- History of Islam
Muslim history is the history of Muslim people. In the history of Islam the followers of the religion of Islam have impacted political history, economic history, and military history. The concept of the Islamic world is useful in observing the different periods of Islamic history; similarly useful is an understanding of the identification with a quasi-political community of believers, or ummah. The Islamic cultural identity, or identity as a member of the ummah, has influenced the history of the world. Islamic world territories haves included populations of people of other religions, such as Christian and Jews, and the levels have varied over the centuries.
Three centuries after the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad (High Middle Ages), the Arab Caliphates extended from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to Central Asia in the east. The subsequent empires of the Umayyads, Abbasids, Fatimids, Ghaznavids, Seljuqs, Safavids, Mughals, and Ottomans were among the influential and distinguished powers in the world. The Islamic civilization gave rise to many centers of culture and science and produced notable scientists, astronomers, mathematicians, doctors, nurses and philosophers during the Golden Age of Islam. Technology flourished; there was investment in economic infrastructure, such as irrigation systems and canals; and the importance of reading the Qur'an produced a comparatively high level of literacy in the general populace.
In the later Middle Ages, destructive Mongol invasions from the East, and the loss of population in the Black Death, greatly weakened the traditional centre of the Islamic world, stretching from Persia to Egypt, and the Ottoman Empire was able to conquer most Arabic-speaking areas, creating an Islamic world power again, although one that was to prove unable to develop to meet the challenges of the Early Modern period.
Later, in modern history (18th and 19th centuries), many Islamic regions fell under the influence of European Great powers. After the First World War, the territorial possessions of the Ottoman empire (a Central Powers member) were partitioned and divided into several nations under the terms of the Treaty of Sèvres. Since 1924, there has been no degree of an accepted claim as Caliph (tr., "successor") to the caliphate (tr.,"dominion of successor") [ed., This had been last claimed by the Ottomans].
Modern notions of the texts of Islam portrays the unification of religion and state ruled by a Caliph, and the aspiration of achieving such a contemporary polity has been powerful in the recent centuries of Islamic history; although the size of the Islamic world, and the ambitions of local rulers, meant it has been unrealized since the early Islamic city-states and universal imperial period beginnings. The common slogan al-islam dinun was dawlatun` (tr., Islam is a religion and a state) is neither a Koranic verse nor a quote from the hadith but a 19th century political Salafi slogan popularized in opposition to Western Egyptian influence — a 19th century political origin being no problem for many other ideologies, but a handicap for a belief system predicated on following the scripture revealed in, and the ways of those who lived in, twelve centuries earlier.
Although affected by various other ideologies, such as communism, during much of the 20th century, the Islamic identity and the dominance of Islam on political issues have intensified during the contemporary period (early 21st century). The fast-growing global interests in Islamic regions, international conflicts and globalization have changed the influence of Islam on the world of the 21st century.
Islamic State periods
According to the professor of Middle Eastern studies, Majid Khadduri, the Islamic state and Muslim's system of government evolved through various stages. The precise dates of various periods in history are more or less arbitrarily assumed according to the point of view adopted. The City-state period lasted from 620s to 630s. The Imperial period lasted from 630s to 750s. The Universal period lasted from 750s to around 900s. These corresponds to the early period of the Middle Ages. The "Decentralization" period lasted from around 900s to the early 1500s. This correspond to the high period and late period of the Middle Ages. The "Fragmentation" period lasted from around 1500s, the beginning with the early modern period, to the late 1910s. The contemporary period, referred to as the National period, lasted from 1910s to the present day. Any hard and fast line drawn to designate either the beginning or close of the period in question is arbitrary.
- Dates are approximate, consult particular article for details.
Pre-Islamic Arabia saw Arab people who lived in the Arabian Plate before the rise of Islam in the 630s. In the south of Hedjaz (principal religious and commercial centre of Middle Ages Arabia), the Arabic tribe of Quraysh (Adnani Arabs), to which Mohammed belonged, had been in existence. Near Mecca, the tribe was increasing in power. The Quraysh were the guardians of the Kaaba, within the town of Mecca and was the dominant tribe of Mecca upon the appearance of the religion of Islam. The Kaaba was an important Pagan shrine which also brought revenues to Mecca because of the multitude of pilgrims that it attracted. Muhammad was born into the Banu Hashim tribe of the Quraysh clan, a branch of the Banu Kinanah tribe, descended from Khuzaimah and derived its inheritance from the Khuza'imah (House of Khuza'a).
According to the traditional Islamic view, the Qur'an (Koran) began with revelations to Muhammad Koranic revelations in 610. The verses of the Qur'an were revealed to the Sahabah during Muhammad's life and were written down in the history of the Qur'an. The rise of Islam begins around the time the Muslims took flight, the Hijra, to the city of Medina. With Islam, the effects of blood feuds among the Arabs were lessened. Compensation was paid in money rather than blood or the culprit himself only could be executed.
