linguisticsand ethnology, Semitic (from the Biblical " Shem", Hebrew: שם, translated as "name", Arabic: ساميّ) was first used to refer to a language familyof largely Middle Eastern origin, now called the Semitic languages.This family includes the ancient and modern forms of Akkadian, Amharic, Arabic, Aramaic, Ge'ez, Hebrew, Maltese, Phoenician, Tigre and Tigrinyaamong others.
As language studies are interwoven with
cultural studies, the term also came to describe the extended cultures and ethnicities, as well as the history of these varied peoples as associated by close geographic and linguistic distribution.The late 19th century term " anti-Semitism" refers incorrectly to hostility toward Jews specifically, further complicating the understood meaning and boundaries of the term.
The term "Semite" means a member of any of various ancient and modern peoples originating in southwestern Asia, including Akkadians, Canaanites, Phoenicians, Hebrews, Arabs, and Ethiopian Semites. It was proposed at first to refer to the languages related to Hebrew by Ludwig Schlözer, in Eichhorn's "Repertorium", vol. VIII (Leipzig, 1781), p. 161. Through Eichhorn the name then came into general usage (cf. his "Einleitung in das Alte Testament" (Leipzig, 1787), I, p. 45. In his "Gesch. der neuen Sprachenkunde", pt. I (Göttingen, 1807) it had already become a fixed technical term. [CathEncy|wstitle=Semites, Volume XIII]
The word "Semitic" is an adjective derived from
Shem, one of the three sons of Noahin the Bible( Genesis5.32, 6.10, 10.21), or more precisely from the Greek derivative of that name, namely Σημ (Sēm); the noun form referring to a person is "Semite".
The term "anti-Semitic" (or "anti-Semite") usually refers to Jews only. It was coined in 1873 by German journalist
Wilhelm Marrin a pamphlet called, "The Victory of Jewry over Germandom". Using ideas of race and nationalism, Marr argued that Jews had become the first major power in the West. He accused them of being liberals, a people without roots who had Judaized Germans beyond salvation. In 1879 Marr founded the "League for Anti-Semitism".
The concept of "Semitic" peoples is derived from Biblical accounts of the origins of the cultures known to the ancient
Hebrews. Those closest to them in culture and language were generally deemed to be descended from their forefather Shem. Enemies were often said to be descendants of his cursed nephew, Canaan. In Genesis 10:21-31, Shem is described as the father of Aram, Asshur, and Arpachshad: the Biblical ancestors of the Arabs, Aramaeans, Assyrians, Babylonians, Chaldeans, Sabaeans, and Hebrews, etc., all of whose languages are closely related; the language familycontaining them was therefore named Semitic by linguists. However, the Canaanites and Amorites also spoke a language belonging to this family, and are therefore also termed Semitic in linguistics, despite being described in Genesis as sons of Ham (See " Sons of Noah"). Shem is also described in Genesis as the father of Elam and Lud, although the Elamites and Lydians usually thought to descend from these spoke languages that were not Semitic.
Proto-Semiticlanguage, ancestral to historical Semitic languages in the Middle East, is thought to have been originally from either the Arabian Peninsula(particularly around Yemen) or the adjacent Ethiopian highlands, but its region of origin is still much debated and uncertain. The Semitic language family is also considered a component of the larger Afro-Asiaticmacro-family of languages. Identification of the hypothetical proto-Semitic region of origin is therefore dependent on the larger geographic distributions of the other language families within Afro-Asiatic.
Ancient Semitic peoples
The following is a list of ancient Semitic peoples.
