Adar (Hebrew: אֲדָר, Standard "Adar" Tiberian "ʾĂḏār" ; from Akkadian "adaru") is the sixth month of the civil year and the twelfth month of the religious year on the
Hebrew calendar. It is a winter month of 29 days. In leap years, it is preceded by a 30-day intercalary monthnamed Adar Aleph ( Alephbeing the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet), Adar Rishon ("First Adar") or Adar I and it is then itself called Adar Bet (Bet being the second letter of the Jewish Alphabet), Adar Sheni ("Second Adar") or Adar II. Occasionally instead of Adar I and Adar II, "Adar" and "Ve'Adar" are used (Ve means 'and' thus: And Adar). Adar I and II occur during February–March on the Gregorian calendar.
Based on a line in the
Mishnahdeclaring that Purim must be celebrated in Adar II in a leap year (Megillah 1:4), Adar I is considered the "extra" month. As a result, someone born in Adar during a non leap year would celebrate his birthday in Adar II during a leap year. However, someone born during either Adar in a leap year will celebrate his birthday during Adar in a non-leap year, except that someone born on 30 Adar I will celebrate his birthday on 1 Nisan in a non-leap year because Adar in a non-leap year has only 29 days.
Holidays in Adar
13 Adar II -
Fast of Esther– on 11 Adar when the 13th falls on Shabbat- "(Fast Day)"
14 Adar II -
14 Adar I - Purim Katan
15 Adar II - Shushan Purim - celebration of Purim in walled cities built after the time of
Adar in Jewish history
1 Adar - (1313
B C E BCE) - Plague of Darkness
*The ninth plague to be cast upon the
Egyptiansfor their refusal to release the Israelitesfrom slavery was a thick darkness across the entire land so "no man saw his fellow, and no man could move from his place" ( Exodus10:23). This started on the 1st of Adar, six weeks before the Exodus.1 Adar - (1164) - Death of the Ibn Ezra
*A highly regarded Biblical commentator, Rabbi Avraham ben Meir Ibn Ezra (1089?-1164), died on Adar 1.1 Adar - (
circa1663) - Death of the Shach
*Adar 1 is also the
yahrtzeit(anniversary of the death) of the Halachist RabbiShabtai Hakohen Katz, who lived from 1621to around 1663?, and was author of the Siftei Cohencommentary on Rabbi Yosef Karo's Code of Jewish Law. He is known as "Shach," which is an acronym of the name of his work, which still to this day serves as a primary source of Halachah( Jewish law).3 Adar - (515 BCE) - Second Templecompleted
*The dedication of the second
Holy Temple( Beit HaMikdash) which was built by Ezraon the site of the 1st Temple in Jerusalem, was celebrated on the 3rd of Adar of 515 BCE, after four years of work.4 Adar - (1307) - Maharam's body ransomed
*The imprisonment of Rabbi Meir ben Baruch ("Maharam") of Rothenburg came to a close when his body was ransomed 14 years after his death by Alexander ben Shlomo (Susskind) Wimpen.4 Adar - (1796) - Death of
Rabbi Leib Sarah's
*Adar 4 is the
yahrtzeit(anniversary) of the death of Rabbi Leib Sarah's(1730-1796), a disciple of the Rabbi Israel Baal Shem Tov. One of the "hidden tzaddikim," Rabbi Leib spent his life wandering from place to place to raise money for the ransoming of imprisoned Jews and the support of other hidden tzaddikim.7 Adar - (1393 and 1273 BCE) - Moses' birth and death
Moseswas born in Egypton the 7th of Adar of the Hebrew year 2368 (1393 BCE) and is said to have died on his 120th birthday, Adar 7, 2488 (1273 BCE)13 Adar - (522 BCE) - war against enemies of the Jews in Persia
*On the 13th of Adar of the Hebrew year 522 BCE, battles were fought throughout the
Persian Empirebetween the Jewsand those seeking to kill them in accordance with the decree issued by King Achashveirosheleven months earlier. (Achashveirosh never rescinded that decree; but after the hanging of Haman on Nissan16 of the previous year, and Queen Esther's pleading on behalf of her people, he agreed to issue a second decree authorizing the Jews to defend themselves against those seeking to kill them.) 75,000 enemies were killed on that day, and 500 in the capital, Shushan, including Haman's ten sons (Parshandata, Dalfon, Aspata, Porata, Adalia, Aridata, Parmashta, Arisai, Aridai and Vaizata), whose bodies were subsequently hanged. The Jews did not take any of the possessions of the slain as booty, though authorized to do so by the king's decree. (The Book of Esther, chapter 9).13 Adar - (161 BCE) - Maccabeevictory
*The Maccabees defeated the Syrian General Nicanor in a battle fought four years after the Maccabee's liberation of the
