Beta Israel

Beta Israel
Beta Israel
ביתא ישראל
Shlomo Molla Abatte Barihun Hagit Yaso
Shlomo Molla, Abatte Barihun, Hagit Yaso
Total population
125,000 - 130,000
Regions with significant populations
 Israel 120,000[1] (2008)
1.75% of the Israeli population
 Ethiopia 3,188 - 8,700 [2]
 United States 1,000 [3]
Historical Jewish languages
Kayla · Qwara
Liturgical languages
Predominant spoken languages
Amharic · Tigrinya · Hebrew


Related ethnic groups

African Jews · other Jewish groups
Amhara · Tigrinya · Agaw · other Habeshas

Beta Israel (Hebrew: בֵּיתֶא יִשְׂרָאֵל‎‎ - Beyte (beyt) Israel, Ge'ez: ቤተ እስራኤል - Bēta 'Isrā'ēl, modern Bēte 'Isrā'ēl, EAE: "Betä Ǝsraʾel", "Community of Israel" [4] also known as Ethiopian Jews (Hebrew: יְהוּדֵי ‏אֶ‏תְיוֹ‏פְּ‏יָ‏ה‎‎: Yhudey Etiopiya, Ge'ez: "የኢትዮጵያ አይሁድዊ", ye-Ityoppya Ayhudi), are the names of Jewish communities which lived in the area of Aksumite and Ethiopian Empires (Habesh or Abyssinia), nowadays divided between Amhara and Tigray Regions.

Beta Israel lived in North and North-Western Ethiopia, in more than 500 small villages spread over a wide territory, among Muslim and predominantly Christian ruling populations. Most of them were concentrated in the area around Lake Tana and north of it, in the Tigre, Gonder and Wello regions, and among the Semien, Wolgait, Dembia, Segelt, Lasta, Quara, Belesa, and small numbers lived in the cities of Gonder and Addis Ababa.
—Hagar Salamon[5]

Nearly all of the Ethiopian Beta Israel community, more than 120,000 people, reside in Israel under its Law of Return, which gives Jews and those with Jewish parents or grandparents, and all of their spouses, the right to settle in Israel and obtain citizenship. The Israeli government has mounted rescue operations, most notably during Operation Moses (1984), Operation Sheba (1985) and Operation Solomon (1991) for their migration. Some immigration has continued up through present day. Today 81,000 Ethiopian Israelis were born in Ethiopia, while 38,500 or 32% of the community are native born Israelis.[6]

The related Falasha Mura are the descendants of Beta Israel who converted to Christianity. Some are returning to the practices of Judaism, living in Falash Mura communities and observing halakha. Beta Israel spiritual leaders, including Liqa Kahnet Raphael Hadane have argued for the acceptance of the Falasha Mura as Jews.[7] This claim has been a matter of controversy within Israeli society.[8][9][10][11]



Throughout its history the community have been called a large number of names. According to tradition the name "Beta Israel" originated in the 4th century when the community refused to convert to Christianity during the rule of Abreha and Atsbeha (identified with Se'azana and Ezana), the monarchs of Aksumite Empire who embraced Christianity. [12] This name stand opposite to "Beta Christian" (Christianity) [13][14] and wasn't originally attributed any negative meanings and the community have used it ever since as their official name. Since the 1980s it has also become the official name used in the scientific literature to describe the community.

After the rise of the Solomonic dynasty (1270 AD), the Beta Israel community was also called Ayhud ("Jews") until they were referred to by the derogatory term Falasha (Ge'ez: "foreigners/exiles"), a term given to them by the emperor Yeshaq I of Ethiopia.

Other derogatory terms by which the community have been known for include [15] Attenkun (don't touch us) named after the strict purity laws of the community, Kayla (one of the Agaw languages spoken by them) meaning in dispute, Christ killers, Tebiban (possessor of secret knowledge), Buda (evil eye), Jib (Hyenas) and Jiratam (tail), Serategna (worker), Balla Ejj (craftsmens), Gdmoch (the people of the field). There were also local terms Fogera in Wolqayt and Tsegede, Kaylasha (combination of Kayla and Falasha) in Armachiho, Mito in Gojjam, Damot and Gibe, Damenenza (his blood will be upon them) in Gojjam and Shifalasha in Lasta. In other languages Fndz'a in Oromo and Nafura (Blacksmiths) in Gurage.


yətbaräk 'əgzi'abəher 'amlakä 'əsra'el ("Blessed be God the Lord of Israel") is a main religion sentence.

Haymanot (Ge'ez: "the faith" from Aramaic "הימנותא") is the nickname of the Jewish religion in the community.


Mäṣḥafä Kedus (Holy Scriptures) is the name for the religious literature. The language of the writings is Ge'ez. The holiest book is the Orit (from Aramaic "Oraita" - "Torah") which consist the Five Books of Moses and the books Joshua, Judges and Ruth. The rest of the Bible has secondary importance. Book of Lamentations is not part of the canon.

Deuterocanonical books that part of the canon are Sirach, Judith, Esdras 1 and 2, Meqabyan, Jubilees, Baruch 1 and 4, Tobit, Enoch and the testaments of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob.

Non Biblical writings Includes: Nagara Muse (The Conversation of Moses), Mota Aaron (Death of Aharon), Mota Muse (Death of Moses), Te'ezaza Sanbat (Precepts of the Sabbath), Arde'et (Students), Gorgorios, Mäṣḥafä Sa'atat (Book of Hours), Abba Elias (Father Elija), Mäṣḥafä Mäla'əkt (Book of Angels), Mäṣḥafä Kahan (Book of Priest), Dərsanä Abrəham Wäsara Bägabs (Homily on Abraham and Sarah in Egypt), Gadla Sosna (The Acts of Susanna) and Baqadāmi Gabra Egzi'abḥēr (In the Beginning God Created). Zëna Ayhud (Jews Story) and fālasfā (Philosophers) are two books that are not holy and have a great influence.

Prayer house

Colored dice with white background
Synagogue in the village of Wolleka in Ethiopia.
Colored dice with checkered background
Modern Synagogue in the city of Netivot in Israel.

The Synagogue is called masgid (place of worship) also bet maqds (Holy house) or ṣalot bet (Prayer house).

Dietary laws

Dietary laws are based mainly on Leviticus, Deuteronomy and Jubilees. Permitted and forbidden animals and their signs appear on Leviticus 11:3–8 and Deuteronomy 14:4-8. Forbidden birds are listed on Leviticus 11:13–23 and Deuteronomy 14:12–20. Signs of permitted fish are written on Leviticus 11:9–12 and Deuteronomy 14:9-10. Insects and larvae are forbidden according to Leviticus 11:41-42. Waterfowl are forbidden according to Leviticus 11:46. Gid hanasheh is forbidden per Genesis 32:33. Mixtures of milk and meat are not prepared or eaten but are banned either: Haymanot interpreted the verses Exodus 23:19, Exodus 34:26 and Deuteronomy 14:21 literally "shalt not seethe a kid in its mother's milk" (like the Karaites). Nowadays, under Rabbinic influence, mixing dairy products with meat is banned.

Ethiopian Jews were forbidden to eat the food of non-Jews. A Kes only eats meat he has slaughtered himself, which his hosts then prepare both for him and themselves. Beta Israel who broke these taboos were ostracized and had to undergo a purification process. Purification included fasting for one or more days, eating only uncooked chickpeas provided by the Kes, and ritual purification before entering the village. Unlike other Ethiopians, the Beta Israel do not eat raw meat dishes like kitfo or gored gored.[16]

Calendar and Holidays

The Beta Israel calendar is an lunar calendar of 12 months, each has 29 or 30 days alternately, every four years there has been a leap year which added a full month (30 days). The calendar is a combination of the ancient calendar of Alexandria Jewry, Book of Jubilees, Book of Enoch, Abu Shaker and the Ge'ez calendar. [17] The years are counted according to the Counting of Kushta "1571 to Jesus Christ, 7071 to the Gyptians and 6642 to the Hebrews", [18] according to this counting the year 5771 (Hebrew: ה'תשע"א‎) in the Rabbinical Hebrew calendar is the year 7082 in this calendar.

Holidays in the Haymanot [19] divided into daily, monthly and annually. The annual holiday by month are:

A Kes celebrating the holiday of Sigd in Jerusalem, 2008.
  • Nisan: ba'āl lisan (Nisan holiday - New Year) on 1, ṣomä fāsikā (Passover fast) on 14, fāsikā (Passover) between 15 - 21 and gadfat (grow fat) or buho (fermented dough) on 22.
  • Iyar: another fāsikā (Second Passover - Pesach Sheni) between 15 - 21.
  • Sivan: ṣomä mã'rar (Harvest fast) on 11 and mã'rar (Harvest - Shavuot) on 12.
  • Tammuz: ṣomä tomos (Tammuz fast) between 1 - 10.
  • Av: ṣomä ab (Av fast) between 1 - 17.
  • Elul: awd amet (Year rotate) on 1, ṣomä lul (Elul fast) between 1 - 9, anākel astar'i (our atonement) on 10 and asartu wasamantu (eighteenth) on 28.
  • Tishrei: ba'āl Matqe (blowing holiday - Zikhron Trua) on 1, astasreyo (Day of Atonement - Yom Kippur) on 10 and ba'āla maṣallat (Tabernacles holiday - Sukkot) between 15 - 21.
  • Cheshvan: holiday for the day Moses saw the face of God on 1, holiday for the reception of Moses by the Israelites on 10, fast on 12 and měhlělla (Supplication - Sigd) on 29.
  • Kislev: another ṣomä mã'rar and mã'rar on 11 and 12 respectively.
  • Tevet: ṣomä tibt (Tevet fast) between 1 - 10.
  • Shevat: wamashi brobu on 1.
  • Adar: ṣomä astēr (Fast of Esther - Ta'anit Ester) between 11 - 13.

