- Amenhotep III
Pharaoh Infobox | Name=Amenhotep III |
Caption=Quartzite statue of Amenhotep III
Amun is Satisfied, Ruler of Thebes [ [http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/chronology/amenhotepiii.html] Amenhotep III]
The Lord of Truth is Re [Clayton, Peter. Chronicle of the Pharaohs, Thames & Hudson Ltd., 1994. p.112] | HorusHiero=
Great of valour, smiting the Asiatics
One establishing laws, pacifying the two lands
The strong bull, appearing in truth
Tiye, Gilukhepa, Tadukhepa
Akhenaten, Prince Thutmose, Sitamun, Iset, Henuttaneb, Nebetah, Smenkhkare(?), Beketaten
Died=1353 BC or 1351 BC
Malkata, Mortuary Temple of Amenhotep III, Colossi of Memnon
William L. Moran, The Amarna Letters, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, (1992), EA 3, p.7] , Mimureya, Amenophis III
Amenhotep III (sometimes read as Amenophis III) meaning "
Amunis Satisfied" was the ninth pharaohof the Eighteenth dynasty. According to different authors, he ruled Egyptfrom June 1391 BC-December 1353 BC or June 1388 BC to December 1351 BC/1350 BC [Beckerath, Jürgen von, Chronologie des Pharaonischen Ägypten. Philipp von Zabern, Mainz, (1997) p.190] after his father Thutmose IVdied. Amenhotep III was the son of Thutmose IVby Mutemwia, a minor wife of Amenhotep's father. [O'Connor, David & Cline, Eric. Amenhotep III: Perspectives on His Reign, University of Michigan Press, 1998, p.3]
Amenhotep III fathered two sons with his
Great Royal Wife Tiye, a great queen known as the progenetor of monotheism ["In Praise of Black Women: Ancient African Queens. Vol 1 Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2001] via the Crown Prince Tuthmosewho predeceased his father, and his second son, Akhenaten, who ultimately succeeded him to the throne. Amenhotep also may be the father of a third child—called Smenkhkare, who later would succeed Akhenaten, briefly rule Egypt as pharaoh, and who is depicted as a woman. [ [http://history.memphis.edu/murnane/Allen%20-%20Amarna%20Succession.pdf The Amarna Succession] by James P. Allen, pp.16-17]
Amenhotep III and Tiye may also have had four daughters:
Sitamun, Henuttaneb, Isis or Iset, and Nebetah. [O'Connor, David & Cline, Eric., op. cit,p.7] They appear frequently on statues and reliefs during the reign of their father and also are represented by smaller objects—with the exception of Nebetah. [Kozloff, Arielle. & Bryan, Betsy. Royal and Divine Statuary in Egypt’s Dazzling Sun: Amenhotep III and his World, (Cleveland, 1992), nos. 24, 57, 103 & 104] Nebetah is attested only once in the known historical records on a colossal limestone group of statues from Medinet Habu. [Kozloff & Bryan, op. cit., fig. II, 5] This huge sculpture, that is seven meters high, shows Amenhotep III and Tiye seated side by side, "with three of their daughters standing in front of the throne--Henuttaneb, the largest and best preserved, in the centre; Nebetah on the right; and another, whose name is destroyed, on the left." [O'Connor, David & Cline, Eric., op. cit,p.7] Amenhotep III elevated two of his four daughters--Sitamun and Isis--to the office of "great royal wife" during the last decade of his reign. Evidence that Sitamun already was promoted to this office by Year 30 of his reign, is known from jar-label inscriptions uncovered from the royal palace at Malkata. [O'Connor, David & Cline, Eric., op. cit., p.7] The lineage of the royal line of Egypt was traced through its women and the religion of Ancient Egypt was interwoven inexorably with the right to rule. It must be stressed that Egypt's theological paradigm, therefore, encouraged a male pharaoh to accept royal women from several different generations as wives to strengthen the chances of his offspring to succeed him. [Troy, Lana. Patterns of Queenship in Ancient Egyptian Myth and History. University of Uppsala, Uppsala Studies in Ancient Mediterranean and Near Eastern Civilizations 14, (1986), 103, 107, 111] The goddess Hathorherself was related as first the mother, and later wife and daughter of Rawhen he rose to prominence in the pantheon of the Ancient Egyptian religion. [O'Connor, David & Cline, Eric., op. cit., p.7] Hence, Amenhotep III's marriage to his two daughters should not be considered as incest in our contemporary conception of marriage. Sitamun may have actually been the youngest daughter of Amenhotep III's father Thutmose IV, making her the half-sister of Amenhotep III and not his daughter.
