Infobox Roman emperor
name = Titus
title = Emperor of the
full name = Titus Flavius Vespasianus
(from birth to AD 69);
Titus Flavius Caesar Vespasianus (from 69 to accession);
Titus Flavius Caesar Vespasianus Augustus (as emperor)
caption = Bust of Emperor Titus
24 June, 79– 13 September, 81
Arrecina Tertulla(about 62)
spouse 2 =
mother = Domitilla
date of birth = birth date|39|12|30|df=y
place of birth = Rome
date of death = death date and age|81|9|13|39|12|30|df=y
place of death = Rome
place of burial = Rome|
Titus Flavius Vespasianus, commonly known as Titus (
December 30 39– September 13 81), was a Roman Emperorwho briefly reigned from 79 until his death in 81. Titus was the second emperor of the Flavian dynasty, which ruled the Roman Empirebetween 69 and 96, encompassing the reigns of Titus's father Vespasian(69–79), Titus himself (79–81) and his younger brother Domitian(81–96).
Prior to becoming emperor, Titus gained renown as a military commander, serving under his father in Judaea during the
First Jewish-Roman War, which was fought between 67 and 70. The campaign came to a brief halt with the death of emperor Neroon June 9 68, launching Vespasian's bid for the imperial power during the Year of the Four Emperors. When Vespasian was declared emperor on July 1 69, Titus was left in charge of ending the Jewish rebellion, which he did in 70, successfully besieging and destroying the city and the Temple of Jerusalem. For this achievement Titus was awarded a triumph; the Arch of Tituscommemorates his victory to this day.
Under the rule of his father, Titus gained infamy in Rome serving as prefect of the Roman imperial
bodyguard, known as the Praetorian Guard, and for carrying on a controversial relationship with the Jewish queen Berenice. Despite concerns over his character, however, Titus ruled to great acclaim following the death of Vespasian on June 23 79, and was considered a good emperor by Suetoniusand other contemporary historians. In this role he is best known for his public building program in Rome—completing the Flavian Amphitheatre, otherwise known as the Colosseum— and for his generosity in relieving the suffering caused by two disasters, the Mount Vesuvius eruption of 79 and the fire of Rome of 80. After barely two years in office, Titus died of a feveron September 13 81. He was deified by the Roman Senateand succeeded by his younger brother Domitian.
Titus was born in
Rome, probably on 30 December39, as the eldest son of Titus Flavius Vespasianus—commonly known as Vespasian—and Domitilla the Elder. [Suetonius claims Titus was born in the year Caligula was assassinated, 41. However, this contradicts his statement that Titus died in his 42nd year, as well as Cassius Dio, who notes that Titus was 39 at the time of his accession. See Suetonius, "The Lives of Twelve Caesars", Life of Titus [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Suetonius/12Caesars/Titus*.html#1 1] , [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Suetonius/12Caesars/Titus*.html#11 11] ; Cassius Dio, "Roman History" [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Cassius_Dio/66*.html#18 LXVI.18] ; and cite book |author=Brian Jones |coauthors=and Robert Milns |title=Suetonius: The Flavian Emperors: A Historical Commentary |year=2002 |publisher=Bristol Classical Press |location=London |isbn=1-85399-613-0 |pages=p. 91 ] He had one older sister, Domitilla the Younger(b. 45), and one younger brother, also named Titus Flavius Domitianus (b. 51), but commonly referred to as Domitian.
Decades of civil war during the 1st century BC had contributed greatly to the demise of the old artistocracy of Rome, which was gradually replaced in prominence by a new provincial nobility during the early part of the 1st century.Jones (1992), p. 3] One such family was the "gens Flavia", which rose from relative obscurity to prominence in just four generations, acquiring wealth and status under the emperors of the
Julio-Claudian dynasty. Titus's great-grandfather, Titus Flavius Petro, had served as a centurionunder Pompeyduring Caesar's civil war. His military career ended in disgrace when he fled the battlefield at the Battle of Pharsalusin 48 BC.Jones (1992), p. 1] Nevertheless, Petro managed to improve his status by marrying the extremely wealthy Tertulla, whose fortune guaranteed the upwards mobility of Petro's son Titus Flavius Sabinus I, Titus's grandfather.Jones (1992), p. 2] Sabinus himself amassed further wealth and possible equestrian status through his services as tax collectorin Asia and banker in Helvetia. By marrying Vespasia Pollahe allied himself to the more prestigious patrician"gens Vespasia", ensuring the elevation of his sons Titus Flavius Sabinus II and Vespasianto the senatorial rank.
