- Edmund Allenby, 1st Viscount Allenby
Infobox Military Person
name= The Viscount Allenby
23 April 1861- 14 May 1936
caption=Field Marshal Lord Allenby
serviceyears=1880 - 1925
Second Boer War World War I
awards= GCB, GCMG, GCVO
Field MarshalEdmund Henry Hynman Allenby, 1st Viscount Allenby GCB GCMG GCVO ( April 23 1861- May 14 1936) was a British soldier and administrator most famous for his role during World War I, in which he led the Egyptian Expeditionary Forcein the conquest of Palestineand Syriain 1917 and 1918.
Allenby, nicknamed the "Bloody Bull", is generally considered to have been a
martinetwho tyrannically ruled over the men serving under him. However, Archibald Wavell, a British field marshal during World War II who had served under Allenby, defends him as being an intelligent and caring man, if a professional consummate soldier. T. E. Lawrence("of Arabia"), whose efforts with the Arab Revoltwere greatly aided by Allenby, thought similarly of him: "(He was) physically large and confident, and morally so great that the comprehension of our littleness came slow to him". [ [http://www.pbs.org/lawrenceofarabia/players/allenby.html Mediashift] ] Allenby was arguably one of the most successful British commanders of the war, utilizing strategies he developed from his experiences in the Boer Warand on the Western Fronttowards his Palestinian Campaigns of 1917-8. His management of the Battle of Megiddo in particular, with its brilliant use of infantryand mobile cavalry, is considered by many to be a precursor to the Blitzkriegtactics so widely employed during World War II.
At the outbreak of the
Second Boer War, Allenby was returned to his regiment, and the Inniskillings were embarked at Queenstown before landing at Cape Town, South Africa, on 11 December 1899during the ‘ Black Week’ in which the British Armysuffered reverses at Colenso, Magersfontein and Stormberg. Allenby was made second in command of the Inniskillings and sent to Naauwpoort Junction to join Major-GeneralJohn French’s Cavalry Division. In defending the northern frontier of the Cape, French’s division employed harassing tactics and threatened the flanks and rear of the Boers whilst not committing his force to a large scale operation. During this time Allenby gained a reputation for being a bold commander, having been given command of a squadron of cavalry, a role which suited Allenby more than second in command of the regiment. In one demonstration near Colesbergon 14 January 1900, Allenby commanded two squadrons, two companies of mounted infantry and a section of artillery in penetrating Boer lines, shelling a bridge and avoiding an attempt by the enemy to cut his force off. Having suffered no casualties, Allenby’s force returned having taken several prisoners. In February 1900, the Cavalry Division executed a daring outflanking manoeuvre at Modder River, in which Allenby’s squadron took part. This led to the relief of Kimberley, which had been besieged by the Boers since the war’s outset. At Kimberley, Allenby resumed his acquaintance with Cecil Rhodes, who entertained him to dinner and sent several supplies to his squadron. Later in the month, Allenby’s squadron partook in the encirclement and capture of Piet Cronje’s force east of Kimberley. In March 1900, Allenby’s squadronled the final charge on Bloemfonteinand was successful in seizing a number of kopjes to the south of the city. A month later, the commander of the Inniskillingswas invalided home, and Allenby given temporary command of the regiment, during which it mostly undertook convoy duty. Johannesburgwas occupied on 31 May, and in June, during the advance on Pretoria, Allenby engaged a party of Boers at Kalkheuvel Pass after the Cavalry Division was ambushed. After the capture of Pretoria, and during Field Marshal Lord Roberts’ push eastwards, the Inniskillings were active around the town of Middelburg in which a thinly held line was maintained for more than three weeks against an active enemy. Subsequently, Allenby led the Inniskillings in the advance on Barberton and engaged the Boers at Lake Chrissie, during which the Cavalry Division was continually engaged by the Boers in Eastern Transvaal. The Cavalry Division was broken up into several smaller columns, and Allenby received the command of one of these in January 1901.