Amenhotep III is known to have married
Gilukhepa, the first of a series of diplomatic brides and the daughter of Shuttarna IIof Mitanni, in the tenth year of his reign. [Dodson, Aidan & Hilton, Dyan The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, Thames & Hudson (2004), p.155] Around Year 36 of his reign, he also married Tadukhepa, the daughter of his ally Tushrattaof Mitanni.
Amenhotep III enjoyed the distinction of having the most surviving statues of any Egyptian pharaoh, with over 250 of his statues having been discovered and identified. Since these statues cover his entire life, they provide a series of portraits covering the entire length of any ancient Egyptian ruler.
Another striking characteristic of Amenhotep III's reign is the series of over 200 large commemorative stone scarabs that have been discovered over a large geographic area ranging from Syria (
Ras Shamra) through to Solebin Nubia. [O'Connor, David & Cline, Eric., op. cit., pp.11-12] Their lengthy inscribed texts extol the accomplishments of the pharaoh. For instance, 123 of these commemorative scarabs record the large number of lions (either 102 or 110 depending on the reading) that Amenhotep III killed "with his own arrows" from his first regnal year up to his tenth year. [O'Connor, David & Cline, Eric., op. cit, p.13] Similarly, five other scarabs state that the foreign princess who would become a wife to him, Gilukhepa, arrived in Egypt with a retinue of 317 women. She was the first of many such princesses who would enter the pharaoh's household. [O'Connor, David & Cline, Eric., op. cit., p.13]
Another eleven scarabs record the excavation of an artificial lake he had built for his royal wife, Queen Tiye, in his eleventh regnal year, : Regnal Year 11 under the Majesty of...Amenhotep (III), ruler of Thebes, given life, and the great royal wife Tiyi; may she live; her father's name was Yuya, her mother's name Tuya. His Majesty commanded the making of a lake for the great royal wife Tiyi--may she live--in her town of Djakaru. (near
Akhmin). Its length is 3,700 (cubits) and its width is 700 (cubits). (His Majesty) celebrated the Festival of Opening the Lake in the third month of Inundation, day sixteen. His Majesty was rowed in the royal barge "Aten-tjehen" in it [the lake] . [Kozloff & Bryan, op. cit., no.2]
Amenhotep appears to have been crowned while still a child, perhaps between the ages of 6 and 12. It is likely that a
regentacted for him if he was made pharaoh at that early age. He married Tiye two years later and she lived twelve years after his death. His lengthy reign was a period of unprecedented prosperity and artistic splendour, when Egypt reached the peak of her artistic and international power. Proof of this is shown by the diplomatic correspondence from the rulers of Assyria, Mitanni, Babylon, and Hatti which is preserved in the archive of Amarna Letters; these letters document frequent requests by these rulers for goldand numerous other gifts from the pharaoh. The letters cover the period from Year 30 of Amenhotep III until at least the end of Akhenaten's reign. In one famous correspondence--Amarna letter EA 4--Amenhotep III is quoted by the Babylonian king Kadashman-Enlil Iin firmly rejecting the latter's entreaty to marry one of this pharaoh's daughters:
Amenhotep III's refusal to allow one of his daughters to be married to the Babylonian monarch may indeed be connected with Egyptian traditional royal practices that could provide a claim upon the throne through marriage to a royal princess, or, it be viewed as a shrewd attempt on his part to enhance Egypt's prestige over those of her neighbours in the international world.
The pharaoh's reign was relatively peaceful and uneventful. The only recorded military activity by the king is commemorated by three rock-carved stelas from his fifth year found near
Aswanand Sai Islandin Nubia. The official account of Amenhotep III's military victory emphasizes his martial prowess with the typical hyperboleused by all pharaohs.