The political career of Vespasian included the offices of
quaestor, aedileand praetor, and culminated with a consulship in 51, the year Domitian was born. As a military commander, he gained early renown by participating in the Roman invasion of Britainin 43. [Jones (1992), p. 8] What little is known of Titus's early life has been handed down to us by Suetonius, who records that he was brought up at the imperial court in the company of Britannicus, Suetonius, "The Lives of Twelve Caesars", Life of Titus [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Suetonius/12Caesars/Titus*.html#1 2] ] the son of emperor Claudius, who would be murdered by Neroin 55. The story was even told that Titus was reclining next to Britannicus, the night he was murdered, and sipped of the poisonthat was handed to him. Further details on his education are scarce, but it seems he showed early promise in the military arts and was a skilled poet and orator both in Greek and Latin. [ Suetonius, "The Lives of Twelve Caesars", Life of Titus [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Suetonius/12Caesars/Titus*.html#3 3] ]
From "c." 57 to 59 he was a military
tribunein Germania. He also served in Britannia, perhaps arriving "c." 60 with reinforcements needed after the revolt of Boudica. In "c." 63 he returned to Rome and married Arrecina Tertulla, daughter of a former Prefect of the Praetorian Guard. She died "c." 65. [ Suetonius, "The Lives of Twelve Caesars", Life of Titus [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Suetonius/12Caesars/Titus*.html#4 4] , with Jones and Milns, p. 95–96] Titus then took a new wife of a much more distinguished family, Marcia Furnilla. However, Marcia's family was closely linked to the opposition to Nero. Her uncle Barea Soranusand his daughter Servilia were among those who perished after the failed Pisonian conspiracyof 65. [ Tacitus, "Annals" ] Some modern historians theorize that Titus divorced his wife because of her family's connection to the conspiracy. [Gavin Townend, "Some Flavian Connections", "The Journal of Roman Studies" (1961), p 57. See Suetonius, "The Lives of Twelve Caesars", Life of Titus [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Suetonius/12Caesars/Titus*.html#4 4] ] [Jones (1992), p. 11] He never re-married. Titus appears to have had multiple daughters, [ Philostratus, "The Life of Apollonius of Tyana" [http://www.livius.org/ap-ark/apollonius/life/va_7_06.html#%A77 VII.7] ] at least one of them by Marcia Furnilla. Suetonius, "The Lives of Twelve Caesars", Life of Titus [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Suetonius/12Caesars/Titus*.html#4 4] ] The only one known to have survived to adulthood was Julia Flavia, perhaps Titus's child by Arrecina, whose mother was also named Julia. [Jones and Milns, pp. 96, 167.] During this period Titus also practiced law and attained the rank of quaestor.
In 66 the Jews of the Judaea Province revolted against the Roman Empire.
province of Judaea during the 1st century.
Cestius Gallus, the legate of Syria, was defeated at the battle of Beth-Horonand forced to retreat from Jerusalem. [ Josephus, " The Wars of the Jews" ] The pro-Roman king Agrippa IIand his sister Berenice fled the city to Galileewhere they later gave themselves up to the Romans. Nero appointed Vespasian to put down the rebellion, who was dispatched to the region at once with the fifth and tenth legions. [ Josephus, " The Wars of the Jews" ] He was later joined by Titus at Ptolemais, bringing with him the fifteenth legion.Josephus, "The War of the Jews" ] With a strength of 60,000 professional soldiers, the Romans prepared to sweep across Galilee and march on Jerusalem.
