- United Arab Emirates
native_name = دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة "ArabDIN|Dawlat Al-Imārāt al-‘Arabīya al-Muttaḥida"
conventional_long_name = United Arab Emirates
common_name = United Arab Emirates
demonym = Emirati
national_motto = "God, Nation, President"
national_anthem = "
official_languages = Arabic
capital = Abu Dhabi
latd=22 |latm=47 |latNS=N |longd=54 |longm=37 |longEW=E
Federal constitutional monarchy
leader_title1 = President
leader_title2 = Prime Minister
Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan
Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum
area_rank = 116th
area_magnitude = 1 E10
area_km2 = 83,600
area_sq_mi = 32,278
percent_water = negligible
population_estimate = 5,432,746 [ [http://skyscraperpage.com/cities/?countryID=12 United Arab Emirates - SkyscraperPage.com ] ]
population_estimate_year = 2008
population_estimate_rank = 109th
population_census = 4,588,697
population_census_year = 2006
population_density_km2 = 64
population_density_sq_mi = 139
population_density_rank = 150th
language = Arabic, English, Hindi, Urdu
GDP_PPP_year = 2007
GDP_PPP = 190.2 billion
GDP_PPP_rank = 42nd
GDP_PPP_per_capita = $37,300 (CIA 2007 estimate)
GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = 17th
GDP_nominal = $192 billion
GDP_nominal_rank = 38th
GDP_nominal_year = 2007
GDP_nominal_per_capita = $42,934
GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank = 16th
sovereignty_type = Establishment
sovereignty_note = December 2, 1971
HDI_year = 2007
HDI = increase 0.868
HDI_rank = 39th
HDI_category = high
currency_code = AED
country_code = UAE
time_zone = GMT+4
utc_offset = +4
time_zone_DST = not observed
utc_offset_DST = +4
calling_code = 971The United Arab Emirates (UAE) (Arabic: دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة, ArTranslit|Dawlat Al-Imārāt al-‘Arabīyah al-Muttaḥidah) is a
Middle Eastern federationof seven states situated in the southeast of the Arabian Peninsulain Southwest Asiaon the Persian Gulf, bordering Omanand Saudi Arabia. The seven states, termed emirates, are Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al-Khaimah, Sharjah, and Umm al-Quwain.
The UAE, rich in oil and
natural gas, has become highly prosperous after gaining foreign direct investmentfunding in the 1970s. The country has a relatively high Human Development Indexfor the Asian continent, ranking 39th globally, and having the 5th highest GDP per capita in the world according to the CIA.
Before 1971, the UAE were known as the Trucial States or Trucial Oman, in reference to a nineteenth-century truce between Britain and several Arab
Sheikhs. The name Pirate Coast was also used in reference to the area's emirates in the 18th to early 20th century. [Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition; XXI:188; II:255 (1911)]
The United Arab Emirates was formed from tribally organized Arabian Peninsula sheikhdoms along the southern coast of the
Persian Gulfand the northwestern coast of the Gulf of Oman. The area became Islamicin the 7th century.
Later, portions of the nation came under the direct influence of the
Ottoman Empireduring the 16th century. Thereafter the region was known as the Pirate Coast, as raiders based there harassed the shipping industry despite both European and Arabnavies patrolling the area from the 17th century into the 19th century. British expeditions to protect the Indian trade from raiders at Ras al-Khaimahled to campaigns against that headquarters and other harbors along the coast in 1819. The next year, a peace treaty was signed to which all the sheikhs of the coast adhered. Raids continued intermittently until 1835, when the sheikhs agreed not to engage in hostilities at sea. In 1853, they signed a treaty with the United Kingdom, under which the sheikhs (the "Trucial Sheikhdoms") agreed to a "perpetual maritime truce." It was enforced by the United Kingdom, and disputes among sheikhs were referred to the British for settlement.
Primarily in reaction to the ambitions of other European countries, the United Kingdom and the Trucial Sheikhdoms established closer bonds in an 1892 treaty, similar to treaties entered into by the UK with other
Persian Gulfprincipalities. The sheikhs agreed not to dispose of any territory except to the United Kingdom and not to enter into relationships with any foreign government other than the United Kingdom without its consent. In return, the British promised to protect the Trucial Coast from all aggression by sea and to help in case of land attack.
