusalimum) in the Middle Kingdom Egyptian Execration Texts.[3][4] The Semitic root S-L-M in the name is thought to refer to either "peace" (Salam or Shalom in modern Arabic and Hebrew) or Shalim, the god of dusk in the Canaanite religion.
  • c. 1850 BCE: According to the Book of Genesis, the Binding of Isaac takes place on Mount Moriah (see Chronology of the Bible) – Biblical scholars have often interpreted the location of the mountain to be Jerusalem, although this is disputed
  • c. 1700 BCE: Earliest archeological evidence of stone walls built around the city.

Canaanite and New Kingdom Egyptian period

Independent Israel and Judah (House of David) period

Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian Empires period

Illustration from the Nuremberg Chronicle of the destruction of Jerusalem under the Babylonian rule

Persian (Achaemenid) Empire period

  • 516 BCE: The Second Temple is built on the 6th year of Darius the Great (Biblical sources only)
  • 458 BCE: The third wave of Babylonian returnees is Ezra's Aliyah (Biblical sources only)
  • 445 BCE: The fourth and final wave of Babylonian returnees is Nehemiah's Aliyah. Nehemiah is the appointed governor of Judah, and rebuilds the Old City walls (Biblical sources only)
  • 410 BCE: The Great Assembly is established in Jerusalem.
  • 350 BCE: Jerusalem revolts against Artaxerxes III, along with other cities of the Levant and Cyprus. Artaxerxes III, retakes the city and burns it down in the process. Jews who supported the revolt are sent to Hyrcania on the Caspian Sea.

Classical antiquity

Hellenistic Kingdoms (Ptolemaic / Seleucid) period

Kingdoms of the Diadochi and others before the battle of Ipsus, circa 303 BC
The Seleucid Empire in c.200 BCE
Hasmonean Kingdom at its greatest extent under Salome Alexandra

Hasmonean kingdom

  • c.140 BCE: The Acra is captured and later destroyed by Simon Thassi
  • 139 BCE: Demetrius II Nicator is taken prisoner for nine years by the rapidly expanding Parthian Empire after defeat of the Seleucids in Persia. Simon Thassi travels to Rome, where the Roman Republic formally acknowledges the Hasmonean Kingdom. However the region remains a province of the Seleucid empire and Simon Thassi is required to provide troops to Antiochus VII Sidetes
  • 134 BCE: Sadducee John Hyrcanus becomes leader after his father Simon Thassi is murdered. He takes a Greek regnal name (see Hyrcania) in an acceptance of the Hellenistic culture of his Seleucid suzerains.
  • 134 BCE: Seleucid King Antiochus VII Sidetes recaptures the city. John Hyrcanus opened King David's sepulchre and removed three thousand talents which he paid as tribute to spare the city (according to Josephus[9]). John Hyrcanus, remains as governor, becoming a vassal to the Seleucids
  • 116 BCE: A civil war between Seleucid half-brothers Antiochus VIII Grypus and Antiochus IX Cyzicenus results in a breakup of the kingdom and the independence of certain principalities, including Judea.[10][11]
  • 110 BCE: John Hyrcanus carries out the first military conquests of the independent Hasmonean kingdom, raising a mercenary army to capture Madaba and Schechem, significantly increasing the regional influence of Jerusalem[12][13]
  • c.87 BCE: According to Josephus, following a six-year civil war involving Seleucid king Demetrius III Eucaerus, Hasmonean ruler Alexander Jannaeus crucified 800 Jewish rebels in Jerusalem
  • 73–63 BCE: The Roman Republic extends its influence in to the region in the Third Mithridatic War. During the war, Armenian King Tigranes the Great takes control of Syria and prepares to invade Judea and Jerusalem but has to retreat following an invasion of Armenia by Lucullus.[14] However, this period is believed to have resulted in the first settlement of Armenians in Jerusalem.[15] According to Armenian historian Movses Khorenatsi writing in c.482 AD, Tigranes captured Jerusalem and deported Hyrcanus to Armenia, however most scholars deem this account to be incorrect.[16][17]