Monthly holidays are mainly an memorial days to the annual holiday, these are yačaraqā ba'āl ("new moon festival") [20] on the first day of every month, asärt ("ten") on the thetenth day to commemorate Yom Kippur, 'asrã hulat ("twelve") on the twelfth day to commemorate Shavuot, asrã ammest ("fifteen") on the fifteenth day to commemorate Passover and Sukkot, and ṣomä mälěya a fast on the last day of every month. [21] Daily holidays include the ṣomä säňňo (Monday fast), ṣomä amus (Thursday fast), ṣomä 'arb (Friday fast) and the very holy Sanbat (Sabbath).


The Beta Israel once spoke Qwara and Kayla, closely related Cushitic languages. Now they speak Amharic and Tigrinya, both Semitic languages. Their liturgical language is Ge'ez, also Semitic. Since the 1950s, they have taught Hebrew in their schools; in addition, those Beta Israel currently residing in the State of Israel use Hebrew as a daily language.


Oral traditions

There is no independent tradition of origin transmitted over the ages among the Ethiopian Jews. The known Beta Israel versions of the Ethiopian legend of origin take as their basis the account of Menelik's return to Ethiopia.[22] Though all the available traditions correspond to recent interpretations, they certainly reflect ancient convictions. According to Jon Abbink, three different versions are to be distinguished among the traditions which were recorded from the priests of the community.[23]

Companions of Menelik from Jerusalem

By versions of this type the Beta Israel expressed their wish to be regarded not necessarily as descendants of king Solomon, but as contemporaries of Solomon and Menelik, originating from the kingdom of Israel.[24]

Migrants by the Egyptian route

According to these versions, the forefathers of the Beta Israel are supposed to have arrived in Ethiopia coming from the North, independently from Menelik and his compagny:

The Falashas [sic] migrated like many of the other sons of Israel to exile in Egypt after the destruction of the First Temple by the Babylonians in 586 the time of the Babylonian exile. This group of people was led by the great priest On. They remained in exile in Egypt for few hundred years until the reign of Cleopatra. When she was engaged in war against Augustus Caesar the Jews supported her. When she was defeated, it became dangerous for the small minorities to remain in Egypt and so there was another migration (approximately between 39-31 B.C.E). Some of the migrants went to South Arabia and further to the Yemen. Some of them went to the Sudan and continued on their way to Ethiopia, helped Egyptian traders who guided them through the desert. Some of them entered Ethiopia through Quara (near the Sudanese border), and some came via Eritrea. ...Later in time, there was an Abyssinian king named Kaleb, who wished to enlarge his kingdom, so he declared war on the Yemen and conquered it. And so, during his reign there came another group of Jews to Ethiopia, led by Azonos and Phinhas.[25]:413-414

Settlements in Sennar and expansion to Abyssinia

Kebra Nagast

The Ethiopian history described in the Kebra Negast, or "Book of the Glory of Kings," relates that Ethiopians are descendants of Israelite tribes who came to Ethiopia with Menelik I, alleged to be the son of King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba (or Makeda, in the legend) (see 1 Kings 10:1-13 and 2 Chronicles 9:1-12). The legend relates that Menelik, as an adult, returned to his father in Jerusalem, and then resettled in Ethiopia, and that he took with him the Ark of the Covenant.[26]

In the Bible there is no mention that the Queen of Sheba either married or had any sexual relations with King Solomon (although some identify her with the "black and beautiful" in Song 1:5);[27] rather, the narrative records that she was impressed with his wealth and wisdom, and they exchanged royal gifts, and then she returned to rule her people in Kush. However, the "royal gifts" are interpreted by some as sexual contact. The loss of the Ark is also not mentioned in the Bible. In fact, King Hezekiah later makes reference to the Ark in 2 Kings 19:15.

The Kebra Negast asserts that the Beta Israel are descended from a battalion of men of Judah who fled southwards down the Arabian coastal lands from Judea after the breakup of the united Kingdom of Israel into two kingdoms in the 10th century BCE (while King Rehoboam reigned over Judah).

Although the Kebra Nagast and some traditional Ethiopian histories have stated that Yodit (or "Gudit," Judith; another name given her was "Esato," Esther), a 10th century usurping queen, was Jewish, some scholars consider that it is unlikely that this was the case. It is more likely, they say, that she was a pagan southerner[28] or a usurping Christian Aksumite Queen.[29] However, she clearly supported Jews, since she founded the Zagwe Dynasty of rulers who governed from around 937 to 1270 C.E., in which, according to the Kebra Nagast itself, Jewish, Christian and even pagan kings ruled in harmony. Furthermore, the Zagwe dynasty legitimated itself (again, even according to the Kebra Nagast itself) through the claim that its lineage descended from Moses and his Ethiopian wife.

Most of the Beta Israel consider the Kebra Negast legend to be a fabrication. As even its name proclaims, "Glory of Kings" (meaning the Christian Aksumite kings), it was originally written in the 14th century in large part to delegitimize the Zagwe dynasty, to promote instead a rival "Solomonic" claim to authentic Jewish Ethiopian antecedents, and to justify the Christian overthrow of the Zagwe by the "Solomonic" Aksumite dynasty, whose rulers are glorified. Quite evidently, as the writing of this polemic shows, criticisms of the Aksumite claims of authenticity were still current even in the 14th century, two centuries after they came to power. Instead, many Beta Israel believe that they are descended from the tribe of Dan, and most of them reject the "Solomonic" and "Queen of Sheba" legends of the Aksumites.

Tribe of Dan

To prove the antiquity and authenticity of their own claims, the Beta Israel cite the 9th century testimony of Eldad ha-Dani (the Danite), from a time before even the Zagwean dynasty was established. Eldad was a Jewish man of dark skin who suddenly turned up in Egypt and created a great stir in the Egyptian Jewish community (and elsewhere in the Mediterranean Jewish communities he travelled to) with claims that he had come from a Jewish kingdom of pastoralists far to the south. The only language he spoke was a hitherto unknown dialect of Hebrew. Although he strictly followed the Mosaic commandments his observance differed in some details from Rabbinic halakhah, so that some thought he might be a Karaite, even if his practice differed from theirs too. He carried Hebrew books with him that supported his explanations of halakhah, and he was able to cite ancient authorities in the sagely traditions of his own people.[30] He said that the Jews of his own kingdom derived from the tribe of Dan, which had fled the civil war in the Kingdom of Israel between Solomon's son Rehoboam and Jeroboam the son of Nebat, by resettling in Egypt. From there they moved southwards up the Nile into Ethiopia, and the Beta Israel say this confirms that they are descended from these Danites.[31] Some Beta Israel, however, assert even nowadays that their Danite origins go back to the time of Moses himself, when some Danites parted from other Jews right after the Exodus and moved south to Ethiopia. Eldad the Danite does indeed speak of at least three waves of Jewish immigration into his region, creating other Jewish tribes and kingdoms, including the earliest wave that settled in a remote kingdom of the "tribe of Moses": this was the strongest and most secure Jewish kingdom of all, with farming villages, cities and great wealth.[32] The Mosaic claims of the Beta Israel, in any case, like those of the Zagwe dynasty itself, are clearly very ancient.[33]

Other sources tell of many Jews who were brought as prisoners of war from ancient Israel by Ptolemy I and also settled on the border of his kingdom with Nubia (Sudan). Another tradition handed down in the community from father to son asserts that they arrived either via the old district of Qwara in northwestern Ethiopia, or via the Atbara River, where the Nile tributaries flow into Sudan. Some accounts even specify the route taken by their forefathers on their way upstream from Egypt.[34]

Rabbinical views

Public appeal of the Chief Rabbinate of Israel to save the Jews of Ethiopia, 1921, signed by Chief Rabbis Abraham Isaac Kook and Jacob Meir.

As mentioned above, the 9th century Jewish traveler Eldad ha-Dani claimed the Beta Israel descended from the tribe of Dan, and also mentioned other Jewish kingdoms around his own or in East Africa during this time. His writings probably represent the first mention of the Beta Israel in Rabbinic literature, and despite some skeptical critics his authenticity has been generally accepted in current scholarship. It is highly unlikely that someone would have developed a new Hebrew dialect all by himself, and written up books in Hebrew and readily added further traditions orally, giving a richly detailed differing sagely tradition; moreover, his descriptions remained consistent and even the originally doubtful rabbis of his time were finally persuaded.[35] Nevertheless, specific details may be uncertain; one critic has highlighted Eldad's lack of detailed reference to Ethiopia's geography and any Ethiopian language, although he claimed the area as his homeland.[36]

Nevertheless, his was not the only medieval testimony to Jewish communities living far to the south of Egypt, which strengthens the credibility of Eldad the Danite's account as well. Rabbi Ovadiah Yare of Bertinoro wrote in letter from Jerusalem in 1488:

I myself saw two of them in Egypt. They are dark-skinned... and one could not tell whether they keep the teaching of the Karaites, or of the Rabbis, for some of their practices resemble the Karaite teaching... but in other things they appear to follow the instruction of the Rabbis; and they say they are related to the tribe of Dan.[37]

Some Jewish legal authorities have also asserted that the Beta Israel are the descendants of the tribe of Dan, one of the Ten Lost Tribes. In their view, these people established a Jewish kingdom that lasted for hundreds of years. With the rise of Christianity and later Islam, schisms arose and three kingdoms competed. Eventually, the Christian and Muslim Ethiopian kingdoms reduced the Jewish kingdom to a small impoverished section. The earliest authority to rule this way was the Radbaz (Rabbi David ben Zimra, 1479–1573). Radbaz explains in a responsum concerning the status of a Beta Israel slave:

But those Jews who come from the land of Cush are without doubt from the tribe of Dan, and since they did not have in their midst sages who were masters of the tradition, they clung to the simple meaning of the Scriptures. If they had been taught, however, they would not be irreverent towards the words of our sages, so their status is comparable to a Jewish infant taken captive by non-Jews … And even if you say that the matter is in doubt, it is a commandment to redeem them.[38]

In 1973 Rabbi Ovadia Yosef, then the Chief Sephardic Rabbi, based on the Radbaz and other accounts, ruled that the Beta Israel were Jews and should be brought to Israel. He was later joined by a number of other authorities who made similar rulings, including the Chief Ashkenazi Rabbi Shlomo Goren.[39]

Other notable poskim, from non-Zionist Ashkenazi circles, placed a halakhic safek (doubt) over the Jewishness of the Beta Israel. Such dissenting voices include rabbis Rabbi Elazar Shach, Rabbi Yosef Shalom Eliashiv, Rabbi Shlomo Zalman Auerbach, and Rabbi Moshe Feinstein.[40][41] Similar doubts were raised within the same circles towards Bene Israel Jews,[42] and Russian immigrants to Israel in the 1990s.

