liquidprecipitation. On Earth, it is the condensation of atmospheric water vaporinto drops heavy enough to fall, often making it to the surface. Rain is the primary source of fresh water for most areas of the world, providing suitable conditions for diverse ecosystems, as well as water for hydroelectric power plants and crop irrigation. However, not all rain reaches the surface; some evaporates while falling through dry air. This is called virga, a phenomenon often seen in hot, dry desertregions. The METARcode for rain is RA.
Rain is also known or suspected on other worlds. On Titan, infrequent
methanerain is thought to carve that moon's numerous surface channels. On Venus, sulfuric acidvirga evaporates 25 km from the surface. There is likely to be rain of various compositions in the upper atmospheres of the gas giants, as well as precipitation of liquid neonand heliumin the deep atmospheres.
Rain plays a role in the
hydrologic cyclein which moisturefrom the oceans evaporates, condenses into drops, precipitates (falls) from the sky, and eventually returns to the ocean via rivers and streams to repeat the cycle again. The water vaporfrom plant respiration also contributes to the moisture in the atmosphere.
A major scientific explanation of how rain forms and falls is called the
Bergeron process. More recent research points to the influence of Cloud condensation nucleireleased as the result of biological processes.
The fine particulate matter produced by car exhaust and other human sources of pollution form
cloud condensation nuclei, leads to the production of clouds and increases the likelihood of rain. As commuters and commercial traffic cause pollution to build up over the course of the week, the likelihood of rain increases: it peaks by Saturday, after five days of weekday pollution has been built up. In heavily populated areas that are near the coast, such as the United States' Eastern Seaboard, the effect can be dramatic: there is a 22% higher chance of rain on Saturdays than on Mondays. [Cerveny, R. S., and R. C. Balling. Weekly cycles of air pollutants, precipitation and tropical cyclones in the coastal NW Atlantic region. Nature. 394, 561-563.]
Classifying the amount of rain
When classified according to amount of precipitation, rain can be divided into: [cite web |title = Rain Rates |url = http://my.athenet.net/~multiplx/cgi-bin/pics/rain_rate.html |publisher = |accessdate = 2008-04-07]
* Very light rain — when the precipitation rate is < 0.25 mm/hour
* Light rain — when the precipitation rate is between 0.25 mm/hour - 1.0 mm/hour
* Moderate rain — when the precipitation rate is between 1.0 mm/hour - 4.0 mm/hour
* Heavy rain — when the precipitation rate is between 4.0 mm/hour - 16.0 mm/hour
* Very heavy rain — when the precipitation rate is between 16.0 mm/hour - 50 mm/hour
* Extreme rain — when the precipitation rate is > 50.0 mm/hour
Precipitation is measured using
Falling raindrops are often depicted in popular culture as "teardrop-shaped" — round at the bottom and narrowing towards the top — but this is incorrect. Only drops of water dripping from some sources are tear-shaped at the moment of formation. Small raindrops are nearly spherical. Larger ones become increasingly flattened on the bottom, like
hamburgerbuns; very large ones are shaped like parachutes. [cite web |title = Bad Meteorology: Raindrops are shaped like teardrops. |url = http://www.ems.psu.edu/~fraser/Bad/BadRain.html |publisher = Alistair B. Fraser |accessdate = 2008-04-07] The shape of raindrops was studied by Philipp Lenardin 1898. He found that small raindrops (less than about 2 mm diameter) are approximately spherical. As they get larger (to about 5 mm diameter) they become more doughnut shaped. Beyond about 5 mm they become unstable and fragment. On average, raindrops are 1 to 2 mm in diameter. The biggest raindrops on Earth were recorded over Braziland the Marshall Islandsin 2004 — some of them were as large as 10 mm. The large size is explained by condensation on large smokeparticles or by collisions between drops in small regions with particularly high content of liquid water. Raindrops impact at their terminal velocity, which is greater for larger drops. At sea level and without wind, 0.5 mm drizzleimpacts at about 2 m/s, while large 5 mm drops impact at around 9 m/s. [cite web |title = Falling raindrops hit 5 to 20 mph speeds |url = http://www.wonderquest.com/falling-raindrops.htm |publisher = Weather Quest |accessdate = 2008-04-08] The sound of raindrops hitting water is caused by bubbles of air oscillating underwater. See droplet's sound.
Generally, rain has a
pHslightly under 6. This is because atmospheric carbon dioxidedissolves in the droplet to form minute quantities of carbonic acid, which then partially dissociates, lowering the pH. In some desert areas, airborne dust contains enough calcium carbonateto counter the natural acidity of precipitation, and rainfall can be neutral or even alkaline. Rain below pH 5.6 is considered acid rain.
Effect on agriculture
Precipitation, especially rain, has a dramatic effect on
agriculture. All plants need at least some water to survive, therefore rain (being the most effective means of watering) is important to agriculture. While a regular rain pattern is usually vital to healthy plants, too much or too little rainfall can be harmful, even devastating to crops. Droughtcan kill crops in massive numbers, while overly wet weather can cause disease and harmful fungus. Plants need varying amounts of rainfall to survive. For example, cacti need small amounts of water while tropical plants may need up to hundreds of inches of rain per year to survive.
Agriculture of all nations at least to some extent is dependent on rain.
Indian agriculture, for example, (which accounts for 25 percent of the GDP and employs 70 percent of the nation's population) is heavily dependent on the rains, especially crops like cotton, rice, oilseedsand coarse grains. A delay of a few days in the arrival of the monsoon can, and does, badly affect the economy, as evidenced in the numerous droughts in Indiain the 90s.