Holy Landand the miracle of Hanukkah.14 Adar - (1393 BCE) - Moses' brit milah
Moseswas born on the 7th of Adar of the Hebrew year 2368 (1393 BCE); accordingly, Adar 14 was the 8th day of his life and the day on which he was circumcised in accordance with the divinee command to Abraham.14 Adar - (522 BCE) - Purimvictory celebrated
*The festival of
Purimcelebrates the salvation of the Jewishpeople from Haman's plot "to destroy, kill and annihilate all the Jews, young and old, infants and women, in a single day." See Timeline.15 Adar - (522 BCE) - PurimVictory Celebrated in Shushan
15 Adar - (1st century CE) - Jerusalem Gate Day
*King Agrippa I (circa 21 CE) began construction of a gate for the wall of
Jerusalem; the day used to be celebrated as a holiday.20 Adar - (1st century BCE) - Choni the Circle Maker prays for rain
*"One year, most of Adar went by and it didn't rain. They sent for Choni the Circle Maker. He prayed and the rains didn't come. He drew a circle, stood in it and said: 'Master of The World! Your children have turned to me; I swear in Your great name that I won't move from here until You have pity on Your children.' The rains came down." (
Talmud, Taanit 23a)20 Adar - (1640) - Death of the "Bach"
*Adar 20 is the
yahrtzeit(anniversary of the death) of Rabbi Yoel Sirkes (1560?-1640), who authored of the Bayit Chadash("Bach") commentary on the Halachicwork, Beit Yosef.23 Adar - (1312 BCE) - Mishkan assembled for the 1st time; "Seven Days of Training" begin.
*During the week of Adar 23-29, the Mishkan was erected each morning and dismantled each evening;
Mosesserved as the High Priest and initiated Aaronand his four sons into the priesthood. Then, on the "eighth day," the 1st of Nissan, the Mishkan was "permanently" assembled (that is, put up to stand until the God-given command would come to journey on), Aaron and his sons assumed the priesthood, and the divine presence came to dwell in the Mishkan.23 Adar - (1866) - Death of 1st Rebbe of Ger
ChassidicRabbi Yitzchak Meir Altar (1799-1866), author of Chiddushei Harim(a commentary on the Talmudand Shulchan Aruch), was a disciple of the Maggid of Koshnitzand Rabbi Simcha Bunimof Peshischa, and the founder of the "Ger" (Gerer) Chassidic dynasty. All his 13 sons had died in his lifetime, and he was succeeded (in 1870) by his young grandson, Rabbi Yehudah Leib Alter (the "Sefat Emmet").24 Adar - (1817) - Blood Libeldeclared false
*On Adar 24, Czar Alexander I of Russia declared the
Blood Libel, the infamous accusation that Jews murdered Christianchildren to use their blood in the baking of matzah for Passover, for which thousands of Jews were killed through the centuries, to be false. Nevertheless, nearly a hundred years later the accusation was officially leveled against Mendel Beilis in Kiev.25 Adar - (561 BCE) - Nebuchadnezzar died
King Nebuchadnezzar, the Babylonianemperor who conquered Jerusalemand destroyed the first Holy Temple26 years earlier, died on the 25th of Adar. ( Jeremiah52:31)27 Adar - (561 BCE) - Death of Zedekiah
Zedekiahwas the last king of the royal house of David to reign in the Holy Land. He ascended the throne in 597 BCE, after King Nebuchadnezzarof Babylonia(to whom the Kingdom of Judahwas then subject) exiled King Jeconiah(Zedekiah's nephew) to Babylonia . In 588 BCE Zedekiah rebelled against Babylonian rule, and Nebuchadnezzar laid siege to Jerusalem (in Tevet10 of that year); in the summer of 586 BCE the walls of Jerusalem were penetrated, the city conquered, the (first) Holy Temple destroyed, and the people of Judah exiled to Babylonia. Zedekiah tried escaping through a tunnel leading out of the city, but was captured; his sons were killed in front of him, and then he was blinded. Zedekiah languished in the royal dungeon in Babylonia until Nebuchadnezzar's death in 561 BCE. Meroduch, Nebuchadnezzar's son and successor, freed him (and his nephew Jeconiah) on the 27th of Adar, but Zedikiah died that same day.28 Adar - (2nd century) - Talmudicholiday
Talmudictimes, Adar 28 used to be celebrated to commemorate the rescinding of a Roman decree against ritual circumcision, Torahstudy and keeping the Shabbat. The decree was revoked through the efforts of Rabbi Yehudah ben Shamuaand his fellow rabbis. ( Megillat Taanit, Rosh Hashanah 19a)
* Azar or Adhar (
Arabic: آذار) is the name for the month of March in the Levant.
* [http://www.chabad.org/calendar/ This Month in Jewish History]
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