In 628, the Meccan tribe of Quraish and the Muslim community in Madina had signed a truce called the Treaty of Hudaybiyya beginning a ten-year period of peace, which was broken when the Quraish and their allies, the tribe of 'Bakr', attacked the tribe of 'Khuza'ah', who were allies of the Muslims. In the year 630, Mecca was conquered by the Muslims. Muhammad died in June 632. The Battle of Yamama was fought in December of the same year, between the forces of the first caliph Abu Bakr and Musailima.
City-states and Imperial period
After Muhammed died, a series of Caliphs governed the Islamic State: Abu Bakr (632-634), Umar ibn al-Khattab (Umar І, 634-644), Uthman ibn Affan (644-656), Ali ibn Abi Talib (656-661). These first Caliphs are known as the "Rashidun" or "rightly guided" Caliphs in Sunni Islam, and oversaw the initial phase of the Muslim conquests, conquering Persia, Egypt, the Middle East and North Africa. Begun in the time of Uthman ibn Affan, the compilation of the Qur'an was finished sometime between 650 and 656, Uthman sent copies of it to the different centers of the expanding Islamic empire. From then on, thousands of Muslim scribes began copying the Qur'an. Afterwards, factions arose and the last two Rashidun caliphs were murdered. The death of Uthman was followed by a civil war known as the First Fitna, and the succession to Ali ibn Abi Talib was disputed, leading to the split between the Sunni and Shia traditions in Islam, and later to competing caliphates when the descendants of Muhammad through his daughter Fatimah and Ali set up their own Fatimid caliphate.
After the peace treaty with Ali's son, Hassan ibn Ali, and the suppression of the revolt of the Kharijites, Muawiyah I proclaimed himself Caliph in 661 and began consolidating power. In 663, a new Kharijite revolt resulted in the death of their chief. In 664, Muawiyah and Ziyad ibn Abi Sufyan reached an agreement: the Caliph recognised Ziyad as a brother - Ziyad now adopted the name ibn Abi Sufyan - and appointed him governor at Basra. Muawiyah had arranged for his son Yazid I to be appointed caliph on his death, which came in 680. Husain ibn Ali, by then Muhammad's only living grandson, refused to swear alleigance to Yazid, and he was killed in the Battle of Karbala the same year, an event still mourned by Shia's on the Day of Ashura. Unrest continued in the Second Fitna, but Muslim rule was extended under Muawiyah to Rhodes, Crete, Kabul, Bukhara, and Samarkand, and expanded in North Africa. In 664, Arab armies conquered Kabul, and in 665 pushed into the Maghreb.
- Succession and Umayyad accession
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The Umayyad Caliphate
City-states and Imperial period
The Umayyad dynasty (or Ommiads), whose name derives from Umayya ibn Abd Shams, the great-grandfather of the first Umayyad caliph, ruled as Caliphs from 661 to 750. Although the Umayyad family came from the city of Mecca, Damascus was the capital of their Caliphate. After the death of Abdu'l-Rahman ibn Abu Bakr in 666, Muawiyah I had consolidated his power in the Umayyad Caliphate. The causes which occurred in the Al-Rashidun and Warring period which brought about the triumph of the Umayyad dynasty led Muawiyah I to substitute Damascus for Medina as the seat of the Caliphate; an event which led to profound changes in the historical power and Muslim empire, and exercised a considerable influence on its development. In the same way, at a later date, the transfer of the Caliphate from Damascus to Baghdad marked the accession of a new family to the supreme power, and gave Islam a new direction. The Umayyads viewed Islam as a religion exclusively for Arabs. Umayyads, the Muslim minority ruling class, structured the state based on a system that the Dhimmis would pay taxes. A non-Arab who wanted to convert to Islam was supposed to first become a client of an Arab tribe. After conversion in the period, non-Arab converts, called mawali, did not achieve social and economic equality with Arab Muslims.
At its largest extent, the Umayyad dynasty covered more than five million square miles, making it one of the largest empires the world had yet seen, and the fifth largest contiguous empire ever to exist. After the Umayyads were overthrown by the Abbasid Caliphate, they fled across North Africa to Al-Andalus, where they established the Caliphate of Córdoba, which lasted until 1031.
Caliphs at Damascus
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Muawiyah beautified Damascus, and developed a court to rival that of Constantinople. He expanded the frontiers of the empire, reaching the very gates of Constantinople at one point, though the Byzantines drove him back and he was unable to hold any territory in Anatolia. Sunni Muslims credit him with saving the fledgling Muslim nation from post civil war anarchy. However, Shia Muslims charge that if anything, he was the instigator of the civil war, and weakened the Muslim nation and divided the Ummah, fabricating self-aggrandizing heresies and slander against the Prophet's family and even selling his Muslim critics into slavery in the Byzantine empire. One of Muawiyah's most controversial and enduring legacies was his decision to designate his son Yazid as his successor. According to Shi'a doctrine, this was a clear violation of the treaty he made with Hasan ibn Ali, in which Muawiyah said he would not make his son his successor.