: Regnal Year 5, third month of Inundation, day 2. Appearance under the Majesty of Horus: Strong bull, appearing in truth;
Two Ladies: Who establishes laws and pacifies the Two Lands;...King of Upper and Lower Egypt: Nebmaatra, heir of Ra; Son of Ra: [Amenhotep, ruler of Thebes] , beloved of [Amon] -Ra, King of the Gods, and Khnum, lord of the cataract, given life. One came to tell His Majesty, "The fallen one of vile Kush has plotted rebellion in his heart." His Majesty led on to victory; he completed it in his first campaign of victory. His Majesty reached them like the wing stroke of a falcon, like Menthu (war god of Thebes) in his transformation...Ikheny, the boaster in the midst of the army, did not know the lion that was before him. Nebmaatra was the fierce-eyed lion whose claws seized vile Kush, who trampled down all its chiefs in their valleys, they being cast down in their blood, one on top of the other [Urk. IV 1665-66]
Amenhotep III celebrated three Jubilee
Sed festivals, in his Year 30, Year 34, and Year 37 respectively at his Malkatasummer palace in Western Thebes. [David O'Connor & Eric Cline, op. cit., p.16] The palace, called as "Per-Hay" or "House of Rejoicing" in ancient times, comprised a temple of Amun and a festival hall built especially for this occasion. [David O'Connor & Eric Cline, op. cit., p.16] One of the king's most popular epithets was "Aten-tjehen" which means "the Dazzling Sun Disk"; it appears in his titulary at Luxor temple and, more frequently, was used as the name for one of his palaces as well as the Year 11 royal barge, and denotes a company of men in Amenhotep's army. [David O'Connor & Eric Cline, op. cit., pp. 3 & 14]
There are many important men in office under Amenhotep III. Viziers were
Ramose, Amenhotep, Apereland Ptahmose. They are known from a remarkable series of monuments, including the well known tomb of Ramose at Thebes ( TT55). Treasurers were another Ptahmose and Merire. High stewards were Amenemhat Surer and Amenhotep (Huy). Viceroi of Kusch was Merimose. He was a leading figure in the military campaigns of the king in Nubia. Perhaps the most famous official of the king was Amenhotep, son of Hapu. He never had high titles but was later worshipped as god and main architect of some of the king's temples.
He built extensively at the temple of
Karnakincluding the Luxor templewhich consisted of two pylons, a colonnade behind the new temple entrance, and a new temple to the goddess Ma'at. Amenhotep III dismantled the fourth pylon of the Temple of Amun at Karnak to construct a new pylon--the third pylon--and created a new entrance to this structure where he erected "two rows of columns with open papyrus capital [s] " down the centre of this newly formed forecourt. [ [http://touregypt.net/featurestories/amenhotep3.htm Amenhotep III] ] The forecourt between the third and fourth pylons of Egypt, sometimes called an obeliskcourt, was also decorated with scenes of the sacred barqueof the deities Amun, Mut, and Khonsubeing carried in funerary boats. [ [http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/obeliskcourt.htm The Obelisk Court of Amenhotep III] ] The king also started work on the Tenth pylon at the Temple of Amun there. Amenhotep III's first recorded act as king--in his Years 1 and 2--was to open new limestone quarriesat Tura, just south of Cairo and at Dayr al-Barshain Middle Egyptin order to herald his great building projects. [Urk. IV, 1677-1678] He oversaw construction of another temple to _eg. Ma'at at Luxor and virtually covered Nubiawith numerous monuments.
"...including a small temple with a colonnade (dedicated to
Thutmose III) at Elephantine, a rock temple dedicated to Amun 'Lord of the Ways' at Wadi es-Sebuam, and the temple of Horus of Miam at Aniba... [as well as founding] additional temples at Kawa and Sesebi." [Nicolas Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt, Blackwell Books: 1992. p.223]
His enormous mortuary temple on the west bank of the