The column period of the war lasted for eighteen months and took place across the Transvaal, the
Orange Free State, Natal and the Cape Colony– an area equal to Germany, Franceand Hollandcombined. The tactics of mobile riflemenexcelled due to the lack of railways metalled roads, and the vastness of the area of operations. Ultimately, Allenby’s column never suffered a reverse or lost a convoy during this period of the war – a fate that befell most column commanders at least once up to the end of the war. Allenby was daring and vigorous in pursuit of the enemy, no doubt helped by his considerable physical fitness. The column under his command varied, although it usually consisted of two regiments, a battery of horse artillery, a long-range gun and half a battalion of infantry. This force was usually engaged in wearisome tasks entailing hard marching, outpost work during the evening and little prospect of seeing the enemy. In early 1901, the column operated alongside others under the command of French in the Eastern Transvaalin operations against Louis Botha. In the spring, the column operated near the Swazilandborder, in which heavy rain ensured that movement by men and horses was difficult, testing the resolve of the column commander and his men alike. During the weeks approaching summer, the column headed north to operate near Middelburg and then spent many months operating in Western Transvaal around the Magaliesburg hill range. His letters home to his wife began to include notable criticisms of superior officers and generals with ‘no more brains or backbone than a bran doll’. Allenby’s column was promised a rest but soon found itself in Natal and then by October, operating around Zululand. Allenby asked Lord Kitchener, commanding in South Africa, to rest his weary column, and was duly promised a fortnight’s rest. However, Allenby’s column was called to assist another British Army column that had suffered a considerable reverse at Bakenlaagte, and it spent the remainder of 1901 in Eastern Transvaal.
Towards the end of 1901, Allenby went down with
influenzaand spent ten days’ leave in Durban. Having been engaged in continual warfare in the field for two years, without holiday or accommodation, he was showing considerable signs of strain, and was joined in South Africa by his wife. She arrived in May 1902, after Allenby’s column was engaged in combat in the Transvaal and north of the Orange River Colony. On 31 May 1902, the Peace of Vereenigingwas declared, formally ending the war. Allenby had showed himself to be gallant, dedicated, hard-working and resourceful in command who earned the plaudits of both Roberts and Kitchener. Along with other notable column commanders, Haig, Herbert Plumerand Julian Byng, Allenby was marked for future promotion, ending the war as a Colonel.
He returned to Britain in 1902, being placed in command of the
5th Royal Irish Lancersand was stationed in Englanduntil 1905. Promoted to Brigadier-General, Allenby moved to Colchesterto assume command of the 4th Cavalry Brigade. In 1909, aged 48, he was promoted again to the rank of Major-General– due to his extensive cavalry experience, was appointed Inspector-Generalof Cavalry in 1910, with headquarters at Horse Guards, London. Allenby became Inspector-General at a difficult time – the Boer War and Russo-Japanese Warhad assisted the growth of two differing outlooks regarding the role of cavalry in modern war. Whilst one side favoured shock action and had faith in the effectiveness of the sword and lance, the opposite contended that the cavalry’s future lay in serving as mounted infantry. Allenby chose to steer a middle path, in which the importance of firepower was emphasised through the introduction of the machine gun and the training of cavalrymen in infantry tactics, whilst the alternative of relying on shock action where necessary was kept open. Having studied the geography of Northern France, and attended the manoeuvres of the French cavalry, Allenby highlighted the importance of the cavalry in retreat, recognising its ability to provide cover for the withdrawing infantry. With mounting responsibilities, the amiable element in Allenby’s character publicly waned, ensuring that he was disliked by many subordinate officers and the cavalry’s rank and file. His inspections were brisk and his manner abrupt. Furthermore, Allenby’s pedantry for presentation was keenly felt by those cavalrymen under inspection. These somewhat repellent traits and Allenby’s physical stature led others to refer to him as "The Bull".
World War I
World War Ihe initially served on the Western Front. At the outbreak of war a BEF was sent to France, consisting of four infantry divisions and one cavalrydivision, the latter commanded by Allenby, who distinguished himself when his unit covered the retreat after the Battle of Mons. As the BEF was expanded in size to two Armies, he was rewarded by being made commander of the Cavalry Corps. In 1915 he commanded V Corps during the Second Battle of Ypresand in October he took charge of the British Third Army. However at the Battle of Arras in the spring of 1917, his forces failed to exploit a breakthrough and he was replaced by Julian Byngon June 9. A significant reason for his removal from command and transfer was his continuing feud with Field Marshal Haig over tactical matters. Shortly after his arrival in Egypt, he learned that his son, Michael, had been killed on the Western Front by German artillery.