During the caliphate of Yazid, Muslims suffered several setbacks. In 682 AD Yazid restored Uqba ibn Nafi as the governor of North Africa. Uqba won battles against the Berbers and Byzantines. From there Uqba marched on thousands of miles westward towards Tangier, where he reached the Atlantic coast, and then marched eastwards through the Atlas Mountains. With cavalry numbering about 300, he proceeded towards Biskra where he was ambushed by a Berber force under Kaisala. Uqba and all his men died fighting. The Berbers launched an attack and drove Muslims from north Africa for a period. This was a major setback for the Muslims, because of this they lost supremacy at sea, and had to abandon the islands of Rhodes and Crete.
The following years the Umayyad's reign, under Muawiya II, was marked by civil wars (Second Fitna). This would ease in the reign of Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan, a well-educated man and capable ruler. Despite the many political problems that impeded his rule, all important records were translated into Arabic. In his reign, a special currency for the Muslim world was minted. This led to war with the Byzantine Empire under Justinian II (Battle of Sebastopolis) in 692 in Asia Minor. The Byzantines were decisively defeated by the Caliph after the defection of a large contingent of Slavs. The Islamic currency was then made the only currency exchange in the Muslim world. Also, many reforms happened in his time as regards agriculture and commerce. Abd al-Malik consolidated Muslim rule and extended it, made Arabic the state language, and organized a regular postal service.
Al-Walid I began the next stage of the Islamic conquests and took the early Islamic empire to its farthest extents. He reconquered parts of Egypt from the Byzantine Empire and moved on into Carthage and across to the west of North Africa. Muslim armies under Tariq ibn Ziyad crossed the Strait of Gibraltar and began to conquer Spain using North African Berber armies. The Visigoths of Spain had been defeated when the Umayyad conquered Lisbon. Spain would be the farthest extent of Islamic control of Europe (they were stopped at the Battle of Tours). In the east, Islamic armies under Muhammad bin Qasim made it as far as the Indus Valley — under Al-Walid, the caliphate empire stretched from Spain to India. Al-Hajjaj bin Yousef played a crucial role in the organization and selection of military commanders. Al-Walid paid great attention to the expansion of an organized military, building the strongest navy in Ummayad era, it was this tactic that supported the ultimate expansion to Spain. His reign is considered as the apex of Islamic power.
Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik was hailed as caliph the day al-Walid died. He appointed Yazid ibn al-Muhallab governor of Mesopotamia. Sulayman ordered the arrest and execution of the family of al-Hajjaj, one of two prominent leaders (the other was Qutaibah bin Muslim) who had supported the succession of al-Walid's son Yazid, rather than Sulayman. Al-Hajjaj had predeceased al-Walid, so he was no longer alive to pose a threat. Qutaibah renounced allegiance to Sulayman, though his troops rejected his appeal to revolt. They killed him and sent his head to Sulayman. Sulayman did not move to Damascus on becoming Caliph, but rather he remained in Ramla in Palestine. Sulayman sent Maslamah ibn Abd al-Malik to attack the Byzantine capital (siege of Constantinople). After the intervention of Bulgaria on Byzantine side it ultimately proved to be unsuccessful. The siege of Constantinople failed to take the city and was sustaining heavy losses at the hands of allied Byzantine and Bulgarian forces. Sulayman died suddenly in 717.
Umar II, after the death of Sulayman and ascension to the Caliph position, strictly enforced the Sharia. Though, he would abolish the Jizya tax for converts to Islam, who were former dhimmis and were taxed even after they had converted under other Umayyad rulers. Umar II ordered the first collection of hadith material in an official manner, fearing that some of it might be lost. Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad ibn Hazm and Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri, are among those who compiled hadiths at Umar's behest. Umar also sent Ibn Hatim ibn al-Nu'man to repel Turks invading Azerbaijan. He faced Kharijite uprising and preferred negotiations to armed conflict, personally holding talks with two Kharijite envoys shortly before his death. He recalled the troops besieging Constantinople. This was a serious blow to Umayyad prestige.
Yazid II came to power on the death of Umar II. Yazid fought the Kharijites, whom Umar had been negotiating, and killed the Kharijite leader Shawdhab. In Yazid's reign, numerous civil wars began to break out in different parts of the empire. Yazid pushed into the Caucasus and expanded the Caliphate's territory. He died in 724. Inheriting the caliphate from his brother Yazid II, Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik was ruling an empire with many different problems. He would, however, be effective in attending to these problems, and in allowing the Umayyad empire to continue as an entity. His long rule was an effective one, and it saw a rebirth of reforms that were originated by Umar II. Under Hisham's rule, regular raids against the Byzantines continued. In North Africa, Kharijite teachings combined with natural local restlessness to produce a significant Berber revolt. He was also faced with a revolt by Zayd bin Ali. Hisham put down both revolts. Despite Hisham's successes, the Abbasids continued to gain power, building power bases in Khurasan and Iraq. However, they would not prove strong enough to make a move yet. Some of them were caught, punished or executed by eastern governors. The Battle of Akroinon, a decisive Byzantine victory, was in the final campaign of the Umayyad dynasty. Hisham died in 743.