Akkadians— migrated into Mesopotamia in the late 4th millennium BCand amalgamate with non-Semitic Mesopotamian (Sumerian) populations into the Assyrians and Babylonians of the Late Bronze Age. [ [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9110693/Mesopotamian-religion Mesopotamian religion - Britannica Online Encyclopedia ] ] [ [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9005290/Akkadian-language#62711.hook Akkadian language - Britannica Online Encyclopedia ] ]
Eblaites— 23rd century BC
Aramaeans— 16th to 8th century BC [ [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9009188/Aramaean Aramaean - Britannica Online Encyclopedia ] ] [ [http://www.britannica.com/ebc/article-9355675/Aramaean Aramaean - Britannica Concise Encyclopedia - The online encyclopedia you can trust! ] ] / Akhlames (Ahlamu) 14th century BC [ [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9005278/Akhlame Akhlame - Britannica Online Encyclopedia ] ]
Ugarites, 14th to 12th centuries BC
*Canaanite language speaking nations of the early Iron Age:
Hebrews— founded the kingdom of Israel and Judah, the remnants of which became the Jews
Phoenicians— founded Mediterranean colonies including Carthage
Old South Arabianspeaking peoples
Sabaeansof Yemen — 9th to 1st c. BC
*Ethio-Semitic speaking peoples
**Aksumites — 4th c. BC to 7th c. AD
Arabs, Old North Arabianspeaking Bedouins
Gindibu's Arabs 9th c. BC
Lihyanites — 6th to 1st c. BC
Thamudpeople — 2nd to 5th c. AD
Ghassanids— 3rd to 7th c. AD
Nabataeans— adopted Arabic in the 4th century AD
linguistic meaningof "Semitic" is therefore derived from (though not identical to) Biblical usage. In a linguistic context the Semitic languagesare a subgroup of the larger Afro-Asiaticlanguage family (according to Joseph Greenberg's widely accepted classification) and include, among others: Akkadian, the ancient language of Babylon; Amharic, the official language of Ethiopia; Tigrinya, a language spoken in Eritrea and in northern Ethiopia; Arabic; Aramaic; Canaanite; Ge'ez, the ancient language of the Eritrean and Ethiopian Orthodox scriptures; Hebrew; Maltese; Phoenician or Punic; and South Arabian, the ancient language of Sheba/Saba, which today includes Mehri, spoken by only tiny minorities on the southern part of the Arabian Peninsula.
Wildly successful as second languages far beyond their numbers of contemporary first-language speakers, a few Semitic languages today are the base of the sacred literature of some of the world's great religions, including
Islam(Arabic), Judaism(Hebrew and Aramaic), and Orthodox Christianity(Aramaic and Ge'ez). Millions learn these as a second language (or an archaic version of their modern tongues): many Muslims learn to read and recite Classical Arabic, the language of the Qur'an, and many Jewsall over the world outside of Israelwith other first languages speak and study Hebrew, the language of the Torah, Midrash, and other Jewish scriptures.
It should be noted that Berber, Egyptian (including Coptic), Hausa, Somali, and many other related languages within the wider area of Northern Africa and the Middle East do not belong to the Semitic group, but to the larger
Afro-Asiaticlanguage family of which the Semitic languages are also a subgroup. Other ancient and modern Middle Eastern languages — Azerbaijani, Armenian, Kurdish, Persian, Gilaki, Turkish, ancient Sumerian, and Nubian — do not belong to the larger Afro-Asiatic language family.
For a complete list of Semitic languages arranged by subfamily, see list from SIL's [http://www.ethnologue.com/show_family.asp?subid=89998 Ethnologue] .
Semitic peoples and their languages, in both modern and ancient historic times, have covered a broad area bridging Africa, Western Asia and the Arabian Peninsula. The earliest historic (written) evidences of them are found in the
Fertile Crescent, an area encompassing the Babylonian and Assyrian civilizations along the Tigrisand Euphratesrivers, extending northwest into southern Asia Minor(modern Turkey) and the Levantalong the eastern Mediterranean. Early traces of Semitic speakers are found, too, in South Arabian inscriptions in Yemen, Eritrea, Northern Ethiopiaand later, in Roman times, in Nabataeaninscriptions from Petra(modern Jordan) south into Arabia.