The history of the war was covered in dramatic detail by the Roman-Jewish historian
Josephusin his work " The Wars of the Jews". Josephus served as a commander in the city of Jotapatawhen the Roman army invaded Galilee in 67. After an exhausting siege which lasted 47 days, the city fell, with an estimated 40,000 killed and the remaining Jewish resistance committing suicide. [ Josephus, " The Wars of the Jews" ] Josephus himself surrendered to Vespasian, became a prisoner and provided the Romans with intelligence on the ongoing revolt. [ Josephus, " The Wars of the Jews" ] By 68, the entire coast and the north of Judaea were subjugated by the Roman army, with decisive victories won at Taricheae and Gamala, where Titus distinguished himself as a skilled general. [ Josephus, " The Wars of the Jews" ]
Year of the Four Emperors
The last and most significant fortress of Jewish resistance was Jerusalem. However the campaign came to a sudden halt when news arrived of Nero's death.
Josephus, " The Wars of the Jews" ] Almost simultaneously, the Roman Senatehad declared Galba, then governor of Hispania, as Emperor of Rome. Vespasian decided to await further orders, and sent Titus to greet the new princeps. [ Tacitus, "Histories" ] Before reaching Italy, Titus learnt that Galba had been murdered and replaced by Otho, governor of Lusitania, and that Vitelliusand his armies in Germaniawere preparing to march on the capital, intent on overthrowing Otho. Not wanting to risk being taken hostage by one side or the other, he abandoned the journey to Rome and rejoined his father in Judaea. Tacitus, "Histories" ] Meanwhile, Otho was defeated in the First Battle of Bedriacumand committed suicide. [ Tacitus, "Histories" ] When the news spread across the armies in Judaea and Ægyptus, they took matters into their own hands and declared Vespasian emperor on July 1 69. [ Josephus, " The Wars of the Jews" ] Vespasian accepted, and through negotiations by Titus joined forces with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria. [ Tacitus, "Histories" ] A strong force drawn from the Judaean and Syrian legions marched on Rome under the command of Mucianus, while Vespasian himself travelled to Alexandria, leaving Titus in charge to end the Jewish rebellion. [ Josephus, " The Wars of the Jews" ] [ Tacitus, "Histories" ] By the end of 69 the forces of Vitellius had been beaten, and Vespasian was officially declared emperor by the Senate on December 21, thus ending the Year of the Four Emperors. [ Tacitus, "Histories" ]
Siege of Jerusalem
Meanwhile the Jews had become embroiled in a civil conflict of their own, splitting the resistance in the city among two factions; the
Sicariiled by Simon Bar Giora, and the Zealotsled by John of Gischala. [ Josephus, " The Wars of the Jews" ] Titus seized the opportunity to begin the assault on Jerusalem. The Roman army was joined by the twelfth legion, which was previously defeated under Cestius Gallus, and from Alexandria Vespasian sent Tiberius Julius Alexander, governor of Ægyptus, to act as Titus's second in command. [ Josephus, " The Wars of the Jews" ] Titus surrounded the city, with three legions (Vth, XIIth and XVth) on the western side and one (Xth) on the Mount of Olivesto the east. He put pressure on the food and water supplies of the inhabitants by allowing pilgrims to enter the city to celebrate Passover, and then refusing them egress. Jewish raids continuously harassed the Roman army, one of which nearly resulted in Titus being captured by the enemy. [ Josephus, " The Wars of the Jews" ]
After attempts by Josephus to negotiate a surrender had failed, the Romans resumed hostilities and quickly breached the first and second walls of the city. [
Josephus, " The Wars of the Jews" ] To intimidate the resistance, Titus ordered deserters from the Jewish side to be crucified around the city wall. [ Josephus, " The Wars of the Jews" ] By this time the Jews had been thoroughly exhausted by famine, and when the weak third wall was breached bitter street fighting ensued. [ Josephus, " The Wars of the Jews" ] The Romans finally captured the Antonia Fortressand began a frontal assault on the gates of the Temple. [ Josephus, " The Wars of the Jews" ] According to Josephus, Titus had ordered that the Temple itself should not be destroyed, [Josephus, "The War of the Jews" ] but while the fighting around the gates continued a soldier hurled a torch inside one of the windows, which quickly set the entire building ablaze. [ Josephus, " The Wars of the Jews" ] The later Christian chronicler Sulpicius Severus, possibly drawing on a lost portion of Tacitus' "Histories", claims that Titus favoured destruction of the Temple. [ Sulpicius Severus, "Chronicles" [http://www.thelatinlibrary.com/sulpiciusseveruschron2.html