Al-Walid II saw political intrigue in his reign as Caliph. During the reign of his cousin al-Walid II, Yazid III spoke out against Walid's "immorality" which included discrimination on behalf of the Banu Qays Arabs against Yemenis and non-Arab Muslims, and Yazid received further support from the Qadariya and Murji'iya (believers in human free will). Walid was shortly thereafter deposed in a coup. Following this up with a disbursement of funds from the treasury, Yazid acceded to the Caliph and explained that he had rebelled on behalf of the Book of Allah and the Sunna. Yazid reigned for six months, having various groups refuse allegiance to him and experiencing the rise of dissident movements, and died. Ibrahim ibn al-Walid, named heir apparent by his brother Yazid III, only ruled for a short time in 744 before he abdicated. Marwan II ruled from 744 until 750 when he was killed. He was the last Umayyad ruler to rule from Damascus. Marwan named his two sons Ubaydallah and Abdallah heirs. He appointed governors and proceeded to assert his authority by force. However, anti-Umayyad feeling was very prevalent, especially in Iran and Iraq. The Abbasids had gained much support. As such, Marwan's reign as caliph was almost entirely devoted to trying to keep the Umayyad empire together. Marwan's death signalled the end of Umayyad fortunes in the East, and was followed by the mass-killing of Umayyads by the Abbasids. Almost the entire Umayyad dynasty was killed, except for the talented prince Abd ar-Rahman who escaped to Spain and founded an Umayyad dynasty there.
Universal period and decentralization
Islamic Golden Age
The gains of the Ummayad empire were consolidated upon when the Abbasid dynasty rose to power in 750, with the conquest of the Mediterranean islands including the Balearics and Sicily. The ruling party had been instated on the wave of dissatisfaction propagated against the Ummayads, cultured by the Abbasid revolutionary, Abu Muslim. Under the Abbasids, Islamic civilization flourished. Most notable was the development of Arabic prose and poetry, termed by The Cambridge History of Islam as its "golden age". This was also the case for commerce and industry (considered a Muslim Agricultural Revolution), and the arts and sciences (considered a Muslim Scientific Revolution), which prospered, under the rule of Abbasid caliphs al-Mansur (ruled 754 — 775), Harun al-Rashid (ruled 786 — 809), al-Ma'mun (ruled 809 — 813), and their immediate successors.
Islamic States Universal Golden period Decentralized territory
Baghdad was made the capital of the caliphate (moved from the previous capital, Damascus) due to the importance placed by the Abbasids upon eastern affairs in Persia and Transoxania. It was at this time however, that the caliphate showed signs of fracture and we witness the uprising of regional dynasties. Although the Ummayad family had been killed by the revolting Abbasids, one family member, Abd ar-Rahman I, was able to flee to Spain and establish an independent caliphate there in 756. In the Maghreb region, Harun al-Rashid appointed the Arab Aghlabids as virtually autonomous rulers, although they continued to recognise the authority of the central caliphate. Aghlabid rule was short lived, as they were deposed by the Shiite Fatimid dynasty in 909. By around 960, the Fatimids had conquered Abbasid Egypt, building a capital there in 973 called "al-Qahirah" (meaning "the planet of victory", known today as Cairo). Similar was the case in Persia, where the Turkic Ghaznavids managed to snatch power from the Abbasids. Whatever temporal power of the Abbasids remained had been consumed by the Great Seljuq Empire (a Muslim Turkish clan which had migrated into mainland Persia), in 1055.
During this time, expansion continued, sometimes by military warfare, sometimes by peaceful proselytism. The first stage in the conquest of India began just before the year 1000. By some 200 (from 1193 — 1209) years later, the area up to the Ganges river had been conquered. In sub-Saharan West Africa, it was just after the year 1000 that Islam was established. Muslim rulers are known to have been in Kanem starting from sometime between 1081 to 1097, with reports of a Muslim prince at the head of Gao as early as 1009. The Islamic kingdoms associated with Mali reached prominence later, in the 13th century.
The Abbasids began to develop Islamic initiatives aimed at greater unity. Islamic faith and mosques separated by doctrine, history, and practice were driven to cooperate. The Abbasids also distinguished themselves from the Umayyads by attacking their moral character and administration in general. According to Ira Lapidus, "The Abbasid revolt was supported largely by Arabs, mainly the aggrieved settlers of Marw with the addition of the Yemeni faction and their Mawali". The Abbasids also appealed to non-Arab Muslims, known as mawali, who remained outside the kinship-based society of the Arabs and were perceived as a lower class within the Umayyad empire. Islamic ecumenism, promoted by the Abbasids, refers to the idea of unity of the Ummah in the literal meaning: that there was a single faith. Islamic philosophy developed as the Shariah was codified, and the four Madhabs were established and built. This era also saw the rise of classical Sufism. The achievement, however, was completion of the canonical collections of Hadith of Sahih Bukhari and others. Islam recognized to a certain extent the validity of the Abrahamic religions, the Qur'an identifying Jews, Christians, Zoroastrians, and "Sabi'un" or "baptists" (usually taken as a reference to the Mandeans and related Mesopotamian groups) as "people of the book". Toward the beginning of the high Middle Ages, the Abbasids saw the doctrines of the Sunni and Shia, two major denominations of Islam, created and the divisions of the world beyond their control would form. These trends would continue into the Fatimid and Ayyubid periods.