Early Roman period

Extent of the Roman Empire under Augustus, 30BCE – 6AD
Pompey in the Temple, 63 BCE (Jean Fouquet 1470–1475)
Jesus at the Temple (Giovanni Paolo Pannini c. 1750)
The siege of Jerusalem, 70AD (David Roberts, 1850)
  • 7–26 Brief period of peace, relatively free of revolt and bloodshed in Judea and Galilee[27]
  • c.12 The 12 year old Jesus travels to Jerusalem on Passover, as he did every year[28] and is found in the Temple (Biblical sources only).
  • 28-30 CE: Three year Ministry of Jesus, during which a number of key events took place in Jerusalem, including: (Biblical sources only)
  • 30 CE: Key events in the martyrdom of Jesus which took place in Jerusalem (Biblical sources only)
  • 30 CE: The first Christian martyr (Protomartyr) Saint Stephen stoned to death following Sanhedrin trial.
  • 37–40 "Crisis under Caligula" – a financial crisis throughout the empire results in the "first open break" between Jews and Romans even though problems were already evident during the Census of Quirinius in 6 and under Sejanus before 31.[29]
  • 45–46 After a famine in Judea Paul and Barnabus provide support to the Jerusalem poor from Antioch (Biblical source only).
  • 50 The Apostles thought to have held the Council of Jerusalem, the first Christian council. May mark the first formal schism between Christianity and Judaism at which it was agreed that Christians did not need to be circumcised or alternately may represent a form of early Noahide Law.
  • 57 Paul of Tarsus is arrested in Jerusalem after he is attacked by a mob in the Temple[30] and defends his actions before a Sanhedrin.
  • 64–68 Nero persecutes Jews and Christians throughout the Roman Empire.
  • 66 James the Just, the brother of Jesus and first Bishop of Jerusalem, is killed in Jerusalem at the instigation of the high priest Ananus ben Ananus according to Eusebius of Caesarea.[31]
  • 66–73 CE: First Jewish-Roman War, with the Judean rebellion led by Simon Bar Giora
  • 70 CE: Siege of Jerusalem (70)Titus, eldest son of Emperor Vespasian, ends the major portion of Great Jewish Revolt and destroys Herod's Temple on Tisha B'Av. The Roman legion Legio X Fretensis is garrisoned in the city.
  • c.90–96: Jews and Christians heavily persecuted throughout the Roman Empire towards the end of the reign of Domitian.
  • 115–7: Jews revolt against the Romans throughout the empire, including Jerusalem, in the Kitos War.
  • 117: Saint Simeon of Jerusalem, second Bishop of Jerusalem, was crucified under Trajan by the proconsul Atticus in Jerusalem or the vicinity.[32]

Late Roman period (Aelia Capitolina)

The Roman empire at its peak under Hadrian showing the location of the Roman legions deployed in AD 125.

Late Antiquity period

Byzantine period

Europe after the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476
Helena finding the True Cross (Italian manuscript, c.825)
The Madaba Map depiction of sixth-century Jerusalem

Middle Ages

Rashidun, Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates period

The expansion of the caliphate under the Umayyads.
  Expansion under Muhammad, 622–632
  Expansion during the Rashidun Caliphate, 632–661
  Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661-750
An anachronistic map of the various de facto independent emirates after the Abbasids lost their military dominance (c. 950).

Fatimid Caliphate period

The Fatimid Caliphate at its greatest extent, showing Jerusalem

Kingdom of Jerusalem (Crusaders) period

Crusader states in 1180
The capture of Jerusalem by the Crusaders on 15 July 1099
1. The Holy Sepulcher, 2. The Dome of the Rock, 3. Ramparts
A woodcut of Jerusalem in the Nuremberg Chronicle, 1493