In 1955, the United Kingdom sided with
Abu Dhabiin the latter's dispute with Omanover the Buraimi Oasisand other territory to the south. A 1974 agreement between Abu Dhabi and Saudi Arabia would have settled the Abu Dhabi-Saudi border dispute; however, the agreement has yet to be ratified by the UAE government and is not recognized by the Saudi government. The border with Omanalso remains officially unsettled, but the two governments agreed to delineate the border in May 1999.
In the early 1960s, Dubai was ahead of all the other states, even though oil had not yet been discovered in its territories. Abu Dhabi was behind until His Highness Shaikh
Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyanbecame ruler of Abu Dhabi in 1967, and instated Dr. Mana Alotaibaas Minister of Petroleum, who used his extensive knowledge about economics to build up the petroleum industry. Dr. Alotaiba was also elected president of OPECa record six times.Fact|date=January 2008Clarifyme|date=September 2008
The British had earlier started a development office that helped in some small developments in the Emirates. The sheikhs of the Emirates decided then to form a council to coordinate matters between them and took over the development office. They formed the Trucial States Council, [ [http://nasibbitar.net/adi_sr/DocumentsArticle4.jpgAl Khaleej News Paper] ] and appointed
Adi Bitar, Sheikh Rashid bin Saeed Al Maktoum's legal advisor, as Secretary General and Legal Advisor to the Council. The Council was terminated once the United Arab Emirates was formed.
In 1968, the UK announced its decision, reaffirmed in March 1971, to end the treaty relationships with the seven Trucial Sheikhdoms which had been, together with
Bahrainand Qatar, under British protection. The nine attempted to form a union of Arab Emirates, but by mid-1971 they were unable to agree on terms of union, even though the termination date of the British treaty relationship was the end of 1971.
Bahrain became independent in August and Qatar in September 1971. When the British-Trucial Shaikhdoms treaty expired on December 1, 1971, they became fully independent.
The rulers of Abu Dhabi and Dubai decided to form a union between their two emirates independently, prepare a constitution, then call the rulers of the other five emirates to a meeting and offer them the opportunity to join. It was also agreed between the two of them that Adi Bitar write the constitution by December 2, 1971.
On that date, at the Dubai Guesthouse Palace, four other emirates agreed to enter into a union called the United Arab Emirates. Ras al-Khaimah joined later, in early 1972.
The UAE sent forces into
Kuwaitduring the 1990–91 Gulf War.
The UAE supports military operations from the United States and other
Coalitionnations that are engaged in the invasions of Iraq (2003) and Afghanistan (2001) as well as Operations supporting the Global War on Terrorismfor the Horn of Africaat the Al Dhafra Air Baselocated outside of Abu Dhabi. The air base also supported American and Allied operations during the 1991 Persian Gulf Warand Operation Northern Watch.
On November 2, 2004, the UAE's first president, Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan, died. His eldest son,
Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan, succeeded him as ruler of Abu Dhabi. In accordance with the Constitution, the UAE's Supreme Council of Rulers elected Khalifa as president. Mohammad bin Zayed Al Nahyansucceeded Khalifa as Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi.
The United Arab Emirates is a
federationwhich consists of seven emirates. The largest emirate is Abu Dhabi which contains the nation's capital city Abu Dhabi. Five emirates have one or more exclaves, in addition to the main territory. The seven emirates:
Ajman: 1 exclave
Dubai: 1 exclave
Fujairah: 2 exclaves
Ras al-Khaimah: 1 exclave
*Sharjah: 3 exclaves
There are two areas under joint control. One is jointly controlled by
Omanand Ajman, the other by Fujairah and Sharjah.