II] .30.6–7. For Tacitusas the source, see cite journal |author=T. D. Barnes |year=1977 |month=July |title=The Fragments of Tacitus' "Histories" |journal=Classical Philology |volume=72 |issue=3 |pages=224–231, pp. 226–228 | doi = 10.1086/366355 ] Whatever the case, the Temple was completely demolished, after which Titus's soldiers proclaimed him " imperator" in honor of the victory. [ Josephus, " The Wars of the Jews" ] Jerusalem was sacked and much of the population killed or dispersed. Josephus claims that 1,100,000 people were killed during the siege, of which a majority were Jewish. Josephus, " The Wars of the Jews" ] 97,000 were captured and enslaved, including Simon Bar Giora and John of Gischala. Many fled to areas around the Mediterranean. Titus reportedly refused to accept a wreathof victory, as there is "no merit in vanquishing people forsaken by their own God". [ Philostratus, "The Life of Apollonius of Tyana" [http://www.livius.org/ap-ark/apollonius/life/va_6_26.html#%A729 6.29] ]
Heir to Vespasian
Unable to sail to Italy during the winter, Titus celebrated elaborate games at
Caesarea Maritimaand Berytus, then travelled to Zeugma on the Euphrates, where he was presented with a crown by Vologases I of Parthia. While visiting Antiochhe confirmed the traditional rights of the Jews in that city. [ Josephus, " The Wars of the Jews" , ] On his way to Alexandria, he stopped in Memphis to consecrate the sacred bull Apis. According to Suetonius, this caused consternation; the ceremony required Titus to wear a diadem, which the Romans associated with kingship, and the partisanship of Titus's legions had already led to fears that he might rebel against his father. Titus returned quickly to Rome – hoping, says Suetonius, to allay any suspicions about his conduct. [ Suetonius, "The Lives of Twelve Caesars", Life of Titus [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Suetonius/12Caesars/Titus*.html#5 5] ]
Upon his arrival in the city in 71, Titus was awarded a triumph. [
Cassius Dio, "Roman History" [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Cassius_Dio/65*.html#6 LXV.6] ] Accompanied by Vespasian and Domitian he rode into the city, enthusiastically saluted by the Roman populace and preceded by a lavish parade containing treasures and captives from the war. Josephus describes a procession with large amounts of gold and silver carried along the route, followed by elaborate re-enactments of the war, Jewish prisoners, and finally the treasures taken from the Temple of Jerusalem, including the Menorah and the Pentateuch. [ Josephus, " The Wars of the Jews" ] Simon Bar Giora was executed in the Forum, after which the procession closed with religious sacrifices at the Temple of Jupiter. [ Josephus, " The Wars of the Jews" ] The triumphal Arch of Titus, which stands at one entrance to the Forum, memorializes the victory of Titus.
With Vespasian declared emperor, Titus and his brother Domitian likewise received the title of "Caesar" from the Senate. [
Cassius Dio, "Roman History" [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Cassius_Dio/65*.html#1 LXV.1] ] In addition to sharing tribunician power with his father, Titus held seven consulships during Vespasian's reign Suetonius, "The Lives of Twelve Caesars", Life of Titus [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Suetonius/12Caesars/Titus*.html#6 6] ] and acted as his secretary, appearing in the Senate on his behalf. More crucially, he was appointed commander of the Praetorian Guard, ensuring their loyalty to the emperor and further solidifying Vespasian's position as a legitimate ruler. In this capacity he achieved considerable notoriety in Rome for his violent actions, frequently ordering the execution of suspected traitors on the spot. When in 79, a plot by Aulus Caecina Alienusand Eprius Marcellus to overthrow Vespasian was uncovered, Titus invited Alienus to dinner and ordered him to be stabbed before he had even left the room. [ Cassius Dio, "Roman History" [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Cassius_Dio/65*.html#16 LXV.16] ]
During the Jewish wars, Titus had begun a love affair with Berenice, sister of
Agrippa II. The Herodians had collaborated with the Romans during the rebellion, and Berenice herself had supported Vespasian upon his campaign to become emperor. [ Tacitus, "Histories" ] In 75, she returned to Titus and openly lived with him in the palace as his promised wife. The Romans were wary of the Eastern Queen and disapproved of their relationship. When the pair was publicly denounced by Cynics in the theatre, Titus caved in to the pressure and sent her away, Cassius Dio, "Roman History" [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Cassius_Dio/65*.html#66-15 LXV.15] ] but his reputation further suffered.
