The Essenes (in Modern but not in Ancient Hebrew: אִסִּיִים, Isiyim; Greek: Εσσήνοι, Εσσαίοι, or Οσσαίοι; Essēnoi, Essaioi, Ossaioi) were a Jewish sect that flourished from the 2nd century BCE to the 1st century CE which some scholars claim seceded from the Zadokite priests.[1] Being much fewer in number than the Pharisees and the Sadducees (the other two major sects at the time), the Essenes lived in various cities but congregated in communal life dedicated to asceticism, voluntary poverty, daily immersion, and abstinence from worldly pleasures, including (for some groups) marriage. Many separate but related religious groups of that era shared similar mystic, eschatological, messianic, and ascetic beliefs. These groups are collectively referred to by various scholars as the "Essenes." Josephus records that Essenes existed in large numbers, and thousands lived throughout Roman Judæa.

The Essenes have gained fame in modern times as a result of the discovery of an extensive group of religious documents known as the Dead Sea Scrolls, which are commonly believed to be Essenes' library—although there is no proof that the Essenes wrote them. These documents include preserved multiple copies of the Hebrew Bible untouched from as early as 300 BCE until their discovery in 1946. Some scholars, however, dispute the notion that the Essenes wrote the Dead Sea Scrolls.[2] Rachel Elior, a prominent Israeli scholar, even questions the existence of the Essenes.[3][4][5]


Contemporary ancient sources

The first reference is by the Roman writer Pliny the Elder (died c. 79 A.D.) in his Natural History (N'H,V,XV). Pliny relates in a few lines that the Essenes do not marry, possess no money, and had existed for thousands of generations. Unlike Philo, who did not mention any particular geographical location of the Essenes other than the whole land of Israel, Pliny places them in Ein Gedi, next to the Dead Sea.

A little later Josephus gave a detailed account of the Essenes in The Jewish War (c. 75 A.D.), with a shorter description in Antiquities of the Jews (c. 94 A.D.) and The Life of Flavius Josephus (c. 97 A.D.). Claiming first hand knowledge, he lists the Essenoi as one of the three sects of Jewish philosophy[6] alongside the Pharisees and the Sadducees. He relates the same information concerning piety, celibacy, the absence of personal property and of money, the belief in communality and commitment to a strict observance of the Sabbath. He further adds that the Essenes ritually immersed in water every morning, ate together after prayer, devoted themselves to charity and benevolence, forbade the expression of anger, studied the books of the elders, preserved secrets, and were very mindful of the names of the angels kept in their sacred writings.

Pliny, also a geographer and explorer, located them in the desert near the northwestern shore of the Dead Sea, where the Dead Sea Scrolls were discovered in the year 1947 by Muhammed edh-Dhib and Ahmed Mohammed, two Bedouin shepherds of the Ta'amireh tribe.[7]


Josephus uses the name Essenes in his two main accounts[8][9] as well as in some other contexts ("an account of the Essenes";[10] "the gate of the Essenes";[11] "Judas of the Essene race";[12] but some manuscripts read here Essaion; "holding the Essenes in honour";[13] "a certain Essene named Manaemus";[14] "to hold all Essenes in honour";[15] "the Essenes").[16][17][18] In several places, however, Josephus has Essaios, which is usually assumed to mean Essene ("Judas of the Essaios race";[19] "Simon of the Essaios race";[20] "John the Essaios";[21] "those who are called by us Essaioi";[22] "Simon a man of the Essaios race").[23] Philo's usage is Essaioi, although he admits this Greek form of the original name that according to his etymology signifies "holiness" to be inexact.[24] Pliny's Latin text has Esseni.[25] Josephus identified the Essenes as one of the three major Jewish sects of that period.[26]

Gabriele Boccaccini implies that a convincing etymology for the name Essene has not been found, but that the term applies to a larger group within Palestine that also included the Qumran community.[27]