There is an
Omani enclavesurrounded by UAE territory, known as Wadi Madha. It is located halfway between the Musandampeninsula and the rest of Oman, on the Dubai-Hatta road in the Emirate of Sharjah. It covers approximately 75 square kilometres (29 sq mi) and the boundary was settled in 1589. The north-east corner of Madha is closest to the Khor Fakkan- Fujairahroad, barely 10 metres (33 ft) away. Within the enclave is a UAE exclavecalled Nahwa, also belonging to the Emirate of Sharjah. It is about 8 kilometres (5 mi) on a dirt track west of the town of New Madha. It consists of about forty houses with its own clinic and telephone exchange.
The Presidency and Premiership of the United Arab Emirates is
de factohereditary to the Al Nahyan clan of Abu Dhabi and the Al Maktoum clan of Dubai. The Supreme Council, consisting of the rulers of the seven emirates, also elects the Council of Ministers, while an appointed forty-member Federal National Council, drawn from all the emirates, reviews proposed laws. There is a federal court system; all emirates except Ras al-Khaimah have joined the federal system; all emirates have both secular and Islamic law for civil, criminal, and high courts. Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyanwas the union's president from the nation's founding until his death on November 2, 2004. The Federal Supreme Council elected his son, Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan, president the next day. Crown Prince Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan is the heir apparent.
The UAE population has an unnatural sex distribution consisting of more than twice as many males as females. The 15-65 age group has a male(s)/female
sex ratioof 2.743. UAE's gender imbalance is the highest among any nation in the world followed by Qatar, Kuwait, Bahrain, Oman, and Saudi Arabia - all of which together comprise the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). [ [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2018.html cia.gov] ] The GCC states are also what most South and Southeast Asians refer to as the Persian Gulfespecially in context of emigration. [ [http://yaleglobal.yale.edu/display.article?id=5992 Dubai’s Kerala Connection ] ]
UAE has one of the most diverse populations in the
Middle East. [ [http://www.arabnews.com/?page=7§ion=0&article=53888&d=3&m=11&y=2004 Editorial: The Ideal Prince ] ] 19% of the population is Emirati, and 23% is other Arabs and Iranians. [ [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ae.html#People CIA - The World Factbook - United Arab Emirates ] ] An estimated 73.9 percent of the population is comprised of non-citizens, one of the world's highest percentages of foreign-born in any nation. In addition, since the mid-1980s, people from all across South Asiahave settled in the UAE. The high living standards and economic opportunities in the UAE are better than almost anywhere else in the Middle East and South Asia. This makes the nation an attractive destination for Indians, Filipinos, Pakistanis, and Bangladeshis along with a few thousand Sri Lankans. In 2006, there were approximately 2.15 million Indian nationals, PhilippinesNationals— OFW, Bangladeshi nationals, and Pakistani nationals in the UAE, making them the largest expatriate community in the oil-rich nation. [ [http://www.arabwideweb.com/english/Events_News.asp?id=280 arabwideweb.com] ] Persons from over twenty Arab nationalities, including thousands of Palestinianswho came as either political refugees or migrant workers, also live in the United Arab Emirates. There is also a sizable number of Emiratis from other Arab Leaguenations who have come before the formation of the Emirates such as Egyptians, Somalis, Sudaneseand other Gulf Arab states, who have adopted the native culture and customs. Further, Somaliimmigration also continued in the 1990s as a result of the Somali civil war.
There are also residents from other parts of the
Middle East, Baluchistan region of Pakistan, Iran and Afghanistan, Africa, Europe, Post-Soviet states, and North America. The UAE has attracted a small number of very affluent expatriates(Americans, British, Canadians, Japanese and Australians) from developed countries. Recent migrants from India are also quite affluent. They are attracted to a very warm climate, scenic views (beaches, golf courses, man-made islands and lucrative housing tracts in Abu Dhabi and Dubai), the nation's comparably low cost of living (but in 2006, thousands of real estate properties are valued over millions of dollars) and tax-free incentives for their business or residency in the UAE. They make up under 5 percent of the UAE population; mainly English-speaking. Expatriates abide by the law and are required to respect the customs of the UAE.