In addition, the Caliphate under the Abbasid evolved into an Islamic monarchy (unitary system of government) and the regional Sultanate and Emirate governors' existence, validity, or legality were acknowledge for unity of the state. In early Islamic philosophy of the Iberian Umayyads, Averroes presented an argument in The Decisive Treatise providing a justification for the emancipation of science and philosophy from official Ash'ari theology, thus Averroism has been considered a precursor to modern secularism.
Golden Baghdad Abbasids
Early Middle Ages
- Consult particular article for details
According to Arab sources in the year 750, Al-Saffah, the founder of the Abbasid Caliphate, launched a massive rebellion against the discriminatory Umayyad Caliphate from the province of Khurasan near Talas. After eliminating the entire Umayyad family and victory at the Battle of the Zab, Al-Saffah and his forces marched into Damascus and founded a new dynasty. His forces confronted many regional powers and consolidated the realm of the Abbasid Caliphate.
In Al-Mansur's time, there was an emergence of Persian scholarship. Also, there was a conversion of many non-Arabs to Islam. The Umayyads actively tried to discourage conversion in order to continue the collection of the jizya, or the tax on non-Muslims. The inclusiveness of the Abbasid regime, and that of al-Mansur, saw the expansion of Islam among its territory; in 750, roughly 8% of residents in the Caliphate were Muslims. This would double to 15% by the end of Al-Mansur's reign. Al-Mahdi, whose name means "Rightly-guided" or "Redeemer", was proclaimed caliph when his father was on his deathbed. The cosmopolitan city of Baghdad blossomed during Al-Mahdi's reign. The city attracted immigrants from all of Arabia, Iraq, Syria, Persia, and lands as far away as India and Spain. Baghdad was home to Christians, Jews, Hindus, and Zoroastrians, in addition to the growing Muslim population. It became the world's largest city. Al-Hadi was, like his father, very open to the people of his empire and allowed citizens to visit him in the palace at Baghdad to address him. As such, he was considered an "enlightened ruler", and continued the progressive moves of his Abbasid predecessors. His short rule was wreaked with numerous military conflicts.
The military conflicts would subside as Harun al-Rashid ruled. Al-Rashid reign was marked by scientific, cultural and religious prosperity. He established the library Bayt al-Hikma ("House of Wisdom") and the arts and music flourished during his reign. The family of Barmakids which played a deciding role in establishing the Abbasid Caliphate declined gradually during his rule.
Al-Amin, according to signed pledges during a pilgrimage to Mecca, received the Caliphate from his father Harun Al-Rashid. Al-Amin faced Internal rebellions. The rebellion by Tahir resulted in Baghdad being besieged. Tahir led reinforcements to regain positions lost by another officer. When Tahir pushed into the city, Al-Amin sought to negotiate safe passage out. Tahir agreed on the condition Al-Amin turn over his sceptre, seal and other signs of being caliph. Al-Amin tried to leave on a boat and rejected warnings he should wait. Tahir noticed the boat. Al-Amin was thrown into the water, swam to shore, was captured and executed. His head was placed on the Al-Anbar Gate.
The Abbasids soon became caught within a three-way rivalry of Coptic Arabs, Indo-Persians, and the immigrant Turks. In addition, the cost of running a large empire became too great. The Turks, Egyptians, and Arabs belong to the Sunnite sect; the tenets of the Shiites are professed by the Persians, a great portion of the Turkic groups, and several of the princes in India. The political unity of Islam began to disintegrate. Independent dynasties, but still under the influence of the theoretical leadership of Abbasid caliphs, appeared in the Muslim world, and the caliphs recognized such dynasties as legitimate Muslim dynasties. The first of such dynasties was the Tahirid dynasty which was founded during the caliph Al-Ma'mun in the eastern portions of the empire, in Khorasan, and was nominally subject to the Abbasid caliphate. Subsequent similar dynasties which were independent yet recognized by the Abbasid caliph were the Saffarids, Samanids, Ghaznavids and Seljuqs. During this time, advancements were made in the areas of astronomy, poetry, philosophy, science, and mathematics.
High Baghdad Abbasids
Early Middle Ages
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On Al-Amin's death, Al-Ma'mun became Caliph. Al-Ma'mun grew the Abbasid empire somewhat during his reign and dealt with rebellions. Al-Ma'mun had been named governor of Khurasan by Harun, and after his ascension to power, the caliph named Tahir as governor for his military services in order to assure his loyalty. Tahir and his family became entrenched in Iranian politics and became powerful in the state, contrary to Al-Ma'mun's desire to centralize and strengthen Caliphal power. The rising power of the Tahirid dynasty became a threat as Al-Ma'mun's own policies alienated them and his other opponents.