Egypt and Palestine
Allenby was sent to
Egyptto be made commander-in-chiefof the Egyptian Expeditionary Force(EEF) on June 27 1917, replacing Sir Archibald Murray. Allenby quickly won the respect of his men by making frequent visits to front line troops (something which Murray, who generally ran his campaigns by remote control from Cairo, rarely did during his tenure with the EEF) and moving GHQ from comfortable Cairo to Rafah, much nearer the front lines at Gaza. His usual installation of discipline and organization, organizing the heretofore disparate forces of the EEF into three corps - the XX and XXI Corps, both of infantry, and the Desert Mounted Corps, made up of mostly Australian Light Horse(mounted infantry). One of Allenby's first moves was to support the efforts of T. E. Lawrenceamongst the Arabs with £200,000 a month. Many of Allenby's men said after the war that they were willing to tolerate his strictness and rigidity because he gave the impression that he was in control of the situation, a feeling which Murray never inspired in his soldiers.
Having reorganised his regular forces Allenby won the
Third Battle of Gaza( October 31- November 7, 1917) by surprising the defenders with an attack at Beersheba. His force pushed on towards Jerusalem, the Ottomanswere beaten at Junction Station (November 13-15) and Jerusalem was captured on December 9 1917.
Honouring Jerusalem on foot
Although he was a supreme master of cavalry horse
warfare, before entering Jerusalem, Allenby dismounted and together with his officers, entered the city on foot through the Jaffa Gateout of his great respect for the status of Jerusalem as the Holy City important to Judaism, Christianity, and Islam(see his proclamation of martial lawbelow). He subsequently stated in his official report:
*"...I entered the city officially at noon, December 11th, with a few of my staff, the commanders of the French and Italian detachments, the heads of the political missions, and the Military Attaches of France,
Italy, and America.
*The procession was all afoot, and at Jaffa gate I was received by the guards representing
England, Scotland, Ireland, Wales, Australia, New Zealand, India, France, and Italy. The population received me well..." ("Source Records of the Great War", Vol. V, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923)
Middle East victory
The German offensive on the Western Front meant that Allenby was without reinforcements and after his forces failed to capture
Ammanin March and April 1918 he halted the offensive. New troops from the Empire (specifically Australia, New Zealand, India and South Africa) led to the resumption of operations in August 1918. Following an extended series of deceptive moves the Ottoman line was broken at the Battle of Megiddo (September 19-21, 1918) and the Allied cavalry passed through and blocked the Turkish retreat. The EEF then advanced at an enormous rate, (as high as 60 miles in 55 hours for cavalry, and infantry slogging 20 miles a day) encountering minimal resistance, Damascusfell on October 1, Homson October 16, and Aleppoon October 25. Turkeycapitulated on October 30 1918.
Tel-Avivand Haifahave a main street named for General Allenby, and one of the main bridges over the Jordan River, between the kingdom of Jordanand Israel is the Allenby Bridge. In Jerusalem, one of the main British Army camps throughout the mandatory period was known as "Allenby Camp", and though no longer used by the IDF, the location is still known by this name; it has some political significance as being the site earmarked for erecting a US Embassybuilding in Jerusalem, if and when political and diplomatic conditions make moving the embassy from its present Tel-Aviv location possible. Altogether, present-day Israelis and Palestinians, even if not always knowing all the details of Allenby's biography, are very familiar with his name.
Tel-Aviv, in 1917 a fledgling town founded just a few years before, suffered greatly from the Ottoman authorities suspecting its inhabitants of pro-British tendencies (not entirely without reason) and evicting them en masse prior to the arrival of Allenby's troops. Some were forced to trudge as far as
Damascus. Following the British victory they were able to return to their town and regarded General Allenby as literally their saviour, naming for him what was Tel-Aviv's main street and the focus of economic and political life until the late 1940s. In the 1950s the city center moved northwards, but Allenby Streetis still the center of downtown Tel-Aviv - though only few of the younger Tel-Avivians know for whom it was named.
Allenby was made a
Field Marshalin 1919 and on 7 Octoberof that year was created Viscount Allenby, of Megiddo and of Felixstowein the County of Suffolk. He remained in the Middle Eastas High Commissionerfor Egyptand the Sudanuntil 1925 and he was instrumental in the creation of sovereign Egypt.
7 May 1927he was invited to lay the foundation stone of St Andrew's Church, Jerusalem- a Church of Scotlandbuilding constructed in memory of the Scottish soldiers who fought and died under his command in the region during World War I.