The most populated city is
Dubai, with approximately 1.6 million people. Other major cities include Abu Dhabi, Al Ain, Sharjah, and Fujairah. About 88% of the population of the United Arab Emirates is urban. [cite web |title=Table 3.10 Urbanization |work=World Development Indicators |publisher= World Bank Group|format=PDF |url=http://devdata.worldbank.org/wdipdfs/table3_10.pdf |accessdate=2006-10-24 [http://devdata.worldbank.org/wdi2005/Tables3.htm (link to HTML page with the PDFs)] ] The remaining inhabitants live in tiny towns scattered throughout the country or in one of the many desert oilfield camps in the nation.
Nearly all citizens are Muslims, approximately 85 percent of whom are
Sunniand the remaining 15 percent are Shi'a. According to official ministry documents, 76 percent of the total population is Muslim, 9 percent is Christian, and 15 percent is other. Other unnofficial sources claim that 15 percent is Hindu, 5 percent is Buddhist, and the remaining 5 percent is other (mainly including Parsi, Bahá'í, and Sikh). [Cite web |title=United Arab Emirates: International Religious Freedom Report 2007 |url=http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2007/90223.htm |publisher= United States Department of State: Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor|date=2007-09-14 |accessdate=2008-05-02]
Dubai is the only emirate of the UAE with both a
Hindutemple and a Sikh Gurdwara. Christian churches are also present in the country. There are a variety of Asian-influenced schools, restaurants and cultural centers.
The United Arab Emirates has a rapidly growing economy with a high
GDP per capitaand energy consumption per capital.
The GDP per capita is currently the 15th in the world and 3rd in the
Middle Eastafter Qatarand Kuwaitas measured by the CIA World Factbook, or the 17th in the world as measured by the International Monetary Fund; while at $168 billion in 2006, with a small population of 4 million, the GDPof the UAE ranks second in the CCASG(after Saudi Arabia), third in the Middle East — North Africa ( MENA) region (after Saudi Arabia and Iran), and 38th in the world (ahead of Malaysia). [ [http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2007/01/index.htm imf.org] ]
There are various deviating estimates regarding the actual growth rate of the nation’s GDP. However, all available statistics indicate that the UAE currently has one of the fastest growing economies in the world. According to a recent report by the Ministry of Finance and Industry, real GDP rose by 35 percent in 2006 to $175 billion, compared with $130 billion in 2005. These figures would suggest that the UAE had the fastest growing
real GDPin the world, between 2005 and 2006. [ [http://www.khaleejtimes.com/DisplayArticleNew.asp?xfile=data/business/2007/May/business_May692.xml§ion=business&col khaleejtimes.com] ]
Although the United Arab Emirates is becoming less dependent on natural resources as a source of revenue,
petroleumand natural gasexports still play an important role in the economy, especially in Abu Dhabi. A massive construction boom, an expanding manufacturing base, and a thriving services sector are helping the UAE diversify its economy. Nationwide, there is currently $350 billion worth of active constructionprojects. [ [http://www.wam.org.ae/servlet/Satellite?c=WamLocEnews&cid=1179091517887&p=1135099400228&pagename=WAM%2FWamLocEnews%2FW-T-LEN-FullNews wam.org.ae] ] Such projects include the Burj Dubai, which is slated to become the world's tallest building, Dubai World Central International Airportwhich, when completed, will be the most expensive airportever built, and the three Palm Islands, the largest artificial islands in the world. Other projects include the Dubai Mallwhich will become the world's largest shopping mall when completed, and a man-made archipelago called The World which seeks to increase Dubai's rapidly growing tourism industry. Also in the entertainment sector is the construction of Dubailand, which is expected to be twice the size of Disney World, and of Dubai Sports Citywhich will not only provide homes for local sports teams but may be part of future Olympic bids.
The currency of the United Arab Emirates is the Emirati Dirham, exchanging at a rate of about 3.67 per US dollar.
The education system up to the secondary level is monitored by the Ministry of Education. It consists of primary schools, middle schools and secondary schools. The public schools are government-funded and the curriculum is created to match the United Arab Emirates development's goals and values. The medium of instruction in the public school is Arabic with emphasis on English as a second language. There are also many private schools which are internationally accredited. Public schools in the country are free for citizens of the UAE, while the fees for private schools vary.