Al-Ma'mun directed his efforts toward the centralization of power and the certainty of succession. Although Al-Mahdi had proclaimed that the caliph was the protector of Islam against heresy, and had also claimed the ability to declare orthodoxy, religious scholars in the Islamic world believed that Al-Ma'mun was overstepping his bounds in the Mihna. The Mihna was the Abbasid inquisitions. The Ulama emerged as a real force in Islamic politics during Al-Ma'mun's reign for opposing the inquisitions, which was initiated in 833, only four months before he died. The Ulema and the major Islamic law schools became truly defined in the period of Al-Ma'mun and Sunnism, as a religion of legalism, became defined in parallel. Doctrinal differences between Sunni and Shi'a Islam began to become more pronounced.
In the time Al-Ma'mun as Caliph, the Arabs and the Byzantines border wars increased. Al-Ma'mun made preparations for a major campaign and died on the way while leading an expedition in Sardis. Al-Ma'mun's relations with the Byzantine Greeks is marked by his efforts in the translation of Greek philosophy and science. Al-Ma'mun gathered scholars of many religions at Baghdad, whom he treated well and with tolerance. He sent an emissary to the Byzantine Empire to collect the most famous manuscripts there, and had them translated into Arabic. His reign also saw alchemy developed and the pioneers of the science. Shortly before his death, during a visit to Egypt in 832, the caliph ordered the breaching of the Great Pyramid of Giza looking for knowledge and treasure. He entered the pyramid by tunneling into the Great Pyramid near where tradition located the original entrance. Al-Ma'mun later died near Tarsus under questionable circumstances and was succeeded not by his son, Al-Abbas ibn Al-Ma'mun, but by his half-brother, Al-Mu'tasim.
As Caliph, Al-Mu'tasim promptly ordered the dismantling of al-Ma'mun's military base at Tyana. He dealt with Khurramite revolts. One of the most difficult problems facing this Caliph, as faced his predecessor, was the uprising of Babak Khorramdin, but overcame the rebels and secured a significant victory of this reign. The Byzantine emperor Theophilus launched an attack against a number of Abbasid fortresses. Al-Mu'tasim launched a well planned response. Al-Afshin met and defeated Theophilus at the Battle of Anzen. On his return home, he became aware of a serious military commanders conspiracy which lead to reliance of this caliph and his successors upon Turkish commanders and the ghilman slave-soldiers (foreshadowing the Mamluk system). The Khurramiyyah were never fully suppressed, although they slowly vanished during the reigns of succeeding Caliphs. Near the end of al-Mu'tasim's life there was an uprising in Palestine, but he defeated the rebels.
In Al-Mu'tasim's reign, the Tahirid dynasty continued to grow in power. The Tahirids were exempted from many tributes and oversight functions. The independence of the Tahirids contributed to the decline of Abbasid supremacy in the east. Ideologically, al-Mu'tasim followed the footstep of his half-brother al-Ma'mun. He continued his predecessors support for the islamic sect of Mu'tazila, applying his brutal military methods for torture. Also of note, the Arab mathematician Al-Kindi was employed by Al-Mu'tasim, and tutored the Caliph's son. Al-Kindi had served at the House of Wisdom and continued his studies in Greek geometry and algebra under the caliph's patronage.
Al-Wathiq succeeded his father, Al-Mutasim. Al-Wathiq dealt with opposition in Arabia, Syria, Palestine and in Baghdad. He, using a famous sword, personally joined in the execution of the Baghdad rebels. The revolts were the result of an increasingly large gap between Arab populations and the Turkish armies. The revolts were put down, but antagonism between the two groups continued to widen, with the Turkish forces gaining power. He also secured a captive exchange of with the Byzantines. Al-Wathiq was a patron of scholars, as well as artists. He personally had musical talents and is reputed to have composed over one-hundred songs.
When Al-Wathiq died of high fever, Al-Mutawakkil succeeded him to the Caliph position. Al-Mutawakkil's reign is remembered for its many reforms and viewed as a golden age of the Abbasids. He would be the last great Abbasid caliph; after his death the dynasty would fall into a decline. Al-Mutawakkil put an end to the Mihna. Al-Mutawakkil built the Great Mosque of Samarra. This was part of an extension of Samarra eastwards that built upon part of the walled royal hunting park. Al-Mutawakkil also built many palaces. During his reign, Al-Mutawakkil met the famous Byzantine theologian Constantine the Philosopher, who was sent to tighten the diplomatic relations between the Empire and the Caliphate in a state mission by the Emperor Michael III. Al-Mutawakkil was also keen to involve himself in many religious debates, something that would show in his actions against different minorities. The Shīʻa population faced repression and this was embodied in the destruction of the shrine of Hussayn ibn ʻAlī, an action that was carried out obstensibly in order to stop pilgrimages to that site. Al-Mutawakkil continued to rely on Turkish statesmen and slave soldiers to put down rebellions and lead battles against foreign empires, notably the Byzantines, from who Sicily was captured. Al-Mutawakkil was assassinated, murdered by a Turkish soldier.