Ayyubid, Mamluk Bahri and Mamluk Burji period

Jerusalem under the Ayyubid dynasty after the death of Saladin, 1193
The Bahri Mamluk Dynasty 1250–1382
  • 1187: Siege of Jerusalem (1187)Saladin captures Jerusalem from Crusaders, after Battle of the Horns of Hattin. Allows Jewish and Orthodox Christian settlement. The Dome of the Rock is converted to an Islamic center of worship again.
  • 1192: Third Crusade under Richard the Lionheart fails to recapture Jerusalem, but ends with the Treaty of Ramla in which Saladdin agreed that Western Christian pilgrims could worship freely in Jerusalem
  • 1193: Mosque of Omar built under Saladin outside the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, commemorating Umar the Great’s decision to pray outside the church so as not to set a precedent and thereby endanger the Church's status as a Christian site
  • 1193: The Moroccan Quarter is established
  • 1212: 300 Rabbis from England and France settle in Jerusalem.
  • 1219: Despite having rebuilt the walls during the Third Crusade, Al-Mu'azzam, Ayyubid Emir of Damascus, destroys the city walls to prevent the Crusaders from capturing a fortified city
  • 1219: Jacques de Vitry writes his magnum opus Historia Hierosolymitana
  • 1229 To end the Sixth Crusade, a 10-year treaty is signed between Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor and Ayyubid Sultan Al-Kamil, allowing Christians freedom to live in the unfortified city. The Ayyubids retained control of the Muslim holy places.
  • 1239: An-Nasir Dawud, Ayyubid Emir of Kerak, occupies the city.
  • 1240–44: An-Nasir Dawud competes with his cousin As-Salih Ayyub, who had allied with the Crusaders, for control of the region.
  • 1244: Siege of Jerusalem (1244) –– In order to permanently retake the city from rival breakaway Abbasid rulers who had allied with the Crusaders, As-Salih Ayyub summoned a huge mercenary army of Khwarezmians, who were available for hire following the defeat of the Khwarazm Shah dynasty by the Mongols ten years earlier.[49] The Khwarezmians could not be controlled by As-Salih Ayyub, and destroyed the city. A few months later, the two sides met again at the decisive Battle of La Forbie, marking the end of the Crusader influence in the region
  • 1246: The Ayyubids regain control of the city after the Khwarezmians are defeated by Al-Mansur Ibrahim at Lake Homs
  • 1248–50: The Seventh Crusade, launched in reaction to the 1244 destruction of Jerusalem, fails after Louis IX of France is defeated and captured by Ayyubid Sultan Turanshah at the Battle of Fariskur in 1250. The Mamluk Sultanate is indirectly created in Egypt as a result, as Turanshah is killed by his Mamluk soldiers a month after the battle and his step-mother Shajar al-Durr becomes Sultana of Egypt with the Mamluk Aybak as Atabeg. The Ayyubids relocate to Damascus, where they continue to control the rump of their empire including Jerusalem for a further 10 years.
  • 1260: The Army of the Mongol Empire reaches Palestine for the first time:
  • 1267: Nachmanides goes to Jerusalem and prays at the Western Wall. Reported to have found only two Jewish families in the city
  • 1300: Further Mongol raids into Palestine under Ghazan and Mulay. Jerusalem held by the Mongols for four months (see Ninth Crusade). Hetham II, King of Armenia, was allied to the Mongols and is reported to have visited Jerusalem where he donated his scepter to the Armenian Cathedral.
  • 1307: Marino Sanuto the Elder writes his magnum opus Historia Hierosolymitana
  • 1340: The Armenian Patriarchate of Jerusalem builds a wall around the Armenian Quarter
  • 1347: The Black Death sweeps Jerusalem and much of the rest of the Mamluk Sultanate.
  • 1377: Jerusalem and other cities in Mamluk Syria revolt, following the death of Al-Ashraf Sha'ban. The revolt was quelled and a coup d'etat is staged by Barquq in Cairo in 1382, founding the Mamluk Burji dynasty.
  • 1392–93 – Henry IV of England makes a pilgrimage to Jerusalem
  • 1482: The visiting Dominican priest Felix Fabri described Jerusalem as "a collection of all manner of abominations". As "abominations" he listed Saracens, Greeks, Syrians, Jacobites, Abyssianians, Nestorians, Armenians, Gregorians, Maronites, Turcomans, Bedouins, Assassins, a sect possibly Druzes, Mamelukes, and "the most accursed of all", Jews. Only the Latin Christians "long with all their hearts for Christian princes to come and subject all the country to the authority of the Church of Rome".
  • 1496: Mujir al-Din al-'Ulaymi writes The Glorious History of Jerusalem and Hebron

Early modern period

Early Ottoman period

The Ottoman Empire in 1683, showing Jerusalem

Modern era

Decline of the Ottoman Empire period

Map of Jerusalem in 1883
"Independent" Vilayet of Jerusalem shown within Ottoman administrative divisions in the Levant after the reorganisation of 1887–88

British Mandate period

Zones of French and British influence and control proposed in the Sykes-Picot Agreement
General Allenby enters Jerusalem on foot out of respect for the Holy City, 11 December 1917