It was proposed before the Dead Sea Scrolls were discovered that the name came into several Greek spellings from a Hebrew self-designation later found in some Dead Sea Scrolls, 'osey hatorah, "observers of torah."[28] Though dozens of etymology suggestions have been published, this is the only etymology published before 1947 that was confirmed by Qumran text self-designation references, and it is gaining acceptance among scholars.[29] It is recognized as the etymology of the form Ossaioi (and note that Philo also offered an O spelling) and Essaioi and Esseni spelling variations have been discussed by VanderKam, Goranson and others. In medieval Hebrew (e.g. Sefer Yosippon) Hassidim ("the pious ones") replaces "Essenes". While this Hebrew name is not the etymology of Essaioi/Esseni, the Aramaic equivalent Hesi'im known from Eastern Aramaic texts has been suggested.[30] Others suggest that Essene is a transliteration of the Hebrew word Chitzonim (chitzon=outside), which the Mishna (e.g. Megila 4:8) uses to describe various sectarian groups.


Remains of part of the main building at Qumran.

According to Josephus, the Essenes had settled "not in one city" but "in large numbers in every town".[31] Philo speaks of "more than four thousand" Essaioi living in "Palestine and Syria",[32] more precisely, "in many cities of Judaea and in many villages and grouped in great societies of many members".[33]

Pliny locates them "on the west side of the Dead Sea, away from the coast… [above] the town of Engeda".[25]

Some modern scholars and archaeologists have argued that Essenes inhabited the settlement at Qumran, a plateau in the Judean Desert along the Dead Sea, citing Pliny the Elder in support, and giving credence that the Dead Sea Scrolls are the product of the Essenes. This view, though not yet conclusively proven, has come to dominate the scholarly discussion and public perception of the Essenes.[34]

Josephus' reference to a "gate of the Essenes" in his description of the course of "the most ancient" of the three walls of Jerusalem,[11] in the Mount Zion area,[35] perhaps suggests an Essene community living in this quarter of the city or regularly gathering at this part of the Temple precincts.

Rules, customs, theology and beliefs

The accounts by Josephus and Philo show that the Essenes led a strictly communal life – often compared by scholars to later Christian monastic living. Many of the Essene groups appear to have been celibate, but Josephus speaks also of another "order of Essenes" that observed the practice of being engaged for three years and then becoming married.[36] According to Josephus, they had customs and observances such as: collective ownership,[37][38] electing a leader to attend to the interests of the group, obedience to the orders from their leader.[39] Also, they were forbidden from swearing oaths[40] and from sacrificing animals.[41] They controlled their tempers and served as channels of peace,[40] carrying weapons only for protection against robbers.[42] The Essenes chose not to possess slaves, but served each other[43] and, as a result of communal ownership, did not engage in trading.[44] Both Josephus and Philo provide lengthy accounts of their communal meetings, meals and religious celebrations.

After a total of three years' probation,[45] newly joining members would take an oath that included the commitment to practice piety towards "the Deity" (το θειον) and righteousness towards humanity, to maintain a pure lifestyle, to abstain from criminal and immoral activities, to transmit their rules uncorrupted and to preserve the books of the Essenes and the names of the Angels.[46] Their theology included belief in the immortality of the soul and that they would receive their souls back after death.[17][47] Part of their activities included purification by water rituals, which was supported by rainwater catchment and storage.

Note that ritual purification was a common practice among peoples of the Palestine in this period and was thus not specific to the Essenes. Ritual baths are found near many Synagogues of the period.[48]

The Church Father Epiphanius (writing in the 4th century CE) seems to make a distinction between two main groups within the Essenes:[30] "Of those that came before his [Elxai, an Ossaean prophet] time and during it, the Ossaeans and the Nazarean.".[49] Epiphanius describes each group as following:

The Nazarean – they were Jews by nationality – originally from Gileaditis, Bashanitis and the Transjordan… They acknowledged Moses and believed that he had received laws – not this law, however, but some other. And so, they were Jews who kept all the Jewish observances, but they would not offer sacrifice or eat meat. They considered it unlawful to eat meat or make sacrifices with it. They claim that these Books are fictions, and that none of these customs were instituted by the fathers. This was the difference between the Nazarean and the others…[50]
After this Nazarean sect in turn comes another closely connected with them, called the Ossaeans. These are Jews like the former… originally came from Nabataea, Ituraea, Moabitis and Arielis, the lands beyond the basin of what sacred scripture called the Salt Sea… Though it is different from the other six of these seven sects, it causes schism only by forbidding the books of Moses like the Nazarean.[49]

If it is correct to identify the community at Qumran with the Essenes (and that the community at Qumran are the authors of the Dead Sea Scrolls), then according to the Dead Sea Scrolls the Essenes' community school was called "Yahad" (meaning "community") in order to differentiate themselves from the rest of the Jews who are repeatedly labeled "The Breakers of the Covenant".

Scholarly discussion

The Essenes are discussed in detail by Josephus and Philo.

Most scholars believe that the community at Qumran that allegedly produced the Dead Sea Scrolls was an offshoot of the Essenes; however, this theory has been disputed by some, for example, by Norman Golb:

Golb argues that the primary research on the Qumran documents and ruins (by Father Roland de Vaux, from the École Biblique et Archéologique de Jérusalem) lacked scientific method, and drew wrong conclusions that comfortably entered the academic canon. For Golb, the amount of documents is too extensive and includes many different writing styles and calligraphies; the ruins seem to have been a fortress, used as a military base for a very long period of time – including the 1st century  – so they could not have been inhabited by the Essenes; and the large graveyard excavated in 1870, just 50 metres east of the Qumran ruins was made of over 1200 tombs that included many women and children – Pliny clearly wrote that the Essenes that lived near the Dead Sea "had not one woman, had renounced all pleasure ... and no one was born in their race". Golb's book presents observations about de Vaux's premature conclusions and their uncontroverted acceptance by the general academic community. He states that the documents probably stemmed from various libraries in Jerusalem, kept safe in the desert from the Roman invasions.[51]

Other scholars refute these arguments—particularly since Josephus describes some Essenes as allowing marriage.[52]

Another issue is the relationship between the Essaioi and Philo's Therapeutae and Therapeutrides. It may be argued[by whom?] that he regarded the Therapeutae as a contemplative branch of the Essaioi who, he said, pursued an active life.[53]

One theory on the formation of the Essenes suggested the movement was founded by a Jewish high priest, dubbed by the Essenes the Teacher of Righteousness, whose office had been usurped by Jonathan (of priestly but not Zadokite lineage), labeled the "man of lies" or "false priest".[4][5] Others follow this line and a few argue that the Teacher of Righteousness was not only the leader of the Essenes at Qumran, but was also identical to the original Jesus about 150 years before the time of the Gospels.[34]

The Syrian Malabar Nasrani of southwestern India may have connections with the Essenes, according to the Manimekalai, one of the great Tamil epic poems, which refers to a people called "Issani." The high presence of Cohen DNA amongst today's Nazareans make further support to the full or part Essene origin of the Malabar Nazareans. The Essenes were often of Levite or Cohen heritage and this may further explain the frequent 'priestly heritage' claims of several Nazerean families of India.

Connections with Kabbalah

According to a Jewish legend, one of the Essenes, named Menachem, had passed at least some of his mystical knowledge to the Talmudic mystic Nehunya ben ha-Kanah,[54] to whom the Kabbalistic tradition attributes Sefer ha-Bahir and, by some opinions, Sefer ha-Kanah, Sefer ha-Peliah and Sefer ha-Temunah. Some Essene rituals, such as daily immersion in the Mikvah, coincide with contemporary Hasidic practices; some historians had also suggested, that name "Essene" is a Hellenized form of the word "Hasidim" or "Hasid" ("pious ones"). However, the legendary connections between Essene and Kabbalistic tradition are not verified by modern historians.