Vespasian died of an infection on
June 2379 AD, [ Cassius Dio, "Roman History" [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Cassius_Dio/66*.html#17 LXVI.17] ] and was immediately succeeded by his son Titus. Cassius Dio, "Roman History [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Cassius_Dio/66*.html#18 LXVI.18] ] Because of his many alleged vices, many Romans feared at this point that he would be another Nero. Suetonius, "The Lives of Twelve Caesars", Life of Titus [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Suetonius/12Caesars/Titus*.html#7 7] ] Against these expectations, however, Titus proved to be an effective emperor and was well-loved by the population, who praised him highly when they found that he possessed the greatest virtues instead of vices. One of his first acts as an emperor was to publicly order a halt to trials based on "treason" charges, Suetonius, "The Lives of Twelve Caesars", Life of Titus [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Suetonius/12Caesars/Titus*.html#8 8] ] which had long plagued the principate. The law of treason, or "maiestas" law, was originally intended to prosecute those who had corruptly 'impaired the people and majesty of Rome' by any revolutionary action. Tacitus, "Annals" ] Under Augustus, however, this custom had been revived and applied to cover slander or libellous writings as well, eventually leading to a long cycle of trials and executions under such emperors as Tiberius, Caligulaand Nero, spawning entire networks of informers that terrorized Rome's political system for decades. Titus put an end to this practice, against himself or anyone else, declaring:
"It is impossible for me to be insulted or abused in any way. For I do naught that deserves censure, and I care not for what is reported falsely. As for the emperors who are dead and gone, they will avenge themselves in case anyone does them a wrong, if in very truth they are demigods and possess any power."
Cassius Dio, "Roman History" [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Cassius_Dio/66*.html#19 LXVI.19] ]
senators were put to death during his reign; he thus kept to his promise that he would assume the office of Pontifex Maximus"for the purpose of keeping his hands unstained". Suetonius, "The Lives of Twelve Caesars", Life of Titus [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Suetonius/12Caesars/Titus*.html#9 9] ] The informants were publicly punished and banished from the city, and Titus further prevented abuses by introducing legislation that made it unlawful for persons to be tried under different laws for the same offense. Finally, when Berenice returned to Rome, he sent her away.
Although his administration was marked by a relative absence of major military or political conflicts, Titus faced a number of major disasters during his brief reign. On
August 24 79, barely two months after his accession, Mount Vesuvius erupted, [ Cassius Dio, "Roman History" [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Cassius_Dio/66*.html#22 LXVI.22] ] resulting in the almost complete destruction of life and property in the cities and resort communities around the Bay of Naples. The cities of Pompeiiand Herculaneumwere buried under metres of stone and lava, [ Cassius Dio, "Roman History" [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Cassius_Dio/66*.html#23 LXVI.23] ] killing thousands of citizens. [ The exact number of casualties is unknown; however, estimates of the population of Pompeii range between 10,000 ( [http://enginova.com/engineering_of_pompeii.htm] ) and 25,000 ( [http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/pompeii.htm] ), with at least a thousand bodies currently recovered in and around the city ruins.] Titus appointed two ex-consuls to organise and coordinate the relief effort, while personally donating large amounts of money from the imperial treasury to aid the victims of the volcano. Additionally, he visited Pompeii once after the eruption and again the following year. Cassius Dio, "Roman History" [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Cassius_Dio/66*.html#24 LXVI.24] ]
During the second visit a fire broke out in Rome which lasted for three days. Although the extent of the damage was not as disastrous as during the Great Fire of 64—crucially sparing the many districts of
insulae— Cassius Diorecords a long list of important public buildings that were destroyed, including Agrippa's Pantheon, the Temple of Jupiter, the Diribitorium, parts of Pompey's Theatre and the Saepta Juliaamong others. Once again, Titus personally compensated for the damaged regions. According to Suetonius, a plague similarly struck during the fire. The nature of the disease, however, or the death tollare unknown.