Partition between Israel and Jordan

  • January 6: Semiramis Hotel bombing
  • April 9: Deir Yassin Massacre
  • May 13: Hadassah medical convoy massacre.
  • May 14: The term of the British Mandate ends.
  • May 14: The State of Israel is established at 4 pm
  • May 22: American Consul General Thomas C. Wasson is killed on Wauchope Street by an unknown assassin
  • May 27: The Arab Legion destroys the Hurva Synagogue.
  • May 28: The Jewish Quarter of the Old City falls to Arab Legion under Glubb Pasha. The Legion destroys all remaining synagogues. Mordechai Weingarten discusses surrender terms with Abdullah el Tell.
  • July 26: West Jerusalem is proclaimed territory of Israel.
  • September 17: Folke Bernadotte, the United Nations' mediator in Palestine and the first official mediator in the UN's history, is killed by Lehi assassins

Israeli period

The Temple Mount as it appears today. The Western Wall is in the foreground with the Dome of the Rock in the background
  • 1967 5–11 June: The Six Day War.
  • June 6: The Battle of Ammunition Hill takes place in the northern part of Jordanian controlled East Jerusalem
  • June 7: The Old City is captured by the IDF.
  • June 10: The Moroccan Quarter including 135 houses and the Al-Buraq mosque is demolished, creating a plaza in front of the Western Wall
  • June 28: Israel declares Jerusalem unified and announces free access to holy sites of all religions.
  • 1968: Israel reclaims the Jewish Quarter, confiscating 129 dunams (0.129 km2) of land which had made up the Jewish Quarter before 1948,[66] evicting 6,000 residents and 437 shops.[67]
  • 1969: Denis Michael Rohan, an Australian Protestant extremist, burns a part of the al-Aqsa Mosque.
  • 1977: Anwar Sadat, President of Egypt, visits Jerusalem and addresses the Knesset.
  • 1978: WUJS headquarters moves from London to Jerusalem.
  • 1980: The Jerusalem Law is enacted leading to UN Security Council Resolution 478 (it states that the Council will not recognize this law)
  • 2000: Pope John Paul II becomes the first Latin Pope to visit Jerusalem, and prays at the Western Wall.
  • 2000: Final Agreement between Israel and Palestinian Authority is not achieved at the 2000 Camp David Summit, with the status of Jerusalem playing a central role in the breakdown of talks.
  • 2000: The Second Intifada (also known as Al-Aqsa Intifada) begins two months after the end of the Camp David Summit – Ariel Sharon's visit to the Temple Mount is reported to have been a relevant factor in the uprising.
  • 2008: Israeli Sephardic Religious Party, Shas, refuses to form part of the government without a guarantee that there will be no negotiations that will lead to a partition of Jerusalem.