Nilewas, in its day, the largest religious complex in Thebes, but unfortunately, the king chose to build it too close to the floodplainand less than two hundred years later, it stood in ruins. Much of the masonry was purloined by Merneptahand later pharaohs for their own construction projects. [Grimal, op. cit., p.224] The Colossi of Memnon—two massive stone statues, eighteen meters high, of Amenhotep that stood at the gateway of his mortuary temple—are the only elements of the complex that remained standing. Amenhotep III also built the Third Pylon at Karnak and erected 600 statues of the goddess Sekhmetin the Temple of Mut, south of Karnak. [Grimal, op. cit., p.224 & 295] Some of the most magnificent statues of New Kingdom Egypt date to his reign "such as the two outstanding couchant rose granite lions originally set before the temple at Soleb in Nubia" as well as a large series of royal sculptures. [Clayton, op. cit., p.118] Several beautiful black granite seated statues of Amenhotep wearing the "nemes" headress have come from excavations behind the Colossi of Memnon as well as from Tanis in the Delta. [Clayton, op. cit., p.118] One of the most stunning finds of royal statuaries dating to his reign was made as recently as 1989 in the courtyard of Amenhotep III's colonnade of the Temple of Luxor where a cache of statues including "a superb convert|6|ft|m-high (1.83 m) pink quartzite statue of the king standing on a sleigh and wearing the Double Crown" was uncovered. [Clayton, op. cit., p.118]
Proposed co-regency by Akhenaten
There is currently no conclusive evidence of a
co-regencybetween Amenhotep III and his son, Akhenaten. A letter from the Amarna palace archives dated to Year 2--rather than Year 12--of Akhenaten's reign from the Mitannian king, Tushratta, (Amarna letter EA 27) preserves a complaint about the fact that Akhenaten did not honor his father's promise to forward Tushratta statues made of solid gold as part of a marriage dowry for sending his daughter, Tadukhepa, into the pharaoh's household. [William L. Moran, translation, op. cit., pp.87-89] This correspondence implies that if any co-regency occurred between Amenhotep III and Akhenaten, it lasted no more than a year at the most. [Nicholas Reeves, Akhenaten: Egypt's False Prophet, Thames & Hudson, 2000, pp.75-78] Lawrence Berman observes in a 1998 biography of Amenhotep III that,
: "it is significant that the proponents of the coregency theory have tended to be art historians [ie: Raymond Johnson] , whereas historians [such as
Donald Redfordand William Murnane] have largely remained unconvinced. Recognizing that the problem admits no easy solution, the present writer has gradually come to believe that it is unnecessary to propose a coregency to explain the production of art in the reign of Amenhotep III. Rather the perceived problems appear to derive from the interpretation of mortuary objects." [Lawrence M. Berman, 'Overview of Amenhotep III and His Reign,' in Amenhotep III: Perspectives on his Reign, ed: David O'Connor & Eric Cline, op. cit, p.23]
Reliefs from the wall of the temple of Soleb in Nubia and scenes from the Theban tomb (
TT192) of Kharuef, Steward of the King's Great Wife, Tiye, depict Amenhotep as a visibly weak and sick figure. [Grimal, op. cit., p.225] Scientists believe that in his final years he suffered from arthritisand became obese. It has generally been assumed by some scholars that Amenhotep requested and received from his father-in-law Tushrattaof Mitanni, a statue of Ishtarof Nineveh--a healing goddess--in order to cure him of his various ailments which included painful abscesses in his teeth. [William Hayes, "Internal affairs from Thutmosis I to the death of Amenophis III," in CAH Pt 1, Vol 2, "The Middle East and the Aegean Region, c.1800-1380 BC", 1973, p.346] A forensic examination of his mummy shows that he was probably in constant pain during his final years due to his worn, and cavity-pitted teeth. However, more recent analysis of Amarna letter EA 23 by William L. Moran, which recounts the dispatch of the statue of the goddess to Thebes, does not support this popular theory. The arrival of the statue is known to have coincided with Amenhotep III's marriage with Tadukhepa, Tushratta's daughter, in the pharaoh's 36th year; letter EA 23's arrival in Egypt is dated to "regnal year 36, the fourth month of winter, day 1" of his reign. [Cyril Aldred, Akhenaten: King of Egypt, Thames & Hudson, 1991, pl.13] Furthermore, Tushratta never mentions in EA 23 that the statue's dispatch was meant to heal Amenhotep from his maladies. Instead, Tushratta merely writes,
: cquote|Say to Nimmureya (ie: Amenhotep III), the king of Egypt, my brother, my son-in-law, whom I love and who loves me: Thus Tušratta, the king of Mitanni, who loves you, your father-in-law. For me all goes well. For you may all go well. For your household for Tadu-Heba (ie: Tadukhepa), my daughter, your wife, who you love, may all go well. For your wives, for your sons, for your magnates, for your chariots, for your horses, for your troops, for your country, and for whatever else belongs to you, may all go very, very well.