Meanwhile war had resumed in Britannia, where
Gnaeus Julius Agricolapushed further into Caledoniaand managed to establish several forts there. [ Tacitus, "Agricola" ] As a result of his actions, Titus received the title of Imperator for the fifteenth time. [ Cassius Dio, "Roman History" [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Cassius_Dio/66*.html#20 LXVI.20] ]
His reign also saw the rebellion led by
Terentius Maximus, one of several "false Neros" who continued to appear throughout the 70s. Tacitus, "Histories" ] Although Nero was primarily known as a universally hated tyrant—there is evidence that for much of his reign, he remained highly popular in the eastern provinces. Reports that Nero had in fact survived the assassination attempts were fueled by the vague circumstances surrounding his death and several prophecies foretelling his return. [ cite journal | last = Sanford | first = Eva Matthews | title = Nero and the East | journal = Harvard Studies in Classical Philology | volume = 48 | year = 1937 | pages = p75–103 | url = http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0073-0688%281937%2948%3C75%3ANATE%3E2.0.CO%3B2-5 | location = Harvard University | accessdate = 2007-09-10 | doi = 10.2307/310691 ] According to Cassius Dio, Terentius Maximus resembled Nero in voice and appearance and, like him, sang to the lyre. Terentius established a following in Asia minorbut was soon forced to flee beyond the Euphrates, taking refuge with the Parthians. In addition, sources state that Titus discovered that his brother Domitian was plotting against him but refused to have him killed or banished. Cassius Dio, "Roman History" [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Cassius_Dio/66*.html#26 LXVI.26] ]
Construction of the Flavian Amphitheatre, presently better known as the
Colosseum, was begun in 70 under Vespasianand finally completed in 80 under Titus. [cite book | first=Leland M. | last=Roth | year=1993 | title=Understanding Architecture: Its Elements, History and Meaning | edition =First | publisher=Westview Press | location=Boulder, CO | id=ISBN 0-06-430158-3 | pages=] In addition to providing spectacular entertainments to the Roman populace, the building was also conceived as a gigantic triumphal monument to commemorate the military achievements of the Flavians during the Jewish wars. [cite book | first=Amanda | last=Claridge | year=1998 | title=Rome: An Oxford Archaeological Guide | edition =First | publisher=Oxford University Press, 1998 | location=Oxford, UK | id=ISBN 0-19-288003-9 | pages=pp. 276–282] The inaugural games lasted for a hundred days and were said to be extremely elaborate, including gladiatorial combat, fights between wild animals ( elephants and cranes), mock naval battles for which the theatre was flooded, horse races and chariot races. Cassius Dio, "Roman History" [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Cassius_Dio/66*.html#25 LXVI.25] ] During the games, wooden balls were dropped into the audience, inscribed with various prizes ( clothing, gold, or even slaves), which could then be traded for the designated item.
Adjacent to the amphitheatre, within the precinct of Nero's Golden House, Titus had also ordered the construction of a new public bath-house, which was to bear his name. Construction of this building was hastily finished to coincide with the completion of the Flavian Amphitheatre.
Practice of the imperial cult was revived by Titus, though apparently it met with some difficulty as Vespasian was not deified until six months after his death. [ Coins bearing the inscription "Divus Vespasianus" were not issued until 80 or 81 by Titus.] To further honor and glorify the
Flavian dynasty, foundations were laid for what would later become the Temple of Vespasian and Titus, which was finished by Domitian. [Jones, Brian W. The Emperor Titus. New York: St. Martin's P, 1984. 143.] [ Suetonius, "The Lives of Twelve Caesars", Life of Domitian [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Suetonius/12Caesars/Domitian*.html#5 5] ]
At the closing of the games, Titus officially dedicated the amphitheatre and the baths, which was to be his final recorded act as an emperor. He set out for the
Sabineterritories but fell ill at the first posting station Suetonius, "The Lives of Twelve Caesars", Life of Titus [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Suetonius/12Caesars/Titus*.html#10 10] ] where he died of a fever, reportedly in the same farm-house as his father. Suetonius, "The Lives of Twelve Caesars", Life of Titus [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Suetonius/12Caesars/Titus*.html#11 11] ] Allegedly, the last words he uttered before passing away were: "I have made but one mistake". Titus had ruled the Roman Empirefor just over two years, from the death of his father in 79 to his own on September 13 81. He was succeeded by Domitian, whose first act as emperor was to deify his brother. Suetonius, "The Lives of Twelve Caesars", Life of Domitian [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Suetonius/12Caesars/Domitian*.html#2 2] ] Historianshave speculated on the exact nature of his death, and to which mistake Titus alluded in his final words. Philostratuswrites that he was poisoned by Domitian with a sea hare, and that his death had been foretold to him by Apollonius of Tyana. [ Philostratus, "The Life of Apollonius of Tyana" [http://www.livius.org/ap-ark/apollonius/life/va_6_31.html#%A732 6.32] ] Suetonius and Cassius Dio maintain he died of natural causes, but both accuse Domitian of having left the ailing Titus for dead. Consequently, Dio believes Titus's mistake refers to his failure to have his brother executed when he was found to be openly plotting against him.