The higher education system is monitored by the Ministry of Higher Education to serve and protect children's education. The Ministry also is responsible for admitting students to its
undergraduateinstitutions, including the five largest centers of higher education: United Arab Emirates University, Zayed University, Gulf Medical College, University of Sharjahand Higher Colleges of Technology. There are also many other private universities and colleges in the country, including the American University of Sharjah, Institute of Management Technology Dubai, S.P Jain Center of Management in Dubai, Al Ain University of Science and Technology, the American University of Dubai, Abu Dhabi Universityand Ras Al Khamiah University for medical and health sciences. Finally, other universities based in foreign countries have established campuses in the United Arab Emirates. For instance, there is a Paris-Sorbonne campus in Abu Dhabi.
The UAE has shown a strong recent interest in improving education and research. Recent enterprises include the establishment of the CERT Research Centers and the Masdar Institute of Science and Technology.
Migrants, mostly of south Asian origin, constitute 95% of the UAE’s workforce and are subject to a range of human rights abuses. Workers typically arrive in debt to recruitment agents and upon arrival are often made to sign a new contract in English or Arabic which pays them less than had originally been agreed. [Dr David Keane, Nicholas McGeehan, 'Enforcing Migrant Workers' Rights in the United Arab Emirates' International Journal on Minority and Group Rights, Volume 15, Number 1, 2008, pp 81 - 115] Visa and travel costs are typically added on to the original debt, and thus within hours of their arrival, workers often find that their debt-repayment time has increased significantly, possibly by years.
Confiscation of passports is officially illegal, but in reality the practice is accepted by the authorities, and employers retain the passports of all of their semi or unskilled employees. All of the workers interviews by Human Rights Watch in a 2006 report had had their passports confiscated. [http://www.hrw.org/reports/2006/uae1106/ Human Rights Watch: Building Towers Cheating Workers: Exploitation of Migrant Construction Workers in the United Arab Emirates] [Human Rights Watch: Building Towers, Cheating Workers: Exploitation of Migrant Construction Workers in the United Arab Emirates, November 2006 in] The kafala system of employment, which ties an employer to one employee and prevents him or her from seeking alternative employment without the expressed approval of the original employer operates in the UAE. Workers are therefore dependent on their employer for housing, wages and healthcare. The lack of proper enforcement mechanisms of the country’s ostensibly strong labour laws means that in practice employers can break the laws with little fear of prosecution. Accordingly, non-payment of wages, cramped and unsanitary living conditions, poor safety practices, physical and mental abuse are widespread.
The issue of sexual abuse among female domestic servants is an area of extreme concern, particularly given that domestic servants are not covered by the UAE Labour Law of 1980 or the Draft Labour Law of 2007, which was heavily criticized by Human Rights Watch. [http://www.hrw.org/english/docs/2007/03/25/uae15547.htm Human Rights Watch: UAE Draft Labor Law Violates International Standards] The falling dollar has meant workers have been unable to service debts and the incidence of suicides among Indian workers has reportedly been on the increase. [http://www.khabrein.info/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=9211&Itemid=61 Despair pushes Gulf returnees to suicide] Worker protests have been heavily cracked down on with reports of collective expulsion and imprisonment. [http://in.reuters.com/article/topNews/idINIndia-32118620080224 Indian Workers Jailed in Dubai over Violent Protest] The government has ignored international pressure to introduce trade unions despite repeated promises to do so going back to 2004. [http://www.mafiwasta.com]
From the perspective of international human rights law, the UAE is in violation of its obligations under the terms of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, in particular where its treatment of non-citizens is concerned. It is in violation of its obligations under the terms of the International Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women, particularly where its treatment of domestic workers is concerned. Recent initiatives to stamp out the practice of child camel jockeys have headed off criticism that it violates its obligations under the terms of the International Convention on the Rights of the Child. There is also an argument that the UAE is in violation of its obligation to stamp out the debt bondage which is widespread in its territory and furthermore that the state is itself involved in and profits from that debt bondage. Citation for information above [http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/mnp/ijgr/2008/00000015/00000001/art00004;jsessionid=utxuestt1d9p.alexandra Enforcing Migrant Workers' Rights in the United Arab Emirates] [Dr David Keane, Nicholas McGeehan, 'Enforcing Migrant Workers' Rights in the United Arab Emirates' International Journal on Minority and Group Rights, Volume 15, Number 1, 2008, pp 81 - 115]
Even though the UAE government has made some advances in the protection of
human rights, the U.S. Department of State notes in its annualSpecify|date=August 2007 report on human rights practices that numerous fundamentalist practices and policies exist to the contrary.
