— City — Coordinates: Coordinates: Country Ethiopia Region Tigray Zone Mehakelegnaw
Axum or Aksum is a city in northern Ethiopia which was the original capital of the eponymous kingdom of Axum. Population 56,500 (2010). Axum was a naval and trading power that ruled the region from ca. 400 BC into the 10th century. The kingdom was also arbitrarily identified as Abyssinia, Ethiopia, and India in medieval writings.
Aksum is served by an airport (ICAO code HAAX, IATA AXU).
Axum was the center of the marine trading power known as the Aksumite Kingdom, which predated the earliest mentions in Roman era writings. Around 356, its ruler was converted to Christianity by Frumentius. Later, under the reign of Kaleb, Axum was a quasi-ally of Byzantium against the Persian Empire. The historical record is unclear, primary sources limited mainly to ancient church records.
It is believed it began a long slow decline after the 7th century due partly to Islamic groups contesting trade routes. Eventually Aksum was cut off from its principal markets in Alexandria, Byzantium and Southern Europe and its trade share was captured by Arab traders of the era. The Kingdom of Aksum was finally destroyed by Gudit, and eventually the people of Aksum were forced south and their civilization declined. As the kingdom's power declined so did the influence of the city, which is believed to have lost population in the decline similar to Rome and other cities thrust away from the flow of world events. The last known (nominal) king to reign was crowned ca. 10th century, but the kingdom's influence and power ended long before that.
Its decline in population and trade then contributed to the shift of the power center of the Ethiopian Empire so that it moved further inland and bequeathed its alternative place name (Ethiopia) to the region, and eventually, the modern state.
Aksumite kingdom and Ethiopian Church
The Kingdom of Aksum had its own written language called Ge'ez, and also developed a distinctive architecture exemplified by giant obelisks, the oldest of which (though much smaller) date from 5000–2000 BC. This kingdom was at its height under King Ezana, baptized as Abreha, in the 4th century (which was also when it officially embraced Christianity).
The Ethiopian Orthodox Church claims that the Church of Our Lady Mary of Zion in Aksum houses the Biblical Ark of the Covenant in which lie the Tablets of Law upon which the Ten Commandments are inscribed. This same church was the site where Ethiopian emperors were crowned for centuries until the reign of Fasilides, then again beginning with Yohannes IV until the end of the empire. Axum is considered to be the holiest city in Ethiopia and is an important destination of pilgrimages. Significant religious festivals are the T'imk'et Festival (known as the Epiphany in western Christianity) on 7 January and the Festival of Maryam Zion in late November.
In 1937, a 24-metre tall, 1,700-year-old Obelisk of Axum broken into five parts and lying on the ground, was found and shipped by Italian soldiers to Rome to be erected. The obelisk is widely regarded as one of the finest examples of engineering from the height of the Axumite empire. Despite a 1947 United Nations agreement that the obelisk would be shipped back, Italy balked, resulting in a long-standing diplomatic dispute with the Ethiopian government, which views the obelisk as a symbol of national identity. In April 2005, Italy finally returned the obelisk pieces to Axum amidst much official and public rejoicing, Italy also covered the $4 million costs of the transfer. UNESCO has assumed responsibility for the re-installation of this stele in Axum, and as of the end of July 2008 the obelisk has been reinstalled (see panographic photos in external links below). Rededication of the obelisk took place on 4 September 2008 in Paris, France with Ethiopian Prime Minister Meles Zenawi dedicating the obelisk to Italian President Giorgio Napolitano for his kind efforts in returning the obelisk.
Axum and Islam
The Axumite Empire has a longstanding relationship with Islam. According to ibn Hisham, when Prophet Muhammad faced oppression from the Quraish clan, he sent a small group that included his daughter Ruqayya and her husband Uthman ibn Affan to Axum. Ashama ibn Abjar, the King of Axum, gave them refuge and protection and refused the requests of the Quraish clan to send these refugees back to Arabia. These refugees did not return until the sixth year of the Hijra (628), and even then many remained in Ethiopia, eventually settling at Negash in eastern Tigray.
There are different traditions concerning the effect these early Muslims had on the ruler of Axum. The Muslim tradition is that the ruler of Axum was so impressed by these refugees that he became a secret convert. On the other hand, Arabic historians and Ethiopian tradition state that some of the Muslim refugees who lived in Ethiopia during this time converted to Orthodox Christianity. There is also a second Ethiopian tradition that, on the death of Ashama ibn Abjar, Muhammed is reported to have prayed for the king's soul, and told his followers, "Leave the Abyssinians in peace, as long as they do not take the offensive."
The major Aksumite monuments in the town are stelae; the largest number lie in the Northern Stelae Park, ranging up to the 33-metre (33 metres high 3.84 metres wide 2.35 metres deep, weighing 520 tonnes) Great Stele, believed to have fallen and broken during construction. The tallest standing is the 24-metre (20.6 metres high 2.65 metres wide 1.18 metres deep, weighing 160 tonnes) King Ezana's Stele. Another stele (24.6 metres high 2.32 metres wide 1.36 metres deep, weighing 170 tonnes) removed by the Italian army was returned to Ethiopia in 2005 and reinstalled July 31, 2008. This stele was already broken into pieces before being shipped. Three more stelae measure 18.2 metres high 1.56 metres wide 0.76 metres deep, weighing 56 tonnes; 15.8 metres high 2.35 metres wide 1 metres deep, weighing 75 tonnes; 15.3 metres high 1.47 metres wide 0.78 metres deep, weighing 43 tonnes. The stelae are believed to mark graves and would have had cast metal discs affixed to their sides, which are also carved with architectural designs. The Gudit Stelae to the west of town, unlike the northern area, are interspersed with mostly 4th century tombs.