According to the
Babylonian Talmud( Gittin56b), an insectflew into Titus's nose and picked at his brain for seven years. He noticed that the sound of a blacksmith hammering caused the ensuing pain to abate, so he paid for blacksmiths to hammer nearby him; however, the effect wore off and the insect resumed its gnawing. When he died, they opened his skull and found the insect had grown to the size of a bird. The Talmud gives this as the cause of his death and interprets it as divine retribution for his wicked actions. [Medicine in the Bible and Talmud, Fred Rosner, p.76. Pub. 1995, KTAV Publishing House, ISBN 0-88125-506-8. Extract viewable at ( [http://books.google.com/books?id=SL34EWxAJfYC&pg=PA76&dq=titus+brain+insect+hammer&ei=3PGiR__1L5O0yQSdxfDFDQ&sig=sb-nf1h9V9A5Y0fsdfTEZbFvrjE#PPA76,M1] )]
Titus's record among ancient historians stands as one of the most exemplary of any emperor. All the surviving accounts from this period, many of them written by his own contemporaries, present a highly favourable view towards Titus. His character has especially prospered in comparison with that of his brother Domitian.
The Wars of the Jews" offers a first-hand, eye-witness account on the Jewish rebellion and the character of Titus. The neutralityof Josephus' writings has come into question however as he was heavily indebted to the Flavians. In 71, he arrived in Rome in the entourage of Titus, became a Roman citizen and took on the Roman nomenFlavius and praenomenTitus from his patrons. He received an annual pension and lived in the palace. [ Josephus, " The Life of Flavius Josephus" ] It was while in Rome, and under Flavian patronage, that Josephus wrote all of his known works. "The War of the Jews" is heavily slanted against the leaders of the revolt, portraying the rebellion as weak and unorganized, and even blaming the Jews for causing the war. [ Josephus, " The Wars of the Jews" ] The credibility of Josephus as a historian has subsequently come under fire. [Josephus, Flavius, "The Jewish War", tr. G.A. Williamson, introduction by E. Mary Smallwood. New York, Penguin, 1981, p. 24]
Another contemporary of Titus was Publius Cornelius Tacitus, who started his public career in 80 or 81 and credits the Flavian dynasty with his elevation. [
Tacitus, "Histories" ] "The Histories"—his account of this period—was published during the reign of Trajan. Unfortunately only the first five books from this work have survived until the present day, with the text on Titus's and Domitian's reign entirely lost.
Suetonius Tranquilius gives a short but highly favourable account on Titus's reign in "The Lives of Twelve Caesars",
Suetonius, "The Lives of Twelve Caesars", Life of Titus [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Suetonius/12Caesars/Titus*.html#1 1] ] emphasizing his military achievements and his generosity as Emperor, in short describing him as follows:
Titus, of the same surname as his father, was the delight and darling of the human race; such surpassing ability had he, by nature, art, or good fortune, to win the affections of all men, and that, too, which is no easy task, while he was emperor.