Guest workers are brought in from
South Asia, and a common objection is that they are grossly underpaid as their passports are held by their employers. There have been many reports of unskilled workers getting underpaid, and complaints of segregation abound.
The form of
Shariaexercised prohibits ' sodomy', effectually outlawing any homosexual relationships. [ [http://www.sodomylaws.org/world/uae/united_arab_emirates.htm SodomyLaws.org] ] [ [http://22.214.171.124/search?q=cache:z06f_f0RbxMJ:www.sodomylaws.org/world/uae/united_arab_emirates.htm+http://www.sodomylaws.org/world/uae/united_arab_emirates.htm&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=1&gl=nz SodomyLaws.org (Google Cache)] ] Whilst the UAE tries to put on a public image of tolerance, acts such as kissing in public may get a person imprisoned and then deported. [http://www.gulfnews.com/nation/Police_and_The_Courts/10216005.html]
The UAE also does not allow individuals past retirement age to stay within the country without a job. Upon retirement, residents must return to their country of origin. People with TB, Hep C and AIDS are also discriminated against, any non-citizen found with these illnesses may be deported (Hep C from July 1, 2008). [http://www.gulfnews.com/nation/Health/10226397.html] [http://kakammpi-news.blogspot.com/2008/05/uae-adds-hepatitis-c-to-list-of.html]
Discrimination in the workplace is common, prospective employers will specify religion, nationality (and even regional origin in some cases) and also specify the sex of required candidates within job advertisements. It is very common to have different pay scales depending on nationality and sex. Policies are in place in certain instances where state employers are required to fill in vacancies with UAE nationals, a process called
Dubai has a public transport agency called the
Roads and Transport Authority(RTA). This authority is responsible for the bus network currently in operation. Recently, the RTA purchased 300 buses from Germany's MAN AG in an effort to reduce the city's growing traffic problem. RTA is also developing the Dubai Metrosystem. The first line (Red Line) is expected to complete by September 2009. The yellow lines, currently in development will go through the man-made Palm Islands.
Lately, Emirate of Dubai has created new electronic toll collection system in July 2007, which emphasizes the system’s congestion management objectives as well as the choice of technology for the toll system. The new system, which is called Salik (meaning clear and smooth in Arabic) utilizes the latest technology to achieve free flow operation with no toll booths, no toll collectors, and no impact to traffic flow, allowing vehicles to move freely through the toll point at highway speeds.Each time one passes through a Salik toll point, the toll of AED 4 (1.09 USD) will be deducted from his or her prepaid toll account using advanced Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology. The new system was introduced and executed by Roads and Transport Authority of Dubai. [ [http://www.salik.ae/english Salik] - United Arab Emirates Roads & Transport Authority]
The national airline of Abu Dhabi was formerly
Gulf Air, operated jointly with Bahrainand Oman. On September 13, 2005, Abu Dhabi announced that it was withdrawing from Gulf Air to concentrate on Etihad Airways, designated as the new national carrier of the UAE, established in November 2003.
Dubaiestablished its airline Emirates, which, as of 2007, is one of the fastest growing airlines in the world. [ [http://www.emirates.com/usa/AboutEmirates/AboutEmirates.asp emirates.com] ] Air Arabia, a leading discount airline in the Persian Gulf region, is based in the Emirate of Sharjah. RAK Airwaysis the fourth national airways of the United Arab Emirates, was established in February 2006, is based in the Emirate of Ras Al Khaimah. [ [http://www.rakairways.com/ RAK Airways - Book your flight to Ras Al Khaimah, Calicut, Dhaka, Chittagong, Colombo, Beirut with RAK Airway ] ]
Ports and harbours
The United Arab Emirates has several major ports, including one of the world's largest,
Jebel Ali Port. Other important ports in the UAE include Port Zayed, Khalifa Port, Port Rashid, Port Khalid, Hamriyah Port, Port of Ajman, Saqr Port, Um Al Quwain, Khor Fhakan and Fujairah Port. [ [http://www.athenashipsupplies.com/en/seaports.htm Interactive Map with UAE sea ports] ]
Technology, media and telecommunications
Media is one of the first industries that the emirate of Dubai has sought to develop through a number of micro-cities.