See also


  1. ^ F.F. Bruce, Second Thoughts On The Dead Sea Scrolls. Paternoster Press, 1956.
  2. ^ Hillel Newman, Ph.D Bar Ilan University : Proximity to Power and Jewish Sectarian Groups of the Ancient Period Brill ISBN 9004146997.
  3. ^ Ilani, Ofri (13 March 2009). "Scholar: The Essenes, Dead Sea Scroll 'authors,' never existed". Haaretz. Retrieved 17 March 2009. 
  4. ^ a b McGirk, Tim (16 March 2009). "Scholar Claims Dead Sea Scrolls 'Authors' Never Existed". Time.,8599,1885421,00.html. Retrieved 17 March 2009. 
  5. ^ a b "Rachel Elior Responds to Her Critics". Jim West. 15 March 2009. Retrieved 17 March 2009. [unreliable source?]
  6. ^ Josephus (c. 75). The Wars of the Jews. 2.119.
  7. ^ Barthélemy, D.; J. T. Milik, Roland de Vaux, G. M. Crowfoot, Harold Plenderleith, George L. Harding (1997) [1955]. "Introductory: The Discovery". Qumran Cave 1. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 5. ISBN 0-19-826301-5. Retrieved 31 March 2009. 
  8. ^ Josephus (c. 75). The Wars of the Jews. 2.119, 158, 160.
  9. ^ Josephus (c. 94). Antiquities of the Jews. 13.171-2.
  10. ^ Josephus (c. 94). Antiquities of the Jews. 13.298.
  11. ^ a b Josephus (c. 75). The Wars of the Jews. 5.145.
  12. ^ Josephus (c. 94). Antiquities of the Jews. 13.311.
  13. ^ Josephus (c. 94). Antiquities of the Jews. 15.372.
  14. ^ Josephus (c. 94). Antiquities of the Jews. 15.373.
  15. ^ Josephus (c. 94). Antiquities of the Jews. 15.378.
  16. ^ Josephus (c. 94). Antiquities of the Jews. 18.11.
  17. ^ a b Josephus (c. 94). Antiquities of the Jews. 18.18.
  18. ^ Josephus (c. 97). The Life of Flavius Josephus. 10.
  19. ^ Josephus (c. 75). The Wars of the Jews. I.78.
  20. ^ Josephus (c. 75). The Wars of the Jews. 2.113.
  21. ^ Josephus (c. 75). The Wars of the Jews. 2.567; 3.11.
  22. ^ Josephus (c. 94). Antiquities of the Jews. 15.371.
  23. ^ Josephus (c. 94). Antiquities of the Jews. 17.346.
  24. ^ Philo (c. 20–54). Quod Omnis Probus Liber. XII.75-87.
  25. ^ a b Pliny the Elder (c. 77). Natural History. 5.73.
  26. ^ And when I was about sixteen years old, I had a mind to make trim of the several sects that were among us. These sects are three: - The first is that of the Pharisees, the second that Sadducees, and the third that of the Essenes, as we have frequently told you - The Life of Josephus Flavius, 2.
  27. ^ Boccaccini, Gabriele (1998). Beyond the Essene hypothesis: the parting of the ways between Qumran and Enochic Judaism. Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 47. ISBN 0-8028-4360-3. OCLC 37837643. 
  28. ^ Goranson, Stephen (1999). "Others and Intra-Jewish Polemic as Reflected in Qumran Texts". In Peter W. Flint and James C. VanderKam. The Dead Sea Scrolls after Fifty Years: A Comprehensive Assessment. 2. Leiden: Brill Publishers. pp. 534–551. ISBN 90-04-11061-5. OCLC 230716707. 
  29. ^ For example, James C. VanderKam, "Identity and History of the Community." In The Dead Sea Scrolls after Fifty Years: A Comprehensive Assessment, ed. Peter W. Flint and James C. VanderKam, 2:487–533. Leiden: Brill, 1999. The earlies known proposer of this etymology was P. Melanchthon, in Johann Carion, Chronica, 1532, folio 68 verso. Among the other proposers before 1947, e.g., 1839 Isaak Jost, "Die Essaer," Israelitische Annalen 19, 145–7.