In the 1970s and early 80s the Beta Israel were forced to undergo a modified conversion ceremony involving immersion in a ritual bath, a declaration accepting Rabbinic law, and, for men, a "symbolic recircumcision".[43] Chief Rabbi Avraham Shapira later waived the "symbolic recircumcision" demand, which is only required when the halakhic doubt is significant.[44] More recently Chief Rabbi Shlomo Amar has ruled that descendants of Ethiopian Jews who were forced to convert to Christianity are "unquestionably Jews in every respect".[45] With the consent of Rabbi Ovadia Yosef, Rabbi Amar ruled that it is forbidden to question the Jewishness of this community, pejoratively called Falashmura.[46]

At present, the Chief Rabbinate of Israel requires ritual immersion prior to marriage, from Jews of Ethiopian or any other ancestry alike.[47][48]

DNA evidence

A 1999 study by Lucotte and Smets studied the DNA of 38 unrelated Beta Israel males living in Israel and 104 Ethiopians living in regions located north of Addis Ababa and concluded that "the distinctiveness of the Y-chromosome haplotype distribution of the Beta-Israel from conventional Jewish populations and their relatively greater similarity in haplotype profile to non-Jewish Ethiopians are consistent with the view that the Beta Israel people descended from ancient inhabitants of Ethiopia and not the Levant."[49][50] This study confirmed the findings of a 1991 study by Zoossmann-Disken et al..[51] A 2000 study by Hammer et al. of Y-chromosome biallelic haplotypes of Jewish and non-Jewish groups suggested that "paternal gene pools of Jewish communities from Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East descended from a common Middle Eastern ancestral population," with the exception of the Beta Israel, who were "affiliated more closely with non-Beta Israel Ethiopians and other East Africans."[52] A 2004 study by Shen et al reached similar conclusions, that the Beta Israel were likely descended from local Ethiopian populations.[53]

A 2001 study by the Department of Biological Sciences at Stanford University found a possible genetic similarity between 11 Ethiopian Jews and 4 Yemenite Jews who took part in the testing. The differentiation statistic and genetic distances for the 11 Ethiopian Jews and 4 Yemenite Jews tested were quite low, among the smallest of comparisons involving either of these populations. The 4 Yemenite Jews from this study may be descendants of reverse migrants of African origin who crossed Ethiopia to Yemen. The study result suggests gene flow between Ethiopia and Yemen as a possible explanation for the closeness. The study also suggests that the gene flow between Ethiopian and Yemenite Jewish populations may not have been direct, but instead could have been between Jewish and non-Jewish populations of both regions.[54]

A 2002 study of Mitochondrial DNA (which is passed through only maternal lineage to both men and women) by Thomas et al. showed that the most common mtDNA type found among the Ethiopian Jews sample was present only in Somalia. This further supported the view that all Ethiopian Beta-Israel were of local or Ethiopian origin.[55]

A 2009 study of Autosomal DNA (which is inherited from both parents) by Tishkoff et al. observed that the Beta Israel were predominantly of the Cushitic genetic cluster, typically found in populations from East Africa. Furthermore, the Beta Israel had elevated levels of the European genetic cluster compared to the other examined Ethiopian and East African populations in the Global Structure Run.[56]

A 2010 study by Behar et al. on the Genome-wide structure of Jews observed that the Beta Israel had similar levels of the Middle Eastern genetic clusters as the Semitic-speaking Tigreans and Amharas. Indeed, compared to the Cushitic-speaking Oromos, who are the largest ethnic group in Ethiopia, the Beta Israel had higher levels of Middle Eastern admixture.[57]

A number of other DNA studies have been done on the Beta Israel.[58][59][60][61][62][63]

Scholarly views

Early views

Early secular scholars saw the Beta Israel to be the direct descendant of Jews who lived in ancient Ethiopia. Whether they were the descendants of an Israelite tribe, or converted by Jews living in Yemen, or by the Jewish community in southern Egypt at Elephantine.[64] In 1829, Marcus Louis wrote that the ancestors of the Beta Israel related to the Asmach which also called Sembritae ("foreigners") an Egyptian regiment numbering 240,000 soldiers and mentioned by Greek geographers and historians. The Asmach emigrated or exiled from Elephantine to Kush in the time of Psamtik I or Psamtik II and settled in Sennar and Abyssinia.[65] It is possible that Shebna party from Rabbinic accounts was part of the Asmach.

In the 1930s Jones and Monro argued that the chief Semitic languages of Ethiopia may suggest an antiquity of Judaism in Ethiopia. "There still remains the curious circumstance that a number of Abyssinian words connected with religion, such as the words for Hell, idol, Easter, purification, and alms– are of Hebrew origin. These words must have been derived directly from a Jewish source, for the Abyssinian Church knows the scriptures only in a Ge'ez version made from the Septuagint."[66]

Richard Pankhurst summarized the various theories offered about their origins as of 1950 that the first members of this community were

(1) converted Agaws, (2) Jewish immigrants who intermarried with Agaws, (3) immigrant Yemeni Arabs who had converted to Judaism, (4) immigrant Yemeni Jews, (5) Jews from Egypt, and (6) successive waves of Yemeni Jews. Traditional Ethiopian savants, on the one hand, have declared that 'We were Jews before we were Christians', while more recent, well-documented, Ethiopian hypotheses, notably by two Ethiopian scholars, Dr Taddesse Tamrat and Dr Getachew Haile... put much greater emphasis on the manner in which Christians over the years converted to the Falasha faith, thus showing that the Falashas were culturally an Ethiopian sect, made up of ethnic Ethiopians.[67]

1980s and early 1990s

According to Jacqueline Pirenne, numerous Sabaeans left north Arabia and crossed over the Red Sea to Ethiopia to escape from the Assyrians, who had devastated the kingdoms of Israel and Judah in the eighth and 7th centuries BC. She further states that a second major wave of Sabeans crossed over to Ethiopia in the sixth and 5th centuries BCE to escape Nebuchadnezzar. This wave also included Jews fleeing from the Babylonian takeover of Judah. In both cases the Sabeans are assume to have departed later from Ethiopia to Yemen.[68]

According to Menachem Waldman, a major wave of immigration from the Kingdom of Judah to Kush and Abyssinia dates back to the Assyrian Siege of Jerusalem, in the beginning of the 7th century BC. Rabbinic accounts of the siege assert that only about 110,000 Judeans remained in Jerusalem under King Hezekiah's command, whereas about 130,000 Judeans led by Shebna had joined Sennacherib's campaign against Tirhakah, king of Kush. Sennacherib's campaign failed and Shebna's army was lost "at the mountains of darkness", suggestively identified with Semien Mountains.[69]

In 1987 Steven Kaplan wrote:

Although we don't have a single fine ethnographic research on Beta Israel, and the recent history of this tribe has received almost no attention by researchers, every one who writes about the Jews of Ethiopia feels obliged to contribute his share to the ongoing debate about their origin. Politicians and journalists, Rabbis and political activists, not a single one of them withstood the temptation to play the role of the historian and invent a solution for this riddle.[70]

Richard Pankhurst summarized the state of knowledge on the subject in 1992 as follows: "The early origins of the Falashas are shrouded in mystery, and, for lack of documentation, will probably remain so for ever."[67]

Recent views

By 1994 modern scholars of Ethiopian history and Ethiopian Jews generally supported one of two conflicting hypotheses, as outlined by Kaplan:[71]

  • An ancient Jewish origin of the Beta Israel, as well as some ancient Jewish traditions later conserved by the Ethiopian Church. Kaplan lists Simon D. Messing, David Shlush, Michael Corinaldi, Menachem Waldman, Menachem Elon and David Kessler as supporters of this hypothesis.[71]
  • A late ethnogenesis of the Beta Israel between the 14th to 16th Centuries, from a sect of Ethiopian Christians who took on Biblical practices, and came to see themselves as Jews. Steven Kaplan lists himself along with G.J. Abbink, Kay K. Shelemay, Taddesse Tamrat and James A. Quirin as supporters of this hypothesis. Quirin differs from his fellow researchers in the weight he assigns to an ancient Jewish element that the Beta Israel have conserved.[71]

Paul B. Henze supported the latter view in his 2000 work Layers of Time: A History of Ethiopia:

These groups came into conflict with the military colonies and Christian missions which were the main instruments of the extension southward of the Ethiopian state. They may have been joined by dissident or rebelling northern Christians who felt their interpretations of ritual, sacred texts and traditions of art represented a more ancient Israelite connection than Orthodox Monophysite Christianity itself. The Beta Israel can thus be understood as a manifestation of the kind of rebellious archaism that has often come to the surface in Christianity -- e.g. Russian Old Believers and German Old Lutherans. Assertion of Jewish derivation, they felt, provided them with a stronger claim to legitimacy than their Christian enemies.[72]


Ancient history

Political independence (4th century-1627)

The historical region of Beta Israel

According to the Beta Israel tradition, the Jewish kingdom of Beta Israel, later called the kingdom of Gondar, was initially established after Ezana was crowned as the Emperor of Axum (in 325 CE). Ezana, who was educated in his childhood by the missioner Frumentius, declared Christianity as the religion of the Ethiopian empire after he was crowned. The inhabitants who practiced Judaism and refused to convert to Christianity began revolting - this group was referred to as "Beta Israel" by the emperor. Following civil war between the Jewish population and the Christian population the Beta Israel gathered in the more easily defensible mountains to the northwest of the Christianized region of the plains, and established their kingdom there.[73] The kingdom was located in the Semien Mountains region and the Dembia region - situated to the north of Lake Tana and south of the Tekezé River. They made their main city at Gondar, crowned their first king, Phineas, a descendent of the Jewish High Priest Zadok, and started a period of territorial expansion eastward and southward.

During the mid 9th century the empire of Aksum began a new expansion which led to an armed conflict between the Empire forces and the Beta Israel forces. The Beta Israel kingdom under King Gideon the fourth managed to defeat the Axum forces. Nevertheless, during the battle king Gideon was killed. As a result, Gideon's daughter Judith inherited the kingdom from her father and took command.

"Judith's Field": an area full of ruins of destroyed buildings which according to tradition were ruined by the forces of Queen Judith.

Queen Judith signed a pact with the Agaw tribes which were pagans. Around 960, The large tribal confederation led by Queen Judith, which included both forces of the Agaw tribes and the Beta Israel forces, invaded the capital of Axum and conquered and destroyed the city of Axum (including many churches and monasteries which were burned and destroyed) and imposed the Jewish rule over Axum. In addition, the Axumite throne was snatched and the forces of Queen Judith sacked and burned the Debre Damo monastery which at the time was a treasury and a prison for the male relatives of the emperor of Ethiopia, killing all of the potential heirs of the emperor.

The Golden Age of the Beta Israel kingdom took place, according to the Ethiopian tradition, between the years 858-1270, in which the Jewish kingdom flourished. During that period the world Jewry heard for the first time the stories of Eldad ha-Dani who either visited the kingdom or heard many accounts of it in his own Jewish kingdom of pastoralists, which may have been located in the Sudan (since he speaks of the Mosaic kingdom lying on "the other side of the rivers of Ethiopia" in remote mountains) or in Somalia. Even Marco Polo and Benjamin of Tudela mention an independent Ethiopian Jewish kingdom in the writings from that period. This period ends with the rise of the Christian Solomonic dynasty - In 1270 the Christian Solomonic dynasty was "restored" after the crowning of a monarch who claimed descent from the single royal prince who managed to escape Queen Judith's uprising. For the next three centuries The Solomonic Dynasty emperors conducted several long ongoing series of armed confrontations with the Jewish Kingdom.

In 1329, Emperor Amda Seyon campaigned in the northwest provinces of Semien, Wegera, Tselemt, and Tsegede, in which many had been converting to Judaism and where the Beta Israel had been gaining prominence.[74] He sent troops there to fight people "like Jews" (Ge'ez ከመ:አይሁድ kama ayhūd).[75]

During the reign of Emperor Yeshaq (1414–1429) who invaded the Jewish kingdom, annexed it and began to exert religious pressure. Yeshaq divided the occupied territories of the Jewish kingdom into three provinces which were controlled by commissioners appointed by him. He reduced the Jews' social status below that of Christians[75] and forced the Jews to convert or lose their land. It would be given away as rist, a type of land qualification that rendered it forever inheritable by the recipient and not transferable by the Emperor. Yeshaq decreed, "He who is baptized in the Christian religion may inherit the land of his father, otherwise let him be a Falāsī." This may have been the origin for the term "Falasha" (falāšā, "wanderer," or "landless person").[75] This term is considered derogatory to Ethiopian Jews.

By 1450 the Jewish kingdom managed to annex back the territories it lost beforehand and began preparing to fight the armies of the emperor. The Beta Israel forces invaded the Ethiopian Empire in 1462 but lost the campaign and many of its military forces were killed. Later on the forces of the Ethiopian emperor invaded the kingdom in the region of Begemder and massacred many of the Jews in that region throughout a period of seven years. The Christian armies were exceptionally merciless. The Emperor Yacob Zara (reigned 1434–1468) even proudly added the title "Exterminator of the Jews" to his name. Although the area of the kingdom became significantly smaller afterwards, the Jews were able to restore their mountain kingdom eventually.

The Ras Dashen area in Ethiopia which used to be part of the Jewish kingdom

Between the years 1529 until 1543 the Muslim Adal Sultanate armies with the assistance of forces from the Ottoman Empire invaded and fought the Ethiopian Empire and came close to extinguishing the ancient realm of Ethiopia, and converting all of its subjects to Islam. During that time period the Jews made a pact with the Ethiopian Empire. The leaders of the Kingdom of Beta Israel changed their alliance during the war and began supporting the Muslim Adal Sultanate armies. However, the Adal Sultanate armies felt strong enough to ignore this offer of support, and continued the fight against them. They conquered different regions of the Jewish Kingdom, severely damaged its economy and killed many of its members. As a result, The leaders of the Beta Israel kingdom turned to the Ethiopian empire and their allies the Portuguese and requested their assistance in winning back the regions lost to the Adal Sultanate. The forces of the Ethiopian empire did succeed eventually in conquering the Muslims and freed Ethiopia from Ahmed Gragn. Nevertheless, the Ethiopian Christian empire decided to declare war against the Jewish Kingdom, giving as their justification the Jewish leaders' change of positions during the Ethiopian–Adal War. With the assistance of Portuguese forces from the Order of the Jesuits, the Ethiopian empire under the rule of Emperor Gelawdewos invaded the Jewish kingdom and executed the Jewish king Joram. As a result of this battle, the areas of the kingdom became significantly smaller and included now only the region of the Semien Mountains.

In the 16th century, the Chief Rabbi of Egypt, Rabbi David ben Solomon ibn Abi Zimra (Radbaz) proclaimed that in terms of halakha (Jewish legal code), the Ethiopian community was certainly Jewish.[76]

After the execution of king Joram, King Radi became the leader of the Beta Israel kingdom. King Radi also fought against the Ethiopian Empire which at that period of time was ruled by Emperor Menas. The forces of the Jewish kingdom managed to conquer the area south of the kingdom and strengthened their defenses in the Semien Mountains. The battles against the forces of emperor Menas were successful as the Ethiopian empire forces were eventually defeated.

During the reign of emperor Sarsa Dengel the Jewish kingdom was invaded and the forces of the Ethiopian empire besieged the kingdom, the Jews survived the siege, but at the end of the siege the King Goshen was executed and many of his soldiers as well as many other Beta Israel members committed mas suicides.

During the reign of emperor Susenyos the Ethiopian empire waged war against the Jewish kingdom and managed to conquer the entire kingdom and annex it to the Ethiopian empire by 1627.

1627 - the mid-19th century

The castle of King Fasilides, who ruled Ethiopia from 1632 to 1667, was built by many Ethiopian Jews.

After the Beta Israel autonomy in Ethiopia ended in the 1620s, Emperor Susenyos confiscated their lands, sold many people into slavery and forcibly baptized others.[77] In addition, Jewish writings and religious books were burned and the practice of any form of Jewish religion was forbidden in Ethiopia.[citation needed] As a result of this period of oppression, much traditional Jewish culture and practice was lost or changed.

Nonetheless, the Beta Israel community appears to have continued to flourish during this period. The capital of Ethiopia, Gondar, in Dembiya, was surrounded by Beta Israel lands. The Beta Israel served as craftsmen, masons, and carpenters for the Emperors from the 16th century onwards. Such roles had been shunned by Ethiopians as lowly and less honorable than farming.[77] According to contemporary accounts by European visitors: Portuguese merchants and diplomats, French, British and other travellers, the Beta Israel numbered about one million persons in the 17th century.[citation needed] These accounts also recounted that some knowledge of Hebrew persisted among the people in the 17th century. For example, Manoel de Almeida, a Portuguese diplomat and traveller of the day, wrote that:

There were Jews in Ethiopia from the first. Some of them were converted to the law of Christ Our Lord; others persisted in their blindness and formerly possessed many wide territories, almost the whole Kingdom of Dambea and the provinces of Ogara and Seman. This was when the [Christian] empire was much larger, but since the [pagan and Muslim] Gallas have been pressing in upon them [from the east and south], the Emperors have pressed in upon them [i.e., the Jews to the west?] much more and took Dambea and Ogara from them by force of arms many years ago. In Seman, however, they defended themselves with great determination, helped by the position and the ruggedness of their mountains. Many rebels ran away and joined them till the present Emperor Setan Sequed [throne name of Susneyos], who in his 9th year fought and conquered the King Gideon and in his 19th year attacked Samen and killed Gideon. ... The majority and the flower of them were killed in various attacks and the remainder surrendered or dispersed in different directions. Many of them received holy baptism but nearly all were still as much Jews as they had been before. There are many of the latter in Dambea and in various regions; they live by weaving cloth and by making zargunchos [spears], ploughs and other iron articles, for they are great smiths. Between the Emperor’s kingdoms and the Cafres [Negroes] who live next to the Nile outside imperial territory, mingled together with each other are many more of these Jews who are called Falashas here. The Falashas or Jews are ... of [Arabic] race [and speak] Hebrew, though it is very corrupt. They have their Hebrew Bibles and sing the psalms in their synagogues.[78]

The sources of De Almeida's knowledge are not spelled out, but they at least reflect contemporary views. His comments regarding the Hebrew knowledge of the Beta Israel of that time is very significant: it could not have come from recent intercourse with Jews elsewhere, so it indicates deep antiquity to Beta Israel traditions, at least at that time, before their literature was taken away from them and demolished by the later conquering Christians. (The more sceptical school of historians, whose views are discussed above, deny that the Ethiopian Jews ever knew Hebrew; they certainly have no Hebrew texts remaining, and have been forced in recent centuries to use the Christian "Old Testament" in Ge'ez after their own literature was destroyed.) It is also of interest that he mentions more Jewish communities dwelling beyond Ethiopia in the Sudan. As so often in such medieval hearsay accounts, however, loose claims are made that may not be accurate. The Beta Israel were not predominantly of the Arabic race, for instance, but he may have meant the term loosely or meant that they also knew Arabic.