Dubai Media Cityhas helped to make Dubai the media hub for the region, encompassing both the creation of media, from print through television and new media, and the advertising and marketing industry.
A number of international news organizations, including
Reuters, Associated Press, Agence France Press, Bloomberg, Dow Jones Newswires, CNNand the BBC, all have a presence in Dubai Media City, and enjoy complete freedom to report on local and regional events.
The leading English-language newspapers based in the UAE are:
* [http://www.thenational.ae The National]
* [http://www.gulfnews.com/ Gulf News, the highest circulating broadsheet]
* [http://www.7days.ae/ 7DAYS, the highest circulating tabloid]
* [http://www.khaleejtimes.com/ Khaleej Times, the second-highest circulating broadsheet]
* [http://www.business24-7.ae/ Emirates Business 24|7, the UAE's first and only business newspaper]
* [http://www.xpress4me.com/ Xpress, a tabloid published every Thursday, by Gulf News]
From late 2007, the international editions of "
The Times" of London and its sister paper "The Sunday Times" will be printed in Dubai for local distribution.
Internet access is often filtered over the local
proxy serverof the telecommunication company Etisalat. [ [http://www.opennetinitiative.net/studies/uae/] ] Etisalat blocks access to sites it thinks is controversial. All websites of Israeli origin ending with .il are blocked in UAE. Officials have never released a clear statement concerning the reason for VoIPbeing blocked. The only statement released was that the UAE has no regulation for VoIP and only the local telecommunication companies are allowed to use this technology.
The relative cost of broadband services in the U.A.E compared to Europe is high, for example a 2 Mbit/s connection would cost AED349 (95 USD) per month from either Etisalat or Du, compared to approximately AED70 (19 USD) per month for up to 8 Mbit/s in Europe.
New sports are becoming popular alongside traditional
camel racing. Examples of these new sports include golf, with two European Tourevents in the country (the Dubai Desert Classicand the Abu Dhabi Golf Championship) and the world's richest horse race, the Dubai World Cup, held annually in March.
Aside from the international circuit events, the UAE has a healthy indigenous sporting environment with the local community participating in a wide variety of clubs and establishments. The seven emirates regularly compete in national leagues and cups in a multiplicity of sports that are controlled by specialized governing bodies.
The country itself is a prime location for sporting events. The high quality sporting venues (both indoor and outdoor), in addition to the climate, ensure the continuation of activities throughout the winter season. Construction of
Dubai Sports Cityis underway to take advantage of these benefits, and to establish the country as a hub for sports throughout the world.
The UAE has a huge interest in football. The
United Arab Emirates Football Associationwas first established in 1971 and since then has dedicated its time and effort to promoting the game, organising youth programmes and improving the abilities of not only its players, but of the officials and coaches involved with its regional teams. The U.A.E. football team qualified for the World Cup in 1990 - with Egypt it was the third consecutive World Cup with two Arab nations qualifying after Kuwait and Algeria in 1982 and Iraq and Algeria again in 1986.
The UAE National Team won the 2005
Kirin Cup, sharing the cup with Peru after a 1-0 victory over host country Japan.
In 2003 the UAE was the host nation of the
FIFA U-20 World Cupbetween November and December 2003.
In April, Dubai Holding agreed to provide the national team with Dh20 million(US$5.45 million) sponsorship money over the next four years. The fund will also go towards developing the sport.
The UAE also recently won the Gulf Cup soccer championship held in Abu Dhabi January 2007.
The UAE are currently ranked ninety-seventh in the world according to the
A Dubai consortium known as DIC (Dubai International Capital) is also interested in buying the most successful English Premier League club, Liverpool F.C.