  30. ^ a b Lightfoot, Joseph Barber (1875). "On Some Points Connected with the Essenes". St. Paul's epistles to the Colossians and to Philemon: a revised text with introductions, notes, and dissertations. London: Macmillan Publishers. OCLC 6150927. Retrieved 17 March 2009. 
  31. ^ Josephus (c. 75). The Wars of the Jews. 2.124.
  32. ^ Philo (c. 20–54). Quod Omnis Probus Liber. XII.75.
  33. ^ Philo. Hypothetica. 11.1. in Eusebius. Praeparatio Evangelica. VIII.
  34. ^ a b Ellegård, Alvar; Jesus – One Hundred Years Before Christ: A Study In Creative Mythology, (London 1999).
  35. ^ cf. map of ancient Jerusalem.
  36. ^ Josephus (c. 75). The Wars of the Jews. book II, chap.8, para.13.
  37. ^ Josephus (c. 75). The Wars of the Jews. 2.122.
  38. ^ Josephus (c. 94). Antiquities of the Jews. 18.20.
  39. ^ Josephus (c. 75). The Wars of the Jews. 2.123, 134.
  40. ^ a b Josephus (c. 75). The Wars of the Jews. 2.135.
  41. ^ Philo, §75[verification needed]
  42. ^ Josephus (c. 75). The Wars of the Jews. 2.125.
  43. ^ Josephus (c. 94). Antiquities of the Jews. 18.21.
  44. ^ Josephus (c. 75). The Wars of the Jews. 2.127.
  45. ^ Josephus (c. 75). The Wars of the Jews. 2.137–138. Josephus' mention of the three year duration of the Essene probation may be compared with the phased character of the entrance procedure in the Qumran Rule of the Community [1QS; at least two years plus an indeterminate initial catechetical phase, 1QS VI]. The provisional surrender of property required at the beginning of the last year of the novitiate derives from actual social experience of the difficulties of sharing property in a fully communitarian setting, cf. Brian J. Capper, 'The Interpretation of Acts 5.4', Journal for the Study of the New Testament 19 (1983) pp. 117-131; idem, '"In der Hand des Ananias." Erwägungen zu 1QS VI,20 und der urchristlichen Gütergemeinschaft', Revue de Qumran 12(1986) 223-236; Eyal Regev, “Comparing Sectarian Practice and Organization: The Qumran Sect in Light of the Regulations of the Shakers, Hutterites, Mennonites and Amish”, Numen 51 (2004), pp. 146-181.
  46. ^ Josephus (c. 75). The Wars of the Jews. 2.139–142.
  47. ^ Josephus (c. 75). The Wars of the Jews. 2.153–158.
  48. ^ Kittle, Gerhardt. Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, Volume 7. pp. 814, note 99. 
  49. ^ a b Epiphanius of Salamis (c. 378). Panarion. 1:19.
  50. ^ Epiphanius of Salamis (c. 378). Panarion. 1:18.
  51. ^ Golb, Norman (1996). Who wrote the Dead Sea Scrolls?: the search for the secret of Qumran. New York City: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-80692-4. OCLC 35047608. [page needed]
  52. ^ Josephus, Flavius. Jewish War, Book II. Chapter 8, Paragraph 13. 
  53. ^ Philo. De Vita Contemplativa. I.1.
  54. ^ Kaplan, Aryeh (1997) [1990]. Sefer Yetzirah: The book of Creation (2nd ed.). York Beach, Maine: Red Wheel Weiser Conari. xvii. ISBN 0-87728-855-0. OCLC 36017140. 

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External links

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