Al-Muntasir succeeded to the throne of the Caliphate on that same day Al-Mutawakkil was killed with the support of the Turkish faction, though he was implicated in the crime. The Turkish party had al-Muntasir remove his brothers from the succession, fearing revenge for the murder of their father. Both brothers wrote statements of abdication. In his reign, Al-Muntasir removed the ban on pilgrimage to the tombs of Hassan and Hussayn and sent Wasif to raid the Byzantines. Al-Muntasir's reign ended with his death of unknown causes. The Turkish chiefs held a council to select al-Muntasir successor. and elected Al-Musta'in. The Arabs and western troops from Baghdad, displeased at the choice, attacked. Baghdad had yet to learn that the Caliphate no longer depended on Arabian choice, but had passed into other hands. After the Muslim campaign against the Christians which were unfortunate for the caliphate, people blamed the Turks that had brought disaster on the faith and murdered their Caliphs; setting up others at their pleasure. After the Turks besiege Baghdad, Al-Musta'in planned to abdicate to Al-Mu'tazz but was put to death by the order of Al-Mu'tazz. Al-Mu'tazz was placed upon the throne by the Turks, the youngest Abbasaid Caliph to assume power.
Four constructions of Islamite law
Literature and Science
- Hunayn ibn Ishaq, physician, Greek translator;
- Ibn Fadlan, explorer;
- Al Battani, astronomer;
- Tabari, historian and theologian;
- Al-Razi, philosopher, medic, chemist;
- Al-Farabi, chemist and philosopher;
- Abu Nasr Mansur, mathematician;
- Alhazen, mathematician;
- Al-Biruni, mathematician, astronomer, physicist;
- Omar Khayyám, poet, mathematician, and astronomer;
- Mansur Al-Hallaj, Sufism mystic, writer and teacher
Al-Mu'tazz proved but too apt a pupil of his Turkish masters and was surrounded by parties each jealous of the other. At Samarra, the Turks were having problems with the "Westerns" (Berbers and Moors); while the Arabs and Persians at Baghdad, who had supported al-Musta'in, regarded both with equal hatred. Al-Mu'tazz put to death his brothers, Al-Mu'eiyyad and Abu Ahmed. The revenues were squandered at the reckless Court, which resulted in a revolt of Turks, Africans, and Persians for their pay. Al-Mu'tazz was shortly thereafter depose, with brutal inhumanity. Al-Muhtadi was next was appointed to be the Caliph. He was a firm and virtuous Caliph compared to the earlier appoint Caliphs, though the Turks held the power of the state. Under him, the Court soon saw a transformation of virtue. He, though, was killed by the Turks soon after ascending to the throne. Al-Mu'tamid next held the title of caliph for 23 years, though he was a largely a ruler in name only. After the Zanj Rebellion, Al-Mu'tamid summoned al-Muwaffak to help him. From that point forward, Al-Muwaffaq essentially ruled as Caliph in all but name. The Hamdanids were founded by Hamdan ibn Hamdun (after whom it is named), when he was appointed governor of Mardin in Anatolia by the Caliphs in 890. Al-Mu'tamid later transferred substantial authority to his son, al-Mu'tadid, and never regained any real power. The Tulunids were the first independent state in Islamic Egypt, when they broke away during this time from the central authority of the Abbasids.
Al-Mu'tadid ably administer the Caliphate. Egypt returned to is allegiance and Mesopotamia was for the time restored to order. He was tolerant towards Shi'a community, but toward the Umayyad community he was not so just. Al-Mu'tadid was cruel in his punishments, some of which are not surpassed by those of his predecessors. For example, the Kharijite leader at Mosul was paraded about Baghdad clothed in a robe of silk, of which Kharijites denounced as sinful, and then crucified. Upon Al-Mu'tadid's death, his son by a Turkish slave-girl, Al-Muktafi, succeeded to the throne.
Al-Muktafi became a favorite of the people for his generosity, and for abolishing his father's secret prisons, the terror of Baghdad. During his reign, the Caliphate was threatened by various dangers, such as the Carmathians, which were overcome. Hostilities prevailed more or less with the Byzantines, who were not slow to take advantage of the difficulties of the Caliphate. War was kept up with various fortune on both sides. Upon his death, the vazir chose Al-Muqtadir as the next Caliph. Al-Muqtadir's reign was a constant record of his thirteen Vazirs, one rising on the fall, or on the assassination, of another. The long reign of this Caliph brought the Empire to the lowest ebb. The stand made during the last three reigns to stay the downward progress at last came to an end and the Abbasid continued its decline. Africa was lost, and Egypt nearly. Mosul had thrown off its dependence, and the Greeks could make raids at pleasure on the helpless border. In the East, thought, there still was kept up a formal recognition of the Caliphate, even by those who virtually claimed their independence.