The Dubai Duty Free Tennis Championships (part of the ATP International Series Gold at the Aviation Club, Dubai) was bigger than ever in 2000 with no less than six of the top-seeded women’s players taking centre court, a first time appearance by tennis’ golden boy,
Andre Agassi, and the return of the celebrated Roger Federer, who was seeking his third title crown, resulting in some dramatic court action. In an unprecedented move, Dubai Duty Free, organisers of the championship, decided to switch the men’s tournament to the first week of the competition so that it ran from 21 to February 27 and the women’s was played from February 28to March 5.
Cricketis one of the most popular sports in the UAE, this is largely due to the expatriate population from the Indian subcontinent. Sharjah Cricket Association Stadiumin Sharjah has hosted 4 international Test matches so far. Sheikh Zayed Stadiumand Al Jazira Mohammed Bin Zayed Stadiumin Abu Dhabialso hosts international cricket. Dubaialso has two cricket stadiums (Dubai Cricket Ground No.1 and No.2) with a third, 'S3' currently under construction as part of Dubai Sports City. Dubai is also home to the International Cricket Council. [http://content-uk.cricinfo.com/other/content/ground/country.html?country=27]
The United Arab Emirates national cricket team qualified for the
1996 Cricket World Cupand narrowly missed out on qualification for the 2007 Cricket World Cup.
The inhabitants of the Persian Gulf states have enjoyed camel racing for many years as it is considered a traditional sport. [ Dubai By Terry Carter, Lara Dunston, pg. 17] Formalizing camel racing was one way of maintaining its central role in UAE life. In the past, UAE had a reputation for exploiting South Asian as jockeys. However,
Robot jockeys are now used after strict government regulations were passed prohibiting underage jockeys from racing. [The United Arab Emirates Yearbook 2007 By Ibrahim Al Abed, Peter Vine]
The UAE now has no fewer than 15 race tracks across the seven emirates.
Nad Al Sheba Racecourse, 10 kilometers outside of Dubai, Al Wathba, 30 kilometers south-east of Abu Dhabi, and Al Ain track, which is 20 kilometers west of Al Ain, are all large, well-equipped camel tracks with high-tech facilities. Two smaller tracks are located in Sharjah, one in Ra’s al-Khaimah and one in Umm al-Qaiwain. Others are spread throughout the desert areas.
In February 2007 it was announced that
Bernie Ecclestonehad signed a seven year deal with Abu Dhabi, to host a Formula 1race there from the 2009 season. The 5.6 km circuit is to be set on Yas Islandand it will include street and marina sections similar to Monaco's course.
Dubai Sevensround of the IRB Sevens World Seriesat Dubai Exiles Rugby Ground.
The U.A.E. is well-known for its
falconryas it is also considered a traditional sport. [Folklore and Folklife in the United Arab Emirates by Sayyid Hamid Hurriez, Sayyid Hurreiz, pg 143] Many of UAE's rulers were enthusiasts in falconry as the nation imports falcons from all across the globe.
Geography of the United Arab Emirates
Communications in the United Arab Emirates
Human rights in the United Arab Emirates
Freedom of religion in the United Arab Emirates
Politics of the United Arab Emirates
List of companies in the United Arab Emirates
* [http://www.government.ae/gov/en/index.jsp Government of United Arab Emirates]
* [http://www.fujairah.eu/ Fujairah Portal]
* [http://www.wipo.int/about-ip/en/ipworldwide/pdf/ae.pdf World Intellectual Property Handbook: United Arab Emirates]
* Mostovski, M.B. & Brothers, D.J. 2008. [http://palaeoentomolog.ru/Publ/MostovskiBrothers_2008_AI_49_1_P159_160_BookReview_LO.pdf 'ARTHROPOD FAUNA OF THE UAE. Volume 1.' Editor Antonius van Harten.] "
African Invertebrates" 49 (1): 159-160.
* [http://www.mafiwasta.com Mafiwasta - An Organisation for Workers' Rights in the UAE]
title = Geographic locale
list =Template group
title = International membership
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