The isolation of the Beta Israel community in Ethiopia, and their continuing use of some Hebrew, was also reported by the Scottish explorer James Bruce who published his travelogue Travels to Discover the Source of the Nile in Edinburgh in 1790.

The Beta Israel village of Balankab, From H. A. Stern, Wanderings Among the Falashas in Abyssinia, 1862.

The Beta Israel lost their relative economic advantage in the late eighteenth and early 19th centuries, during the Zemene Mesafint, a period of recurring civil strife. Although the capital was nominally in Gondar during this time period, the decentralization of government and dominance by regional capitals resulted in a decline and exploitation of Beta Israel by local rulers. No longer was there a strong central government interested in and capable of protecting them.[77] During this period, the Jewish religion was effectively lost for some forty years, before being restored in the 1840s by Abba Widdaye, the preeminent monk of Qwara.[77]

Modern history

Regions in which the Beta Israel community has lived in modern times.

The contemporary history of the Beta Israel community begins with the reunification of Ethiopia in the mid 19th century during the reign of Theodore II. At that time, the Beta Israel population was estimated at between 200,000 to 350,000 people.[79]

The protestant missions and the subsequent Jewish mission

Despite occasional contacts in an earlier stage, the west only became well aware of the existence of the Beta Israel community when they came in contact with the Protestant missionaries of the "London Society for Promoting Christianity Amongst the Jews" which specialized in the conversion of Jews. The organization began its operating in Ethiopia in 1859. The Protestant missionaries, who worked under the direction of a converted Jew named Henry Aaron Stern, converted many of the Beta Israel community to Christianity. Between 1859 and 1922, circa 2,000 Beta Israel members converted to Coptic Christianity (they did not to convert to Protestantism due to an agreement the Protestant missionaries had with the government of Ethiopia). The relative low amount of conversions is partly explained by the strong reaction to the conversions from religious leadership of the Beta Israel community. The Beta Israel members who were converted to Christianity are known today as "Falash mura".

The Protestant missionaries activities in Ethiopia provoked European Jewry. As a result, several European rabbis proclaimed that they recognized the Jewishness of the Beta Israel community, and eventually in 1868 the organization "Alliance Israélite Universelle" decided to send the Jewish-French Orientalist Joseph Halévy to Ethiopia in order to study the conditions of the Ethiopian Jews. Upon his return to Europe, Halévy made a very favorable report of the Beta Israel community in which he called for world Jewish community to save the Ethiopian Jews, to establish Jewish schools in Ethiopia, and even suggested to bring thousands of Beta Israel members to settle in Ottoman Syria (a dozen of years before the actual establishment of the first Zionist organization).

Nevertheless, after a brief period in which the media coverage generated a great interest in the Beta Israel community, the interest among the Jewish communities world wide declined. This happened mainly because serious doubts still remained about the Jewishness of the Beta Israel community and because the Alliance Israélite Universelle organization did not comply with Halévy's recommendations.

Until 1904, the only continuous contacts between westerners and the Beta Israel community were those established with the Protestant missionaries. The activities of the Protestant missionaries organization was active in Ethiopia until 1920.

Great Famine of 1888-1892

Between 1888 and 1892, northern Ethiopia experienced a devastating famine. The famine was caused by rinderpest that killed the majority of all cattle. Conditions worsened with cholera outbreaks (1889–92), a typhus epidemic, and a major smallpox epidemic (1889–90).

About one-third of the Ethiopian population died during that period.[80][81] It is estimated that between a half to two-thirds of the Beta Israel community died during that period.

Establishment of permanent links with the western Jewish communities

Dr. Jacques Faitlovitch during a visit of Ethiopian Jewish children in his Tel-Aviv home, 1 May 1955

The myth of the lost tribes in Ethiopia intrigued Jacques Faitlovitch, a former student of Joseph Halévy at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes in Paris. In 1904 Faitlovitch decided to lead a new mission in northern Ethiopia. Faitlovitch obtained funding from the Jewish philanthropist Edmond de Rothschild, traveled and lived among the Ethiopian Jews. In addition, Faitlovitch managed to disrupt the efforts of the Protestant missionaries to convert the Ethiopian Jews, who at the time attempted to persuade the Ethiopian Jews that all the Jews in the world believe in Jesus.

Following his visit in Ethiopia, Faitlovitch created an international committee for the Beta Israel community, popularized the awareness of their existence through his book "Notes de voyage chez les Falashas", and raised funds to enable the establishment of schools in their villages.

In 1908, the chief rabbis of 45 countries made a joint statement officially declaring that Ethiopian Jews were indeed Jewish.

The Jewishness of the Beta Israel community became openly supported amongst the majority of the European Jewish communities during the early 20th century.

In 1921 Abraham Isaac Kook, the first Ashkenazi chief rabbi of the British Mandate for Palestine, recognized the Beta Israel community as Jews.

The Italian period, World War II and the post war period

In 1935 armed forces of the Kingdom of Italy headed by the fascist leader Benito Mussolini invaded and occupied Ethiopia. Ethiopia officially surrendered in 1936.

The Italian regime showed hostility towards the Jews of Ethiopia. The racial laws which were enacted in Italy were also applied to the Italian eastern Africa. Mussolini attempted to reach an agreement with Britain which would recognize the Italian East Africa, during which Mussolini proposed to solve the "Jewish problem" in Europe and in Palestine by resettling the Jews in the north-west Ethiopia districts of Gojjam and Begemder along with the Beta Israel community.[82][83] The proposed Jewish state was to be federally united with the Italian Empire. Nevertheless, Mussolini's plan never materialized.

In 1940 the Italian forces executed 44 Beta Israel leaders who were accused of treason and leading a mutiny.

In 1941 the Fascist Italian regime sent orders to Ethiopia to carry out the plans for the annihilation of the Beta Israel community, during the same time the Holocaust took place in Europe in which a genocide of approximately six million European Jews was carried out by Nazi Germany, with which the Kingdom of Italy had an alignment. The defeat of Italy to the Allies during the Ethiopian Liberation War prevented the implementation of these orders.

When the State of Israel was established in 1948 many of the Ethiopian Jews began contemplating immigrating to Israel. Nevertheless, the Emperor Haile Selassie refused to grant the Ethiopian Jewish population permission to leave his empire.

Early illegal emigration and the official Israeli recognition

Between the years 1965 and 1975 a relatively small group of Ethiopian Jews emigrated to Israel. The Beta Israel immigrants in that period were mainly very few men who have studied and came to Israel on a tourist visa and then remained in the country illegally.

Several of their supporters in Israel, who recognized their Jewishness decided to assist them. These supporters began organizing in associations, among others under the direction of Ovadia Hazzi, a Yemeni Jew and former sergeant in the Israeli army who was married to a wife from the Beta Israel community since the Second World War.[84] Several of those illegal immigrants managed to get a regularization with the Israeli authorities through the assistance of these support associations. Some agreed to "convert" to Judaism, which helped them regulated their personal status and remain in Israel. People who get their regularization often brought their families to Israel as well.

In 1973, Ovadia Hazzi officially raised the question of the Jewishness of the Beta Israel to the Israeli Sephardi Rabbi Ovadia Yosef. The rabbi, who cited a rabbinic ruling from the 16th century David ben Solomon ibn Abi Zimra and asserted that the Beta Israel are descended from the lost tribe of Dan, and eventually acknowledged their Jewishness in February 1973. This ruling was initially rejected by the Ashkenazi Chief Rabbi Shlomo Goren, who eventually changed his opinion on the matter in 1974.

In April 1975, the Israeli government of Yitzhak Rabin officially accepted the Beta Israel as Jews, for the purpose of the Law of Return (An Israeli act which grants all the Jews in the world the right to immigrate to Israel).

Later on, Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin obtained clear rulings from Chief Sephardi Rabbi Ovadia Yosef that they were descendants of the Ten Lost Tribes. The Chief Rabbinate of Israel did however initially require them to undergo pro forma Jewish conversions, to remove any doubt as to their Jewish status.

The rise of the Derg regime and the Great Famine of 1984–1985

After a period of civil unrest on September 12, 1974, a pro-communist military junta, known as the "Derg" ("committee") seized power after ousting the emperor Haile Selassie I. The Derg installed a government which was socialist in name and military in style. Lieutenant Colonel Mengistu Haile Mariam assumed power as head of state and Derg chairman. Mengistu's years in office were marked by a totalitarian-style government and the country's massive militarization, financed by the Soviet Union and the Eastern Bloc, and assisted by Cuba. Communism was officially adopted by the new regime during the late 1970s and early 1980s.