Later historical Semitic languages also spread into
North Africain two widely separated periods. The first expansion occurred with the ancient Phoenicians, along the southern Mediterranean Sea all the way to the Atlantic Ocean(colonies which included ancient Rome's nemesis Carthage). The second, a millennium later, was the expansion of the Muslim armies and Arabic in the 7th-8th centuries AD, which, at their height, controlled the Iberian Peninsula(until 1492) and Sicily. Arab Muslim expansion is also responsible for modern Arabic's presence from Mauritania, on the Atlantic coast of West Africa, to the Red Seain the northeastern corner of Africa, and its reach south along the Nile Riverthrough traditionally non-Semitic territory, as far as the northern half of Sudan, where, as the national language, non-Arab Sudanese even farther south must learn it. Modern Hebrewwas reintroduced in the 20th century, and together with Arabic, is a national language in Israel. Western Aramaicdialects remain spoken in Malula near Damascus. Eastern Neo-Aramaic is spoken along the northern border of Syriaand Iraqand in far northwestern Iran. These speakers are often called Chaldean or Neo-Assyrian. Mandean is still spoken in parts of southern Iraq. Semitic languages and peoples are also found in the Horn of Africa, especially Eritreaand Ethiopia. Tigrinya, a North Ethiopic dialect, has around six million speakers in Eritrea and Tigray. In Eritrea, Tigreis the language of around 800,000 Muslims. Amharicis the national language of Ethiopiaand is spoken by at least 10 million Coptic Christians. Semitic languages today are also spoken in Malta(where an Italian-influenced language derived from Siculo-Arabicis spoken) and on the island of Socotrain the Indian Oceanbetween Yemenand Somalia, where a dying vestige of South Arabian is spoken in the form of Soqotri.
In a religious context, the term Semitic can refer to the religions associated with the speakers of these languages: thus
Judaism, Christianityand Islamare often described as "Semitic religions", though the term Abrahamic religionsis more commonly used today. A truly comprehensive account of "Semitic" religions would include the polytheistic Ancient Semitic religions(such as the religions of Adad, Hadad) that flourished in the Middle East before the Abrahamic religions.
Ethnicity and race
MedievalEurope, all Asian peoples were thought of as descendants of Shem. By the nineteenth century, the term Semitic was confined to the ethnic groups who have historically spoken Semitic languages. These peoples were often considered to be a distinct race. However, some anti-Semitic racial theorists of the time argued that the Semitic peoples arose from the blurring of distinctions between previously separate races. This supposed process was referred to as Semiticizationby the race-theorist Arthur de Gobineau. The notion that Semitic identity was a product of racial "confusion" was later taken up by the Nazi ideologue Alfred Rosenberg.Fact|date=December 2007
Modern science, in contrast, identifies a population's common physical descent through genetic research, and analysis of the Semitic-speaking peoples suggests that they have some common ancestry. Though no significant common
mitochondrial results have been yielded, Y-chromosomal links between Semitic-speaking Near-Eastern peopleslike Arabs, Assyriansand Jewshave proved fruitful, despite differences contributed from other groups ("see Y-chromosomal Aaron"). Although population geneticsis still a young science, it seems to indicate that a significant proportion of these peoples' ancestry comes from a common Near Eastern population to which (despite the differences with the Biblical genealogy) the term "Semitic" has been applied. However, this correlation should rather be attributed to said common Near Easternorigin, as for example Semitic-speaking Near Easterners from the Fertile Crescentare generally more closely related to non-Semitic speaking Near Easterners, such as Iranians, Anatolians, and Caucasians, than to other Semitic-speakers, such as Gulf Arabs, Eritrean Semites, Ethiopian Semites, and North AfricanArabs. [ [http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1274378 The Y Chromosome Pool of Jews as Part of the Genetic Landscape of the Middle East ] ] [ [http://www.assyrianfoundation.org/genetics.htm Assyrian Foundation of America - Articles ] ]
* [http://foundationstone.com.au/HtmlSupport/WebPage/semiticGenetics.html Semitic genetics]
* [http://www.ethnologue.com/show_family.asp?subid=89998 Semitic language family tree] included under "Afro-Asiatic" in SIL's [http://www.ethnologue.com/web.asp Ethnologue] .
* [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=1062-0516%28192310%2940%3A1%3C1%3AAO%3E2.0.CO%3B2-E&size=LARGE&origin=JSTOR-enlargePage The south Arabian origin of ancient Arabs]
* [http://nabataea.net/edomch5.html The Edomite Hyksos connection]
* [http://imninalu.net/myths-arabs.html The Origin of Arabs]
* [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0003-5491(199507)68%3A3%3C139%3AMASHTG%3E2.0.CO%3B2-E The perished Arabs]
* [http://www.themystica.com/mystica/articles/m/midianites.html The Midianites of the north]
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