Graphical Overview of Jerusalem's Historical Periods

See also

  • Timeline of the region of Palestine



  1. ^ Steckoll, Solomon H., The gates of Jerusalem, Frederick A. Praeger, New York, 1968, preface
  2. ^ "Do We Divide the Holiest Holy City?". Moment Magazine. Archived from the original on June 3, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080603214950/http://www.momentmag.com/Exclusive/2008/2008-03/200803-Jerusalem.html. Retrieved 2008-03-05. . According to Eric H. Cline’s tally in Jerusalem Besieged.
  3. ^ a b c d e Slavik, Diane. 2001. Cities through Time: Daily Life in Ancient and Modern Jerusalem. Geneva, Illinois: Runestone Press, p. 60. ISBN 978-0-8225-3218-7
  4. ^ Mazar, Benjamin. 1975. The Mountain of the Lord. Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc., p. 45. ISBN 0-385-04843-2
  5. ^ Chronology of the Israelite Tribes from The History Files (historyfiles.co.uk)
  6. ^ Ben-Dov, Meir. 1985. In the Shadow of the Temple. New York, New York: Harper & Row Publishers, Inc., pp. 34–35. ISBN 0-06-015362-8
  7. ^ Bright, John (1980). A History of Israel. p. 311. http://books.google.com/books?id=0VG67yLs-LAC&pg=PA311&lpg=PA311&dq=assyrian+records,+manasseh,+esarhaddon#v=onepage&q=assyrian%20records%2C%20manasseh%2C%20esarhaddon&f=false. 
  8. ^ Maccabean Revolt
  9. ^ Josephus The Jewish Wars (1:60)
  10. ^ Lectures on ancient history, Barthold Georg Niebuhr, Marcus Carsten Nicolaus von Niebuhr
  11. ^ Josephus, chapter 10
  12. ^ Encyclopaedic dictionary of the Bible, Volume 5, William George Smith
  13. ^ Sievers, 142
  14. ^ Between Rome and Jerusalem: 300 years of Roman-Judaean relations By Martin Sicker
  15. ^ Armenians of Jerusalem Launch Project To Preserve History and Culture
  16. ^ The problem of the Greek sources of Movsēs Xorenacʻi's History of Armenia
  17. ^ A history of the Jews in Babylonia, Volume 2 By Jacob Neusner page 351
  18. ^ "And when he had ordained five councils (συνέδρια), he distributed the nation into the same number of parts. So these councils governed the people; the first was at Jerusalem, the second at Gadara, the third at Amathus, the fourth at Jericho, and the fifth at Sepphoris in Galilee." Josephus, Ant. xiv 54:
  19. ^ "Josephus uses συνέδριον for the first time in connection with the decree of the Roman governor of Syria, Gabinius (57 BCE), who abolished the constitution and the then existing form of government of Palestine and divided the country into five provinces, at the head of each of which a sanhedrin was placed ("Ant." xiv 5, § 4)." via Jewish Encyclopedia: Sanhedrin:
  20. ^ Armstrong 1996, p. 126
  21. ^ Sicker 2001, p. 75
  22. ^ Israel handbook: with the Palestinian Authority areas By Dave Winter
  23. ^ The History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ
  24. ^ Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews – Book XVIII, "Cyrenius came himself into Judea, which was now added to the province of Syria"
  25. ^ H.H. Ben-Sasson, A History of the Jewish People, page 247–248: "Consequently, the province of Judea may be regarded as a satellite of Syria, though, in view of the measure of independence left to its governor in domestic affairs, it would be wrong to say that in the Julio-Claudian era Judea was legally part of the province of Syria."
  26. ^ A History of the Jewish People, H.H. Ben-Sasson editor, 1976, page 247: "When Judea was converted into a Roman province [in 6 CE, page 246], Jerusalem ceased to be the administrative capital of the country. The Romans moved the governmental residence and military headquarters to Caesarea. The centre of government was thus removed from Jerusalem, and the administration became increasingly based on inhabitants of the hellenistic cities (Sebaste, Caesarea and others)."
  27. ^ John P. Meier's A Marginal Jew, v. 1, ch. 11; also H.H. Ben-Sasson, A History of the Jewish People, Harvard University Press, 1976, ISBN 0-674-39731-2, page 251: "But after the first agitation (which occurred in the wake of the first Roman census) had faded out, we no longer hear of bloodshed in Judea until the days of Pilate."
  28. ^ Luke 2:41–43
  29. ^ H.H. Ben-Sasson, A History of the Jewish People, Harvard University Press, 1976, ISBN 0674397312, The Crisis Under Gaius Caligula, pages 254–256: "The reign of Gaius Caligula (37–41) witnessed the first open break between the Jews and the Julio-Claudian empire. Until then – if one accepts Sejanus' heyday and the trouble caused by the census after Archelaus' banishment – there was usually an atmosphere of understanding between the Jews and the empire ... These relations deteriorated seriously during Caligula's reign, and, though after his death the peace was outwardly re-established, considerable bitterness remained on both sides. ... Caligula ordered that a golden statue of himself be set up in the Temple in Jerusalem. ... Only Caligula's death, at the hands of Roman conspirators (41), prevented the outbreak of a Jewish-Roman war that might well have spread to the entire East."