As a result, the new regime gradually began to embrace anti-religious and anti-Israeli positions as well as showing hostility towards the Jews of Ethiopia.

Towards the mid 1980s Ethiopia underwent a series of famines, exacerbated by adverse geopolitics and civil wars, which eventually resulted in the death of hundreds of thousands.[85] As a result, hundreds of thousands of Ethiopians, including of the Beta Israel community, became untenable and a large part tried to escape the war and famine to the neighboring Sudan.

The deteriorating situation of the Ethiopian Jews and the real concern for their fate and well-being contributed eventually to the Israeli government officially recognition of the Beta Israel community as Jews in 1975, for the purpose of the Law of Return. Later on, The Civil war and famine in Ethiopia prompted the Israeli government to airlift most of the Beta Israel population in Ethiopia to Israel in several covert military rescue operations which took place between the 1980s until the early 1990s (see section below).

Massive emigration of the Beta Israeli community to Israel

Aliyah from Ethiopia compared to the total Aliyah to Israel[86]
Years Ethiopian-born
Total Immigration
to Israel
1948–51 10 687,624
1952–60 59 297,138
1961–71 98 427,828
1972–79 306 267,580
1980–89 16,965 153,833
1990–99 39,651 956,319
2000–04 14,859 181,505
2005 3,573 21,180
2006 3,595 19,269

The emigration to Israel of the Beta Israel community was still officially banned by the Ethiopian government between the years 1973-1990. Despite the official ban, massive emigration took place in several waves during that period:

Migration Map of Beta Israel.
  • 1977 - 121 Beta Israel members emigrate to Israel following a secret agreement reached with the Ethiopian government, in which the Israeli government agreed to supply of arms to the new revolutionary government of Ethiopia, which was at that time at war against Somalia over the control of the Ogaden region. The agreement was canceled by the Ethiopian government after details of the agreement were revealed to the press by Moshe Dayan in February 1978.
  • 1980-1984 - Driven by civil war, many inhabitants of Northern Ethiopia including members of the Beta Israel community, fled to Sudan. According to a report in the Jerusalem Post from May 15, 1986 - 6,649 people, mostly Tigreans, emigrated to Israel though circuitous routes between January 1980 and autumn 1984 with the help of the Israeli special services.
  • Fall 1984-Spring 1985 (Operation Moses and Operation Joshua) - this emigration wave was in part motivated by word to mouth reports on the success of the emigration of many Jewish refugees to Israel. The great famine of 1984-1985 lead to the displacement of hundreds of thousands of Ethiopians from Northern Ethiopia to refugee camps in Northern Ethiopia and Sudan. Tens of thousands of Ethiopians were starving during that time. Among these victims, it is estimated that between 3000 to 4000 were members of the Beta Israel community. In late 1984, the Sudanese government, following the intervention of the U.S, allowed the emigration of 7,200 Beta Israel refugees to the Europe who immediately flew from there to Israel. There two immigration waves were: Operation Moses which took place between 20 November 1984 until January 4, 1985, during which 6,500 people emigrated to Israel. This operation was followed by the Operation Joshua (also referred to as "Operation Queen of Sheba") a few weeks later, which was conducted by the CIA, in which the 650 Beta Israel refugees remaining in Sudan were evacuated to Israel. The second operation was mainly carried out due to the intervention and international pressure very important of the U.S.
  • 1985-1989 - The Ethiopian government eventually blocked emigration from Ethiopia, and the relative stabilization of the situation in the north of Ethiopia stopped the exodus of the Beta Israel community to the Sudanese camps. Nevertheless, illegal immigration aided by the Israeli secret service continued although it remained relatively quite small.
  • 1990-1991 - After losing Soviet military support due to the collapse of the Eastern bloc, the Ethiopian government allowed the emigration of 6,000 Beta Israel members to Israel in small groups, mostly in hope of establishing ties with the U.S, the allies of Israel. During this time many Beta Israel members flee to Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia, hoping to escape the civil war in the north of Ethiopia (their region of origin), and hoping to be able to emigrate to Israel. During that period many Beta Israel members crammed into camps on the outskirts of the Addis Ababa waiting to be evacuated to Israel.
  • 1991 (Operation Solomon) - In 1991, the political and economic stability of Ethiopia deteriorated, as rebels mounted attacks against and eventually controlled the capital city of Addis Ababa. Worried about the fate of the Beta Israel during the transition period, the Israeli government along with several private groups prepared to continue covertly with the migration. Over the course of the next 36 hours, a total of 34 El Al passenger planes, with their seats removed to maximize passenger capacity, flew 14,325 Beta Israel non-stop to Israel. Again, the operation was mainly carried out due to the intervention and international pressure of the U.S.
  • 1991-1994 - During these years, the last Beta Israel members who remained in Ethiopia emigrated to Israel, especially those who remained in the region between Lake Tana and the Sudan.
  • 1992–present - From 1992 onwards, an irregular emigration began of Falash Mura, which was and still is mainly subjected to political developments in Israel. (see below)

The difficulties of the Falash Mura in immigrating to Israel

In 1991, the Israeli authorities announced that the emigration of the Beta Israel community to Israel was about to be resolved, thanks to the departure of almost all Jews in Ethiopia. Nevertheless, since then, thousands of people left the northern region of Ethiopia to take refuge in Addis Ababa, declaring themselves Jewish and asking to emigrate to Israel.

As a result, a new term became popularized which was used to refer to this group: "Falash Mura".

These people, who weren't part of the Beta Israel communities in Ethiopia, are not recognized as Jews by the Israeli authorities, and therefore were initially not allowed to emigrate to Israel. The Israeli authorities consider these people either Christian or non-Jewish and therefore states that they are not eligible for Israeli citizenship by the Law of Return.

As a result of the divergent views on the matter a lively debate has risen in Israel on this issue, mainly between the Ethiopian Jews in Israel and their supporters against the opponents to a potential massive emigration of the Falash Mura people. The government's position on the matter remained quite restrictive, but has been subject to numerous criticisms, including some clerics who want to encourage the return to Judaism of these groups said.

During the 1990s, the Israeli government finally allowed most of those who fled to Addis Ababa to emigrate to Israel.[87] Some did so through the Law of Return, which allows an Israeli parent of a non-Jew help his son or daughter emigrate to Israel, while others were allowed to immigrate to Israel as part of a humanitarian effort.

The Israeli government hoped that by doing so they finally resolved the problem, but instead a new wave of Falash Murra refugees fled to Addis Ababa and demanded to immigrate to Israel. This led the Israeli government to harden its position on the matter in the late 1990s.

In February 2003 the Israeli government decided to accept religious conversions organized by Israeli Rabbis, and that these people can then migrate to Israel as Jewish. Although the new position is more open, and although the Israeli governmental authorities and religious authorities should in theory allow emigration to Israel to most of the Falash Mura wishing to do so (whom are recognized as descendants of the Beta Israel community). In practice, however, that immigration remains slow, and the Israeli government continued to limit, from 2003 to 2006, the entry of about 300 Falash Mura immigrants per month.

In April 2005, the Jerusalem Post stated that it had conducted a survey in Ethiopia, after which it was concluded that tens of thousands of Falash Mura still lived in rural northern Ethiopia.

In 14 November 2010 the Israeli cabinet approved a plan to allow 8,000 Falasha Mura immigrate to Israel.[88][89]


Ethiopian Jews in Israel

Nearly all of the Ethiopian Beta Israel community in Israel today comprises more than 121,000 people.[1] Most of this population are the descendants and the immigrants who immigrated to Israel during two massive waves of immigration mounted by the Israeli government - "Operation Moses" (1984) and during "Operation Solomon" (1991). Civil war and famine in Ethiopia prompted the Israeli government to mount these dramatic rescue operations. The rescues were within the context of Israel's national mission to gather Diaspora Jews and bring them to the Jewish homeland. Some immigration has continued up until the present day. Today 81,000 Ethiopian Israelis were born in Ethiopia, while 38,500 or 32% of the community are native born Israelis.[6]

Over time, the Ethiopian Jews in Israel moved out of the government owned mobile home camps which they initially lived in and settled mainly in the various cities and towns throughout Israel, mainly with the encouragement of the Israeli authorities who granted the new immigrants generous government loans or low-interest mortgages.

Similarly to other groups of immigrant Jews who made aliyah to Israel, the Ethiopian Jews have faced obstacles in their integration to Israeli society. Initially the main challenges of the Ethiopian Jewish community in Israel were due in part to communication difficulties (most of the population could not read nor write in Hebrew, and much of the veteran population could not hold a simple conversation in the Hebrew language), discrimination in certain areas of the Israeli society, manifestations of racism from some parts of the Israeli society. Unlike Russian immigrants, many of whom arrive with job skills, Ethiopians came from a subsistence economy and were ill-prepared to work in an industrialized society.

Over the years there has been significant progress in the integration of this population group in the Israeli society, primarily due to the fact that most of the young Ethiopian population enlists to the mandatory Israel military service, where most Ethiopian Jews have been able to increase their chances for better opportunities.[90]

Falash Mura

Missionary Henry Aaron Stern preaches Christianity to Beta Israel.
Falash Mura woman making Injera in Gonder in 1996.
Falash Mura child, 2005

Falash Mura is the name given to those of the Beta Israel community in Ethiopia who converted to Christianity under pressure from the mission during the 19th century and the 20th century. This term consists Jews who did not adhere to Jewish law, as well as Jewish converts to Christianity, who did so either voluntarily or who were forced to do so.