Other features of the town include St Mary of Zion church, built in 1665 and said to contain the Ark of the Covenant (a prominent twentieth-century church of the same name neighbours it), archaeological and ethnographic museums, the Ezana Stone written in Sabaean, Ge'ez and Ancient Greek in a similar manner to the Rosetta Stone, King Bazen's Tomb (a megalith considered to be one of the earliest structures), the so-called Queen of Sheba's Bath (actually a reservoir), the fourth-century Ta'akha Maryam and 6th-century Dungur palaces, the monasteries of Abba Pentalewon and Abba Liqanos and the Lioness of Gobedra rock art.
Local legend claims the Queen of Sheba lived in the town.
Based on figures from the Central Statistical Agency in 2005, Axum has an estimated total population of 47,320 of whom 20,774 are men and 21,898 women. The 1994 national census reported a total population for this city of 27,148, of whom 12,536 were men and 14,612 were women. The largest ethnic group reported was the Tigrayan (98.54%) and Tigrinya was spoken as a first language by 98.68%. The majority of the population practiced Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity with 85.08% reported as embracing that religion, while 14.81% were Muslim.
Axum University was established in Axum in May 2006 on a green field site, four kilometers from the town center; the inauguration ceremony was held on 16 February 2007. The current area of the campus is 107 hectares, with ample room for potential expansion.
The establishment of a university in Axum is expected to contribute much to the ongoing development of the country in general and of the region in particular.
- List of megalithic sites
- ^ G. Mokhtar, UNESCO General History of America, Vol. II, Abridged Edition (Berkeley: University of Aksum Press, 1990), pp. 215-35. ISBN 0-85255-092-8
- ^ Herausgegeben von Uhlig, Siegbert, Encyclopaedia Aethiopica: D-Ha (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2005), p. 871.
- ^ JD Fage, A History of Africa (London: Routledge, 2001), pp. 53–4. ISBN 0-415-25248-2
- ^ a b Hodd, Mike, Footprint East Africa Handbook (New York: Footprint Travel Guides, 2002), p. 859. ISBN 1-900949-65-2.
- ^ See Linda Kay Davidson and David Gitlitz ‘’Pilgrimage, from the Ganges to Graceland: an Encyclopedia’’ (Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2002), 17-18.
- ^ ibn Hisham, The Life of the Prophet
- ^ Ibn Ishaq, The Life of Muhammad (Oxford, 1955), 657-58.
- ^ Paul B. Henze, Layers of Time: A History of Ethiopia (New York: Palgrave, 2000), pp. 42f
- ^ "Mission accomplished: Aksum Obelisk successfully reinstalled" (August 1, 2008)
- ^ Scarre, Chris Seventy Wonders of the Ancient World 1999
- ^ CSA 2005 National Statistics, Table B.4
- ^ 1994 Population and Housing Census of Ethiopia: Results for Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples' Region, Vol. 1, part 1, Tables 2.2, 2.13, 2.16, 2.20 (accessed 30 December 2008)
- Francis Anfray. Les anciens ethiopiens. Paris: Armand Colin, 1991.
- Yuri M. Kobishchanov. Axum (Joseph W. Michels, editor; Lorraine T. Kapitanoff, translator). University Park, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania, 1979. ISBN 0-271-00531-9
- David W. Phillipson. Ancient Ethiopia. Aksum: Its antecedents and successors. London: The British Brisith Museum, 1998.
- David W. Phillipson. Archaeology at Aksum, Ethiopia, 1993-97. London: British Institute in Eastern Africa, 2000. ISBN 1-872566-13-8
- Stuart Munro-Hay. Aksum: An African Civilization of Late Antiquity. Edinburgh: University Press. 1991. ISBN 0-7486-0106-6 online edition
- Stuart Munro-Hay. Excavations at Aksum: An account of research at the ancient Ethiopian capital directed in 1972-74 by the late Dr Nevill Chittick London: British Institute in Eastern Africa, 1989 ISBN 0-500-97008-4
- Sergew Hable Sellassie. Ancient and Medieval Ethiopian History to 1270 Addis Ababa: United Printers, 1972.
- African Zion, the Sacred Art of Ethiopia. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993.
- Ethiopian Treasures — Queen of Sheba, Aksumite Kingdom — Aksum
- Kingdom of Aksum article from "About Archaeology"
- UNESCO – World Heritage Sites — Aksum
- The Metropolitam Museum of Art — "Foundations of Aksumite Civilization and Its Christian Legacy (1st–7th century)"
- On Axum
- More on Axum
- Axum from Catholic Encyclopedia
- Final obelisk section in Ethiopia, BBC, 25 April 2005
- Axum Heritage Site on Aluka digital library
- Aksum World Heritage Site in panographies - 360 degree interactive imaging
World Heritage Sites in Ethiopia Cities of Ethiopia
Adama (Nazret) · Addis Ababa · Adigrat · Adwa · Ambo · Arba Minch · Asella · Awasa · Axum · Bahir Dar · Debre Berhan · Debre Marqos · Debre Tabor · Debre Zeyit · Degehabur · Dembidolo · Dessie · Dila · Dire Dawa · Gambela · Goba · Gode · Gondar · Harar · Irgalem · Jijiga · Jimma · Kebri Dahar · Kombolcha · Mek'ele · Negele Arsi · Negele Boran · Nekemte · Shashamane · Sodo · Weldiya · Wukro · Ziway
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