He retired in 1925 and died very suddenly, through a burst blood-vessel in the brain, on May 14, 1936 in
London. His ashes were buried in Westminster Abbey. [ [ http://thepeerage.com/e104.htm thePeerage.com: Edmund Allenby, 1st Viscount Allenby] ]
In popular culture
Publicity surrounding Allenby's exploits in the
Middle Eastwas at its highest in Britain in the immediate aftermath of the First World War. Lowell Thomas, the enterprising American journalist who helped make T. E. Lawrencea household name throughout the world in the '20s, wrote of Allenby in a very complimentary manner in his book "With Lawrence of Arabia" and promoted him along with Lawrence in his documentary film "With Allenby in Palestine and Lawrence in Arabia", covering the Middle Eastern campaign (Thomas had interviewed Allenby several times during the course of the war, and it was in fact Allenby who suggested Thomas use Lawrence as a subject).
In the film "Lawrence of Arabia" (1962), which depicts the Arab Revolt during World War I, Allenby is given a major part and is portrayed by
Jack Hawkinsin one of his best-known roles. The portrayal of him is, however, rather negative (largely due to the screenwriter's anti-war sentiments). He is depicted as being an officer interested only in manipulating Lawrence for practical military reasons, which was admittedly true to some extent, though in real life Lawrence and Allenby thought very highly of each other and remained in correspondence for years after the war. Lowell Thomas in particular was critical of the film's portrayal of Allenby, saying that Hawkins lacked the "presence" and strength of Allenby. Allenby's descendents were so upset over his portrayal that they issued a formal complaint against Columbia Picturesfor the depiction of their ancestors.
Contemporaneous to the film, Allenby was a supporting character fulfilling a very similar role in
Terrence Rattigan's controversial play "Ross" (1960), where Allenby was portrayed by John Williams in the original run.
Allenby was also played by Australian
actor Anthony Hawkinsin "The Lighthorsemen" (1987), and John Vine in "The Adventures of Young Indiana Jones: Daredevils in the Desert" (1992).
Sir Edmund Allenby's official proclamation of
martial lawfollowing the fall of Jerusalem, December 9 1917:
*"To the Inhabitants of
Jerusalemthe Blessed and the People Dwelling in Its Vicinity:"
*"The defeat inflicted upon the Turks by the troops under my command has resulted in the occupation of your city by my forces. I, therefore, here now proclaim it to be under
martial law, under which form of administration it will remain so long as military considerations make necessary."
*"However, lest any of you be alarmed by reason of your experience at the hands of the enemy who has retired, I hereby inform you that it is my desire that every person pursue his lawful business without fear of interruption."
*"Furthermore, since your city is regarded with affection by the adherents of three of the great religions of mankind and its soil has been consecrated by the prayers and pilgrimages of multitudes of devout people of these three religions for many centuries, therefore, do I make it known to you that every sacred building, monument, holy spot, shrine, traditional site, endowment, pious bequest, or customary place of prayer of whatsoever form of the three religions will be maintained and protected according to the existing customs and beliefs of those to whose faith they are sacred."
*"Guardians have been established at
Bethlehemand on Rachel's Tomb. The tomb at Hebronhas been placed under exclusive Moslemcontrol."
*"The hereditary custodians at the gates of the
Holy Sepulchrehave been requested to take up their accustomed duties in remembrance of the magnanimous act of the Caliph Omar, who protected that church."
(Source: "Source Records of the Great War", Vol. V, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923)
Allenby, British Columbia, Canada, a copper-mining ghost townin the Similkameen District near the town of Princeton, was named for Allenby; Allenby Lake nearby was named for the town. [ [http://wlapwww.gov.bc.ca/bcgn-bin/bcg10?name=1034 BCGNIS listing "Allenby (locality)"] ]
There is a road in Aldeshot Hampshire England named after Allenby. Allenby Road
*First World War
Battle of Jerusalem (1917)
Second Boer War
British Mandate of Palestine
Allenby StreetTel Aviv, Israel
Army Manoeuvres of 1912
* "How Jerusalem Was Won. Being the Record of Allenby’s Campaign in Palestine" (London: Constable, 1919)
* "Allenby’s Final Triumph" by W. T. Massey (London: Constable, 1920)
* "Allenby of Armageddon. A Record of the Career and Campaigns of Field-Marshal Viscount Allenby" by Raymond Savage (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1925)
* "Allenby: A Study in Greatness" by A. P. Wavell (London: Harrap, 1940)
* "Allenby in Egypt" by A. P. Wavell (London: Harrap, 1943)
* "Allenby" by Brian Gardner (London: Cassell, 1965)
* "Imperial Warrior. The Life and Times of Field Marshal Viscount Allenby 1861–1936" by Lawrence James (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1993)
* [http://www.pbs.org/lawrenceofarabia/players/allenby.html General Allenby] , PBS feature on Lawrence of Arabia
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