One of the earliest dated references of the Beta Israel people in Ethiopian literature was in the Glorious Victories of Amda Seyon I which mentions a rebellion which occurred in the year 1332 in the province of Begemder of "the converts who are like Jews".[91]

In 1860 Henry Aaron Stern, a Jewish convert to Christianity, traveled to Ethiopia in an attempt to convert the Beta Israel community to Christianity.[citation needed]

Many Ethiopian Jews whose ancestors converted to Christianity have been returning to the practice of Judaism. Such people are known as the Falash Mura. They have been admitted to Israel, although not as Jews. The Israeli government can thus set quotas on their immigration and make citizenship dependent on their conversion to Orthodox Judaism. Although no one knows precisely the population of the Falash Mura in Ethiopia, observers believe it is approximately 20,000-26,000 persons. Recently, some reporters and other travelers in remote regions of Ethiopia have noted finding entire villages where people claim they are Jewish or are Falash Mura, that is, Jews who have been practicing Christianity.

In the Achefer woreda of the Mirab Gojjam Zone, roughly 1,000-2,000 families of Beta Israel were found.[citation needed] They have not petitioned to immigrate to the Jewish state. There may be other such regions in Ethiopia with significant Jewish enclaves, which would raise the total Jewish population to more than 50,000 people.[citation needed] Israel has approved the immigration of the Falash Mura at 300 per month. The Ethiopian Jewish community and its supporters have petitioned to increase this number to 600 per month, citing the high mortality rate among Jews waiting to emigrate from Ethiopia. An economic analysis conducted for the JAI by David Brodet, former director general of the Ministry of Finance, concluded that an increased rate of immigration to Israel "is highly logical and has economical and social advantages" over the present immigration rate.‏‏[92]

Beta Abraham


Slavery was practiced in Ethiopia like much of Africa until it was formally abolished in 1942. After the slave was bought by a Jew, he went through Giyur and became property of is master.[93]

In popular culture

Over the years, various books and films had their plot focus on the history of the Beta Israel community or had Beta Israel characters who had a prominent role in the plot:

See also

  • Ethiopia–Israel relations
  • Israeli Jews
  • Jews and Judaism in Africa
  • Jews of the Bilad el-Sudan (West Africa)
  • Qemant
  • Yemenite Jews


  1. ^ a b Israel Central Bureau of Statistics: The Ethiopian Population In Israel
  2. ^ State Comptroller of Israel: Efrati Census
  3. ^ Mozgovaya, Natasha (2008-04-02). "Focus U.S.A.-Israel News - Haaretz Israeli News source". Retrieved 2010-12-25. 
  4. ^ The meaning of word "Beta" in the context of social/religious is Community. see James Quirin, The Evolution of the Ethiopian Jews, 2010, p. xxi
  5. ^ Jewish Communities in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries - Ethiopia. Ben-Zvi Institute. p. VII
  6. ^ a b [1] Ha'aretz.
  7. ^ Takuyo Hadane, From Gondar To Jerusalem, p. 91-106 (Hebrew)
  8. ^ Israel is losing its sovereignty Ha'aretz.
  9. ^ Israel "can't bring all Ethiopian Jews at once" - foreign minister. Asia Africa Intelligence Wire (From BBC Monitoring International Reports).
  10. ^ Israel orchestrates mass exodus of Ethiopians. Knight Ridder/Tribune News Service.
  11. ^ Families Across Frontiers, p. 391, ISBN 90-411-0239-6
  12. ^ James Bruce, Travels To Discover The Source Of The Nile in the Years 1768, 1769, 1770, 1771, 1772, and 1773 (in five Volumes), Vol. II, Printed by J. Ruthven for G. G. J. and J. Robinson, 1790, p. 485
  13. ^ "Beta Christian" is the name for the Christian house of prayer in Ethiopia.
  14. ^ Hagar Salamon, The Hyena People - Ethiopian Jews in Christian Ethiopia, University of California Press, 1999, p.21
  15. ^ Quirun, The Evolution of the Ethiopian Jews, p. 11-15; Aešcoly, Book of the Falashas, p. 1-3; Hagar Salamon, Beta Israel and their Christian neighbors in Ethiopia: Analysis of key concepts at different levels of cultural embodiment, Hebrew University, 1993, p.69-77 (Hebrew)
  16. ^ Shelemay, Music, page 42
  17. ^ Quirun, 1992, p. 71
  18. ^ Aešcoly, Book of the Falashas, p. 56
  19. ^ Aešcoly, Book of the Falashas, p. 62-70 (Hebrew); Shelemay, Music, Ritual, and Falasha History, p. 44-57; Leslau, Falasha Anthology, p. xxviii-xxxvi; Quirun, The Evolution of the Ethiopian Jews, p. 146-150
  20. ^ see Rosh Chodesh
  21. ^ see also Yom Kippur Katan
  22. ^ Budge, Queen of Sheba, Kebra Negast, §§ 38-64.
  23. ^ Abbink, "The Enigma of Esra'el Ethnogenesis: An Anthro-Historical Study". Cahiers d'Etudes africaines, 120, XXX-4, 1990, pp. 412-420.
  24. ^ Jankowski, Königin von Saba, 65-71.
  25. ^ Schoenberger, M. (1975). The Falashas of Ethiopia: An Ethnographic Study (Cambridge: Clare Hall, Cambridge University). Quoted in Abbink, Jon (1990). "The Enigma of Beta Esra'el Ethnogenesis. An Anthro-Historical Study." (PDF). Cahiers d'Études africaines 30 (120): 397–449. 
  26. ^ Budge, Queen of Sheba, Kebra Negast, chap. 61.
  27. ^ The complete guide to the Bible by Stephan M. Miller, p. 175
  28. ^ Taddesse Tamrat, Church and State in Ethiopia: 1270-1527 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1972), pp.38-9
  29. ^ Knud Tage Andersen, "The Queen of Habasha in Ethiopian History, Tradition and Chronology," Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 63, No. 1 (2000), p. 20.
  30. ^ This helped persuade Rabbinic authorities of the day regarding the validity of his practices, even if they differed from their own traditional teachings. On this, also see the remarkable testimony of Hasdai ibn Shaprut, the Torah scholar and princely Jew of Cordoba, concerning Eldad's learning, in his letter to Joseph, King of the Khazars, around 960 C.E., reproduced in Franz Kobler, ed., Letters of Jews Through the Ages, Second Edition (London: East and West Library, 1953), vol. 1: p. 105.
  31. ^ See, in Eldad's letter recounting his experiences in Elkan N. Adler, ed., Jewish Travellers in the middle Ages: 19 Firsthand Accounts (New York: Dover, 1987), p. 9.
  32. ^ Ibid., pp. 12-14.
  33. ^ Also see the testimony of James Bruce, Travels in Abyssinia, 1773, which repeats these accounts of Mosaic antiquity for the Beta Israel.
  34. ^ [2][dead link]
  35. ^ See also the reference already cited from Hasdai ibn Shaprut, above.
  36. ^ Steven Kaplan, "Eldad Ha-Dani", in Siegbert von Uhlig, ed., Encyclopaedia Aethiopica: D-Ha (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2005), p.252. However, it must be admitted that medieval traveller's accounts typically are vague in such matters, and do not present themselves as geographical treatises; moreover, Ethiopians, Sudanese and Somalians do not all know all the tribal languages around them, and in former times would have been even more insular. In any case, the "Letter of Eldad the Danite" necessarily merely summarized his experiences, of which he no doubt would have given more details in personal conversation.
  37. ^ Avraham Ya'ari, Igrot Eretz Yisrael, Ramat Gan 1971.
  38. ^ Responsum of the Radbaz on the Falasha Slave, Part 7. No. 5, cited in Corinaldi, 1998: 196.
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  40. ^ Rabbi Eliezer Waldenberg, Tzitz Eliezer, Volume 17, subject 48, page 105.
  41. ^ Michael Ashkenazi, Alex Weingrod. Ethiopian Jews and Israel, Transaction Publishers, 1987, p. 30, footnote 4.
  42. ^ Rabbi Eliezer Waldenberg, ibid., page 104
  43. ^ Ruth Karola Westheimer, Steven Kaplan. Surviving Salvation: The Ethiopian Jewish Family in Transition, NYU Press, 1992, pp. 38-39.
  44. ^ איינאו פרדה סנבטו, Operation Moshe, מוסף Haaretz 11.3.2006
  45. ^ ‏Israel Association for Ethiopian Jews, דו"ח מעקב - סוגיית זכאותם לעלייה של בני הפלשמורה, 21 January 2008, page 9‏
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  64. ^ For a discussion of this theory, see Edward Ullendorff, Ethiopia and the Bible (Oxford: University Press for the British Academy, 1968), pp. 16f, 117. According to Ullendorff, individuals who believed in this origin included President Yitzhak Ben-Zvi of Israel.
  65. ^ Louis Marcus, "Notice sur l'époque de l'établissement des Juifs dans l'Abyssinie", Journal Asiatique, 3, 1829. see also Herodotus, Histories, Book II, Chap. 30; Strabo, Geographica, Book XVI, Chap. 4 and Book XVII, Chap. 1; Pliny the Elder, Natural History, Book VI, Chap. 30
  66. ^ A.H.M. Jones and Elizabeth Monroe, A History of Ethiopia (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1935), p. 40.
  67. ^ a b Richard Pankhurst, "The Falashas, or Judaic Ethiopians, in Their Christian Ethiopian Setting", African Affairs, 91 (October 1992), pp. 567-582 at p. 567.
  68. ^ Pirenne, "La Grèce et Saba après 32 ans de nouvelles recherches", L'Arabie préislamique et son environnement historique et culturel, Colloquium Univ. of Strasbourg, 1987; cf. Stuart Munro-Hay, Aksum: An African Civilization of Late Antiquity (Edinburgh: University Press, 1991), p. 65.
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  70. ^ Steven Kaplan, "The Origins of the Beta Israel: Five Methodological Cautions", Pe'amim 33 (1987), pp. 33-49. (Hebrew)
  71. ^ a b c Steven Kaplan, On the Changes in the Research of Ethiopian Jewry, Pe'amim 58 (1994), pp. 137-150. (Hebrew)
  72. ^ Paul B. Henze, Layers of Time, Palgrave, 2000. p. 55.
  73. ^ James Bruce, Travels to Discover the Source of the Nile, Page 408.‏
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  76. ^ Mitchell Geoffrey Bard, From tragedy to triumph: the politics behind the rescue of Ethiopian Jewry, Page 19.‏
  77. ^ a b c d Kaplan,"Betä Əsraʾel",Aethiopica p. 554.
  78. ^ History of High Ethiopia or Abassia, trans. and ed. C.F. Beckingham and G.W.B. Huntingford, London: Hakluyt Society, 1954, pp. 54–5
  79. ^ אהרן זאב אשכולי, ספר הפלשים, עמ' 7
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  88. ^ (BBC)
  89. ^ (JTA)
  90. ^ "Ethiopian Jews struggle in Israel". BBC News. 1999-11-17. Retrieved 2010-05-05. 
  91. ^ Glorious Victories of Amda Seyon I, translated by G.W.B. Huntingford [Oxford: Clarendon Press], p. 61
  92. ^ ‏David Brodet, ‏העלאת בני הפלשמורה לישראל - משמעויות כלכליות לשינוי קצב העלייה, January 2005 (Hebrew)
  93. ^ Hagar Salamon, "Reflectiotrs of Ethiopian Cultural Patterns on the Beta Israel Absorption in Israel: The "Barya" case" in Steven Kaplan, Tudor Parfitt & Emnuela Trevisan Semi (Editors), Between Africa and Zion: Proceeding of the First International Congress of the Society for the Study of Ethiopian Jewry, Ben-Zvi Institute, 1995, ISBN 9789652350589, p.126-127