Thus Šauška of Nineveh, mistress of all lands: "I wish to go to Egypt, a country that I love, and then return." Now I herewith send her, and she is on her way. Now, in the time, too, of my father,... [she] went to this country, and just as earlier she dwelt there and they honored her, may my brother now honor her 10 times more than before. May my brother honor her, (then) at (his) pleasure let her go so that she may come back. May Šauška (ie:
Ishtar), the mistress of heaven, protect us, my brother and me, a 100,000 years, and may our mistress grant both of us great joy. And let us act as friends. Is Šauška for me alone my god(dess), and for my brother not his god(dess)? [William L. Moran, translation, op. cit., pp.61-62]
The likeliest explanation is that the statue was sent to Egypt "to shed her blessings on the wedding of Amenhotep III and Tadukhepa, as she had been sent previously for Amenhotep III and
Gilukhepa." [David O'Connor & Eric Cline, op. cit., p.22] As Moran writes: "One explanation of the goddess' visit is that she was to heal the aged and ailing Egyptian king, but this explanation rests purely on analogy and finds no support in this letter... More likely, it seems, is a connection with the solemnities associated with the marriage of Tušratta's daughter; sf. the previous visit mentioned in lines 18f., perhaps on the occasion of the marriage of Kelu-Heba (ie: Gilukhepa)...and note, too, Šauška's role along with Aman, of making Tadu-Heba answer to the king's desires"." [William L. Moran, translation, op. cit., p.62 n.2]
The contents of Amarna letter EA 21 from Tushratta to his "brother" Amenhotep III strongly affirms this solution. In this correspondence, Tushratta explicitly states,
: cquote|I have given...my daughter (Tadukhepa) to be the wife of my brother, whom I love. May Šimige and Šauška go before her. May they m [ake he] r the image of my brother's desire. May my brother rejoice on t [hat] day. May Šimige and Šauška grant my brother a gre [at] blessing, exquisi [te] joy. "May they bless him" and may "you", my brother, li [ve] forever. [William L. Moran, translation, op. cit., p.50]
Amenhotep III's highest attested date are a pair of Year 38 wine jar-label dockets from
Malkata; [Kozloff & Bryan, op. cit., p.39, fig. II.4] however, he may have lived briefly into an unrecorded 39th Year but died before the wine harvesting season for that year arrived. [Clayton, op. cit., p.119] Amenhotep III was buried in the Western Valley of the Valley of the Kings, in Tomb WV22. An examination of his mummy by the Australian anatomist, Grafton Elliott Smith, concluded that the pharaoh was aged between forty and fifty years old at death. [Grafton Elliot Smith, The Royal Mummies, 1912, Cairo, p.50] His chief wife, Tiye, is known to have outlived him for as long as twelve years since she is mentioned in several Amarna letters dating to during her son's reign and is depicted at a dinner table with Akhenaten and his royal family in scenes from the tomb of Huya, which bears reliefs dating to Year 9 and Year 12 of her son's reign. [ [http://www.egyptsites.co.uk/middle/mallawi/amarna/northtombs.html El-Amarna North tombs] ] [David O'Connor & Eric Cline, op. cit., p.23]
When Amenhotep died, he left behind a country that was at the very height of its power and influence and which commanded immense respect in the international world; however, he also bequeathed an Egypt that was wedded to its traditional political and religious certainties under the Amun priesthood. [Grimal, op. cit., pp. 223 & 225] The resulting upheavals from his son
Akhenaten's reforming zeal would shake these old certainties to their very foundations and bring forth the central question of whether a pharaoh was more powerful than the existing domestic order as represented by the Amun priests and their numerous temple estates. Akhenaten even moved the capital away from the city of Thebes in an effort to break the influence of that powerful temple and assert his own preferred choice of deities, the local deity of Akhetaten('Horizon of Aten'), at the site known today as Amarna, while suppressing the worship of the Amundeity.
*Aldred, Cyril. Akhenaten: King of Egypt, Thames & Hudson, 1991
*Allen, James P. " [http://history.memphis.edu/murnane/Allen%20-%20Amarna%20Succession.pdf The Amarna Succession] "
*Beckerath, Jürgen von, Chronologie des Pharaonischen Ägypten. Philipp von Zabern, Mainz, (1997)
*Clayton, Peter. Chronicle of the Pharaohs, Thames & Hudson Ltd., 1994.
*O'Connor, David & Cline, Eric. Amenhotep III: Perspectives on His Reign, University of Michigan Press, 1998
*Dodson, Aidan & Hilton, Dyan. The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, Thames & Hudson (2004)
*Grimal, Nicolas. A History of Ancient Egypt, Blackwell Books: 1992.
*Hayes, William. "Internal affairs from Thutmosis I to the death of Amenophis III," in CAH Pt 1, Vol 2, "The Middle East and the Aegean Region, c.1800-1380 BC", 1973
*Kozloff, Arielle. & Bryan, Betsy. Royal and Divine Statuary in Egypt’s Dazzling Sun: Amenhotep III and his World, (Cleveland, 1992)
*Moran, William L., The Amarna Letters, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, (1992)
*Reeves, Nicholas. Akhenaten: Egypt's False Prophet, Thames & Hudson, 2000
*Troy, Lana. Patterns of Queenship in Ancient Egyptian Myth and History. University of Uppsala, Uppsala Studies in Ancient Mediterranean and Near Eastern Civilizations 14, (1986)
* [http://www.itee.uq.edu.au/~gwat/pers/hiero/mdc2html/scarab_full.txt Commemorative scarab of Amenhotep III]
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