- Shalmaneser III
Shalmaneser III ("Šulmānu-ašarēdu", "the god
Shulmanuis pre-eminent") was king of Assyria(859 BC-824 BC), and son of the previous ruler, Ashurnasirpal II[http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/txt/ah/Assyria/Inscra01.html] .
His long reign was a constant series of campaigns against the eastern tribes, the
Babylonians, the nations of Mesopotamiaand Syria, as well as Kizzuwadnaand Urartu. His armies penetrated to Lake Vanand the Taurus Mountains; the Hittitesof Carchemishwere compelled to pay tribute, and the kingdoms of Hamathand Aram Damascuswere subdued.
In 853 BC a coalition which was formed by the kingdoms of
Egypt, Hamath, Arvad, the Ammonites, " Ahabof Israel" and other neighboring states, under the leadership of king Hadadezerof Damascus, inflicted a temporary defeat upon the Assyrian king at Battle of Qarqar. However, the Assyrian king persevered in his attempts to subjugate Israel and SyriaFact|date=June 2007. Other battles soon followed in 849 BC and 846 BC.
In 842 BC, Shalmaneser campaigned against Hadadezer's successor
Hazael, forcing him to take refuge within the walls of his capital. While Shalmaneser was unable to capture Damascus, he devastated its territory, and Jehuof Israel (whose ambassadors are represented on the Black Obelisknow in the British Museum), together with the Phoenician cities, prudently sent tribute to him in 841 BC. Babylonia had already been conquered as far as the marshes of the Chaldaeans in the south, and the Babylonian king put to death.
In 836 BC, Shalmaneser sent an expedition against the Tibareni (
Tabal) which was followed by one against Cappadocia, and in 832 BC came another campaign against Urartu. In the following year, age required the king to hand over the command of his armies to the Tartan ("turtānu" commander-in-chief) Dayyan-Assur, and six years later, Ninevehand other cities revolted against him under his rebel son Assur-danin-pal. Civil warcontinued for two years; but the rebellion was at last crushed by Shamshi-Adad V, another son of Shalmaneser. Shalmaneser died soon afterwards. He had built a palace at Calah, and left several editions of the royal annalsrecording his military campaigns, the last of which is engraved on the Black Obeliskfrom Calah.
1911 Encyclopedia Britannica
* [http://library.case.edu/ksl/ecoll/books/kinbro00/kinbro00.html Gates of Shalmanser III and Assunasirpal. Bronze Reliefs from the Gates of Shalmaneser King of Assyria ]
* [http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/10887 Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III "Babylonian and Assyrian Literature".]
* [http://www.kchanson.com/ANCDOCS/meso/meso.html Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III]
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