Further reading


  • Steven Kaplan & Shoshana Ben-Dor (1988). Ethiopian Jewry - An Annotated Bibliography. Ben-Zvi Institute.
  • Carl Rathjens (1921). Die Juden in Abessinien. W. Gente.
  • Johann Martin Flad (1869). The Falashas (Jews) of Abyssinia.
  • James Bruce (1790). Travels to Discover the Source of the Nile.
  • Henry Aaron Stern (1862).Wanderings among the Falashas in Abyssinia.
  • Salo Wittmayer Baron (1983). A Social and Religious History of the Jews. Volume XVIII. ISBN 0231088558


  • Abbink, Jon (1990). "The Enigma of Esra'el Ethnogenesis: An Anthro-Historical Study". Cahiers d'Etudes africaines, 120, XXX-4, pp. 393–449.
  • Avner, Yossi (1986). The Jews of Ethiopia: A People in Transition. Beth Hatefutsoth. ISBN 0-87334-039-6
  • Budge, E. A. Wallis (1932). The Queen of Sheba and her only son Menelik, London.
  • Hess, Robert L. (1969). "Toward a History of the Falasha". Eastern African history. Praeger.
  • Isaac, Ephraim (1974). The Falasha: Black Jews of Ethiopia. Dillard University Scholar Statesman Lecture Series.
  • Jankowski, Alice (1987). Die Königin von Saba und Salomo, Hamburg, H. Buske Vlg.
  • Kaplan, Steven (1995). The Beta Israel (Falasha) in Ethiopia: From Earliest Times to the Twentieth Century. New York University Press. ISBN 0-8147-4664-0
  • Kessler, David (1985). The Falashas: the Forgotten Jews of Ethiopia. Schocken Books. ISBN 0-8052-0791-0
  • -- (1996). The Falashas: a short history of the Ethiopian Jews. Frank Cass. ISBN 0-7146-4646-6
  • Marcus, Louis (1829). "Notice sur l'époque de l'établissement des Juifs dans l'Abyssinie". Journal Asiatique, 3.
  • Messing, Simon D. (1982). The Story of the Falashas "Black Jews of Ethiopia". Brooklyn. ISBN 0-9615946-9-1
  • Rapoport, Louis (1980). The Lost Jews: Last of the Ethiopian Falashas. Stein and Day. ISBN 0-8128-2720-1
  • Quirin, James A. (1992). The Evolution of the Ethiopian Jews: a History of the Beta Israel (Falasha) to 1920. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-3116-3
  • Shapiro, Mark (1987). "The Falasha of Ethiopia". The World and I. Washington Times Corp.


  • Jeffrey Lewis Halper (1966). The Falashas: An Analysis of Their History, Religion and Transitional Society. University of Minnesota. 1966
  • Kay Kaufman Shelemay (1989). Music, Ritual, and Falasha History . Michigan State University Press. ISBN 0-87013-274-1
  • Michael Corinaldi (1988). Jewish Identity - The Case of Ethiopian Jewry. The Magnes Press. ISBN 965-223-993-3
  • Menahem Valdman (1985). The Jews of Ethiopia: the Beta Israel community. Ami-Shav.
  • Wolf Leslau (1951). Falasha Anthology. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-03927-1
  • Edward Ullendorff (1968). Ethiopia and the Bible. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-726076-4
  • Menachem Elon (1987). The Ethiopian Jews : a case study in the functioning of the Jewish legal system. New York University
  • Steven Kaplan (1988). "Falasha religion: ancient Judaism or evolving Ethiopian tradition?". Jewish Quarterly Review LXXXIX. Center for Advanced Judaic Studies, University of Pennsylvania.


  • Jerry L. Weaver and Howard M. Lenhoff (2007). Black Jews, Jews, and Other Heroes: How Grassroots Activism Led to the Rescue of the Ethiopian Jews. Gefen Publishing House Ltd. ISBN 9789652293657
  • Tudor Parfitt (1986). Operation Moses: the untold story of the secret exodus of the Falasha Jews from Ethiopia. Stein and Day. ISBN 0-8128-3059-8
  • Claire Safran (1987). Secret exodus: the story of Operation Moses. Reader's Digest.
  • Stephen Spector (2005). Operation Solomon: The Daring Rescue of the Ethiopian Jews. Oxford University Press US. ISBN 0-19-517782-7
  • Shmuel Yilma (1996). From Falasha to Freedom: An Ethiopian Jew's Journey to Jerusalem. Gefen Publishing. House. ISBN 965-229-169-2
  • Alisa Poskanzer (2000). Ethiopian exodus: a practice journal. Gefen Publishing House. ISBN 965-229-217-6
  • Baruch Meiri (2001). The Dream Behind Bars: the Story of the Prisoners of Zion from Ethiopia. Gefen Publishing House. ISBN 965-229-221-4
  • Asher Naim (2003). Saving the lost tribe: the rescue and redemption of the Ethiopian Jews. Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-45081-7
  • Micha Odenheimer‏& Ricki Rosen (2006). Transformations: From Ethiopia to Israel.Reality Check Productions . ISBN 965-229-377-6
  • Gad Shimron (2007). Mossad Exodus: The Daring Undercover Rescue of the Lost Jewish Tribe . Gefen Publishing House. ISBN 965-229-403-9
  • Gadi Ben-Ezer (2002). The Ethiopian Jewish exodus: narratives of the migration journey to Israel, 1977-1985. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-27363-3


  • Hagar Salamon (1999). The Hyena People: Ethiopian Jews in Christian Ethiopia. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-21901-5
  • Kay Kaufman Shelemay & Steven Kaplan (2010). "Creating the Ethiopian Diaspora". Special issue of Diaspora - A Journal of Transnational Studies.
  • Daniel Summerfield (2003). From Falashas to Ethiopian Jews: the external influences for change c.1860-1960. Routledge. ISBN 0-7007-1218-6
  • Esther Hertzog (1999). Immigrants and bureaucrats: Ethiopians in an Israeli absorption center. Berghahn Books. ISBN 1-57181-941-X
  • Ruth Karola Westheimer & Steven Kaplan (1992). Surviving salvation: the Ethiopian Jewish family in transition. NYU Press. ISBN 0-8147-9253-7
  • Tanya Schwarz (2001). Ethiopian Jewish immigrants in Israel: the homeland postponed. Routledge. ISBN 0-7007-1238-0
  • Girma Berhanu (2001). Learning In Context: An Ethnographic Investigation of Meditated Learning Experiences Among Ethiopian Jews in Israel. Goteborg University Press. ISBN 91-7346-411-2
  • Teshome G. Wagaw (1993). For our soul: Ethiopian Jews in Israel. Wayne State University Press. ISBN 0-8143-2458-4
  • Michael Ashkenazi & Alex Weingrod (1987). Ethiopian Jews and Israel. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 0-88738-133-2
  • Tudor Parfitt & Emanuela Trevisan Semi (1999). The Beta Israel in Ethiopia and Israel: studies on Ethiopian Jews. Routledge. ISBN 0-7007-1092-2
  • Tudor Parfitt & Emanuela Trevisan Semi (2005). Jews of Ethiopia: the birth of an elite. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-31838-6
  • Emanuela Trevisan Semi & Shalva Weil (2011). Beta Israel: the Jews of Ethiopia and beyond History, Identity and Borders. Libreria Editrice Cafoscarina. ISBN 9788875432867

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