Cassius Diowrote his "Roman History" over a hundred years after the death of Titus. He shares a similar outlook as Suetonius, possibly even using the latter as a source, but is more reserved, noting:
His satisfactory record may also have been due to the fact that he survived his accession but a very short time, for he was thus given no opportunity for wrongdoing. For he lived after this only two years, two months and twenty days — in addition to the thirty-nine years, five months and twenty-five days he had already lived at that time. In this respect, indeed, he is regarded as having equalled the long reign of
Augustus, since it is maintained that Augustus would never have been loved had he lived a shorter time, nor Titus had he lived longer. For Augustus, though at the outset he showed himself rather harsh because of the wars and the factional strife, was later able, in the course of time, to achieve a brilliant reputation for his kindly deeds; Titus, on the other hand, ruled with mildness and died at the height of his glory, whereas, if he had lived a long time, it might have been shown that he owes his present fame more to good fortune than to merit. Pliny the Elder, who later died during the eruption of Mount Vesuvius, [ [http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/pompeii.htm The Destruction of Pompeii, 79 AD] , Translation of Pliny's letters. [http://www.thelatinlibrary.com/pliny.ep6.html Original.] ] dedicated his "Naturalis Historia" to Titus. [ Pliny the Elder, "Natural Histories" [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/holland/plinyepistle.html Preface] ]
In contrast to the ideal portrayal of Titus in Roman histories, in Jewish memory "Titus the Wicked" is remembered as an evil opressor and destroyer of the Temple. For example, one legend in the Babylonian Talmud describes Titus as having had sex with a whore on a Torah scroll inside the Temple during its destruction. [ Babylonian Talmud (Gittin 56b) ]
Titus in later arts
The war in Judaea and the life of Titus, particularly his relationship with Berenice, have inspired writers and artists through the centuries. The
bas-reliefin the Arch of Titus has been influential in the depiction of the destruction of Jerusalem, with the Menorah frequently being used to symbolise the looting of the Second Temple.
Bérénice", a play by Jean Racine(1670) which focuses on the love affair between Titus and Berenice.
Tite et Bérénice", a play by Pierre Corneillewhich was in competition with Racine the same year, and concerns the same subject matter.
La clemenza di Tito", an operaby Mozart, about a fictional romance between Emperor Titus and Vitellia, daughter of Vitellius.
*The "Josephus Trilogy", novels by
Lion Feuchtwanger, about the life of Flavius Josephus and his relation with the Flavian dynasty.
**"Der jüdische Krieg" ("Josephus"), 1932
**"Die Söhne" ("The Jews of Rome"), 1935
**"Der Tag wird kommen" ("The day will come", "Josephus and the Emperor"), 1942
Marcus Didius Falco" novels, which take place during the reign of Vespasian.
The Roman Mysteries", a series of children's books which take place during the reign of Titus.
* The High School Latin textbook series
Ecce Romanitakes place during the reign of Titus.
*", dramatically centered around the figure of Titus.
*" (1637). Oil on canvas, 147 x 198,5 cm. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna. Depicts the destruction and looting of the Second Temple by the Roman army led by Titus.
*". Depicts the destruction and looting of the Second Temple by the Roman army.
*" (1850). Oil on canvas, 136 x 197 cm. Private collection. Depicts the burning and looting of Jerusalem by the Roman army under Titus.
*" features the Arch of Titus, which was not completed until the reign of Domitian.
*", who he had only recently married. Behind Domitian follows Titus, dressed in religious regalia. An exchange of glances between Titus and Domitia suggests an affair which historians have speculated upon.
* cite book | last = Jones | first = Brian W. | title = The Emperor Domitian | publisher = Routledge | year = 1992 | location = London | isbn = 0-415-10195-6
*cite book |author=Brian Jones |coauthors=and Robert Milns |title=Suetonius: The Flavian Emperors: A Historical Commentary |year=2002 |publisher=Bristol Classical Press |location=London |isbn=1-85399-613-0 |pages=p. 91
* [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Suetonius/12Caesars/Titus*.html Suetonius, "The Lives of Twelve Caesars", Life of Titus] , Latin text with English translation
* [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Cassius_Dio/65*.html Cassius Dio, "Roman History", Books 65] and [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Cassius_Dio/66*.html 66] , English translation
*, English translation
*, and , English translation
* [http://www.wildwinds.com/coins/ric/titus/t.html Coinage of Titus at Wildwinds.com]
* [http://www.roman-emperors.org/titus.htm Biography of Titus at roman-emperors.org]
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