  30. ^ Acts 21:26–39
  31. ^ See also Flavius Josephus, Jewish Antiquities XX, ix, 1.
  32. ^ Eusebius, Eusebius, Historia Ecclesiastica, III, xxxii.
  33. ^ Christopher Mackay. "Ancient Rome a Military and Political History" 2007: 230
  34. ^ Schaff's Seven Ecumenical Councils: First Nicaea: Canon VII: "Since custom and ancient tradition have prevailed that the Bishop of Aelia [i.e., Jerusalem] should be honored, let him, saving its due dignity to the Metropolis, have the next place of honor."; "It is very hard to determine just what was the “precedence” granted to the Bishop of Aelia, nor is it clear which is the "metropolis" referred to in the last clause. Most writers, including Hefele, Balsamon, Aristenus and Beveridge consider it to be Cæsarea; while Zonaras thinks Jerusalem to be intended, a view recently adopted and defended by Fuchs; others again suppose it is Antioch that is referred to."
  35. ^ Browning, Robert. 1978. The Emperor Julian. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, p. 176. ISBN 0-520-03731-6
  36. ^ Horn, Cornelia B.; Robert R. Phenix, Jr. 2008. The Lives of Peter the Iberian, Theodosius of Jerusalem, and the Monk Romanus. Atlanta, Georgia: Society of Biblical Literature, p. lxxxviii. ISBN 978-1-5898-3200-8
  37. ^ The Emperor Justinian and Jerusalem (527–565 CE)
  38. ^ Hussey, J.M. 1961. The Byzantine World. New York, New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, p. 25.
  39. ^ Karen Armstrong. 1997. Jerusalem: One City, Three Faiths. New York, New York: Ballantine Books, p. 229. ISBN 0-345-39168-3
  40. ^ Translation of Sahih Bukhari, Book 21, Number 281: "Do not set out on a journey except for three Mosques i.e. Al-Masjid-AI-Haram, the Mosque of Allah's Apostle, and the Mosque of Al-Aqsa, (Mosque of Jerusalem)."
  41. ^ Ostrogorsky, George. 1969. History of the Byzantine State. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, p. 104. ISBN 0-8135-0599-2
  42. ^ Charlemagne and the Early Middle Ages by Miriam Greenblatt, p.29
  43. ^ Heck, Gene W.. Charlemagne, Muhammad, and the Arab roots of capitalism. p. 172. http://books.google.com/books?id=5qNgiv-ZOEAC&pg=PA179. 
  44. ^ War And Peace in the Law of Islam by Majid Khadduri, p.247
  45. ^ a b Guy le Strange (1890). Palestine Under the Moslems from AD 650 to 1500, Translated from the Works of the Medieval Arab Geographers. Florence: Palestine Exploration Fund. http://www.archive.org/stream/palestineundermo00lestuoft/palestineundermo00lestuoft_djvu.txt. 
  46. ^ Singh, Nagendra. 2002. "International Encyclopedia of Islamic Dynasties"'
  47. ^ Bosworth, Clifford Edmund. 2007. "Historic Cities of the Islamic World
  48. ^ Runciman, Steven. 1951. A History of the Crusades: Volume 1 The First Crusade and the Foundation of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. New York, New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 279–290. ISBN 0-521-06161-X
  49. ^ CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Jerusalem (After 1291)
  50. ^ Jerusalem Timeline From David to the 20th Century
  51. ^ Chaucer's dead body: from corpse to corpus By Thomas Augustine Prendergast
  52. ^ Asali, K. J. Jerusalem in History. Brooklyn, New York: Olive Branch Press, p. 215. ISBN 978-1-5665-6304-8
  53. ^ Salmon, Thomas (1744). Modern history or the present state of all nations. p. 461. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=f7I-AAAAcAAJ&pg=PA534&dq=palestine#v=onepage&q=palestine&f=false. Retrieved 28 Jan 2011. 
  54. ^ Fisk and King, 'Description of Jerusalem,' in The Christian Magazine, July 1824, page 220. Mendon Association, 1824.
  55. ^ The Jewish Quarter – BATEI MAHSE Square
  56. ^ http://www.biu.ac.il/js/rennert/history_11.html
  57. ^ Mishkenot Sha'ananim
  58. ^ Mishknot Sha'ananim
  59. ^ [1]
  60. ^ Jerusalem: city of longing By Simon Goldhill
  61. ^ Segev, Tom (1999). One Palestine, Complete. Metropolitan Books. pp. 295–313. ISBN 0805048480.  The group assembled at the Wall shouting "the Wall is ours". They raised the Jewish national flag and sang Hatikvah, the Israeli anthem. The authorities had been notified of the march in advance and provided a heavy police escort in a bid to prevent any incidents. Rumors spread that the youths had attacked local residents and had cursed the name of Muhammad
  62. ^ Levi-Faur, Sheffer and Vogel, 1999, p. 216.
  63. ^ Sicker, 2000, p. 80.
  64. ^ 'The Wailing Wall In Jerusalem Another Incident', The Times, Monday, August 19, 1929; pg. 11; Issue 45285; col D.
  65. ^ Prince-Gibson, Eetta (July 27, 2006). "Reflective truth". Jerusalem Post. http://www.jpost.com/Features/Article.aspx?id=29576. Retrieved May 10, 2009. 
  66. ^ "Christians in the Holy Land" Edited by Michael Prior and William Taylor. ISBN 0 905035 32 1. Page 104: Albert Aghazarian "The significance of Jerusalem to Christians". This writer states that "Jews did not own any more than 20% of this quarter" prior to 1948.
  67. ^ "Palestine and Palestinians", page 117.


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