Cultural attitudes towards rain differ across the world. In the largely
temperate Europe, rain metaphorically has a sad and negative connotation — reflected in children's rhymes like Rain Rain Go Away— in contrast to the bright and happy sun. Though the traditional notion of rain in the Western World is negative, rain can also bring joy, as some consider it to be soothing or enjoy the aesthetic appeal of it. In dry places, such as parts of Africa, Australia, India, the Western United States, and the Middle East, rain is greeted with
Several cultures have developed means of dealing with rain and have developed numerous protection devices such as
umbrellas and raincoats, and diversion devices such as gutters and storm drains that lead rains to sewers. Many people also prefer to stay inside on rainy days, especially in tropical climates where rain is usually accompanied by thunderstorms or is extremely heavy (as in a monsoon). Rain may be harvested, though rainwater is rarely pure (as acid rainoccurs naturally), or used as greywater. Excessive rain, particularly after a dry period that has hardened the soil so that it cannot absorb water, can cause floods.
Many people find the scent during and immediately after rain especially pleasant or distinctive. The source of this scent is
petrichor, an oil produced by plants, then absorbed by rocks and soil, and later released into the air during rainfall. Light or heavy rain is sometimes seen as romantic.
United Kingdommost rain is driven into the country by the south-western trade winds following the warm gulf streamcurrents. Areas along the western coasts can receive between 1000 mm (40 inches, at sea-level) and 2500 mm (100 inches, on the mountains) of rain per year. However, what is less well known is that the eastern and southern half of the country is much drier, with the south east having a lower rainfall average than Jerusalemand Beirutat between 450 and 600 mm per year.
Bergenin Norway is one of the more famous European rain-cities with its yearly precipitation of 2250 mm (88 inches) on average.
One city that is known for rain is
Seattle, Washington. Rain is common in the winter, but mostly the climate is cloudy with little rain. Seattle's average rainfall is 942 mm (37.1 inches) per year, [cite web |title = Monthly Averages for Seattle, WA |url = http://www.weather.com/outlook/recreation/outdoors/wxclimatology/monthly/graph/USWA0395?from=search |publisher = The Weather Channel|accessdate = 2006-10-19] less than New York City's 1173 mm (46.2 inches), [cite web |title = Monthly Averages for New York, NY |url = http://www.weather.com/outlook/recreation/outdoors/wxclimatology/monthly/graph/USNY0996?from=search |publisher = The Weather Channel|accessdate = 2006-10-19] but Seattle has 201 cloudy days per year, compared to 152 in New York. Seattle's neighbor to the south, Portland, Oregon, gets more rain with an average of convert|45|in|mm a year. [cite web |title = Cloudiness - Mean Number of Days |url = http://lwf.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/climate/online/ccd/cldy.html |publisher = National Climatic Data Center|accessdate = 2006-10-19] However, it should be noted that Seattle lies in the rain shadowof the nearby Olympic Mountains, with some locations on the windwardsides of the mountains receiving close to 130 inches per year. [cite web |title = Average Annual Precipitation in Washington |url = http://www.ocs.orst.edu/pub/maps/Precipitation/Total/States/WA/wa.gif|publisher = Oregon Climate Service at Oregon State University|accessdate = 2006-10-19] The wettest city in the 48 contiguous United States is Mobile, Alabama, which average 67 inches of rainfall per year. [cite web |title = Study Reveals Top 10 Wettest U.S. Cities |url = http://www.livescience.com/environment/070518_rainy_cities.html | Author = Andrea Thompson |publisher = Live Science |accessdate = 2008-04-07] Ketchikan and other locations in the temperate rainforest of southeast Alaska get an average of 160 inches of rain a year, [cite web |title = Ketchikan and Southeast Alaska Weather Information |url = http://www.ketchikanalaska.com/ketchikan_alaska/weather.html |publisher = KetchikanAlaska.Com |accessdate = 2008-04-13] sometimes receiving over 200 inches in a year.
Australiais the world's driest continent, Mount Bellenden Kerin the north-east of the country records an average of 8000 mm (315 inches) per year, with over 12000 mm (472 inches) of rain recorded in the year 2000. [cite web |title = Significant Weather - DECEMBER 2000 (Rainfall) |url = http://www.bom.gov.au/inside/services_policy/public/sigwxsum/sigw1200.shtml#rain |publisher = Australian Government Bureau of Meteorology|accessdate = 2008-04-08]
Melbourne has a similar reputation to Seattle's. In the popular imagination it is thought of as being much rainier than Sydney; however, Sydney receives an average of 1094 mm (43.1 inches) of rain per year compared to Melbourne's 544 mm (21.4 inches). Sydney, meanwhile, experiences 53 fewer overcast days per year than Melbourne.cite web |title = Averages for SYDNEY AIRPORT AMO |url = http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/cw_066037.shtml |publisher = Australian Government
Bureau of Meteorology|accessdate = 2006-10-19] cite web |title = Averages for MELBOURNE AIRPORT |url = http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/cw_086282.shtml |publisher = Australian Government Bureau of Meteorology|accessdate = 2006-10-19]
Cherrapunji, situated on the southern slopes of the Eastern Himalaya in Shillong, Indiais one of the wettest places on Earth, with an average annual rainfall of 11,430 mm (450 in). The highest recorded rainfall in a single year was 22,987 mm (904.9 inches) in 1861.
Red rain in Kerala
Sanitary sewer overflow
* [http://www.geography-site.co.uk/pages/physical/climate/why%20does%20it%20rain.html What are clouds, and why does it rain?]
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/sci/tech/146120.stm BBC article on the weekend rain effect]
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/3893671.stm BBC article on rain-making]
* [http://www.earthsky.org/humanworld/interviews.php?id=49324 Do we have enough fresh water? Johan Rockstrom says we do, if we use it correctly.] Earth & Sky interview, discusses capturing rainfall and reducing runoff, partly through conservation tillage.
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