At the end of the Early Baghdad Abbasids period, Empress Zoe Karbonopsina pressed for an armistice with Al-Muqtadir and arranged for the ransom of the Muslim prisoner while the Byzantine frontier was threatened by Bulgarians. This only added to the disorder of the city of Baghdad. Though despised by the people, Al-Muqtadir was again placed in power after upheavals in the capital. Al-Muqtadir was eventually slain outside the city gates. On the death of al-Muqtadir, the courtiers chose the late Caliph's brother al-Qahir; but he was an even worse than al-Muqtadir. Refusing to abdicate, his eyes were blinded, and he was cast into prison.
Ar-Radi, son of al-Muqtadir, ascended to the position of Calip but saw only a succession of misfortune. Praised for his piety, he became the mere tool of the de facto ruling Minister, Ibn Raik (Amir al-Umara; 'Amir of the Amirs'). Ibn Raik held the reins of government and his name was conjoined with the Caliph's in the public prayers. Around this period, the Hanbalis, supported by popular sentiment, carried things and set up in fact a kind of 'Sunni inquisition'. Ar-Radi is commonly spoken of as the last of the real Caliphs: the last to deliver orations at the Friday service, to hold assemblies to discuss with philosophers and discuss the questions of the day, or to take counsel on the affairs of State; the last to distribute largess among the needy, or to interpose to temper the severity of cruel officers. Thus ended the Early Baghdad Abbasids.
In the late mid-930s, the Ikhshidids of Egypt carried the Arabic title "Wali" reflecting their position as governors on behalf of the Abbasids, the first governor (Muhammad bin Tughj Al-Ikhshid) was installed by the Abbasid Caliph. They gave him and his descendants the Wilayah for 30 years, the last name Ikhshid is Soghdian for "prince" by the Caliph.
Also in the 930s, the founders of the Būyid confederation were ‘Alī ibn Būyah and his two younger brothers, al-Hassan and Aḥmad. Originally a soldier in the service of the Ziyārīds of Ṭabaristān, ‘Alī was able to recruit an army to defeat a Turkish general from Baghdad named Yāqūt in 934. Over the next nine years the three brothers gained control of the remainder of the 'Abbāsid Caliphate. While they accepted the titular authority of the caliph in Baghdad, the Būyid rulers assumed effective control of the state. The Būyid confederation had large territorial gains. Fars and Jibal were conquered. Central Iraq, which submitted in 945, the Būyids took Kermān (967), Oman (967), the Jazīra (979), Ṭabaristān (980), and Gorgan (981). After this, however, the Būyids went into a slow decline, with pieces of the confederation gradually breaking off and local dynasties under their rule becoming de facto independent.
Middle Baghdad Abbasids
Early High Middle Ages
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and the States of the Crusades
During the beginning of the Middle Baghdad Abbasids, the Caliphate had become of little importance. Bajkam, Amir al-Umara, contented himself with despatching to Baghdad his secretary, who assembled the chief men to elect a successor. The choice fell on the Al-Muttaqi. Bajkam shortly thereafter went out on a hunting party and met his death at the hands of a band of marauding Kurds. In the ensuing anarchy in Baghdad, Ibn Raik persuaded the Caliph to flee to Mosul and was welcomed by the Hamdanid. The Hamdanid assassinated Ibn Raik and the Hamdanid Nasir ad-Daula advanced on Baghdad. At Baghdad, mercenaries and the well-organised Turks repelled the Hamdanid; the Turkish general Tuzun gained the position of Amir al-Umara. The Turks were staunch Sunnis. A fresh a conspiracy placed the Caliph in danger. Hamdanid troops helped him escape; fleeing to Mosul and, after, to Nasibin. Tuzun and the Hamdanid were stalemated and Al-Muttaqi was at Ar Raqqah. Later, Al-Muttaqi went to Tuzun and was deposed from the Caliphate. Tuzun installed the blinded Caliph's cousin as successor, with the title of Al-Mustakfi. Tuzun, with the Caliph, marched against the Buwayhid dynasty and the Hamdanids. Soon after, Tuzun died, and was succeeded by Abu Ja'far, one of his generals. The Buwayhids marched on Baghdad and Abu Ja'far with the Caliph fled into hiding. Buwayhid Sultan Muiz ud-Daula assumed the command and the Caliph was in abject submission to the Amir. Eventually, Al-Mustakfi was blinded and deposed. The city rose in chaos, and the Caliph's palace was looted.
Significant Middle Abbasid Muslims
After the Buwayhids controlled Baghdad, Al-Muti became caliph. the office was shorn real power and Shi'a observances were set up. the Buwayhids maintained their hold on Baghdad over one hundred years. The Caliphate of Baghdad through the Buwayhid reign was at its lowest ebb but was recognized religiously, except Iberia. Buwayhid Sultan Muiz ud-Daula was prevented from raising to throne a Shi'a Caliph by alarm for his own safety, and fear of rebellion, not in the capital alone, but all around. The next Abbasid Baghdad Caliph, Al-Ta'i, saw the strife of Syria's factions — Fatimid, Turkish, and Carmathian. The Buwayhid dynasyty was also fractured. The Abbasid borders were the responsibility of the petty states on the borders of the dominion. After Byzantine Emperor John Tzimisces' campaign, Al-Ta'i was deposed. Al-Qadir was recalled and appointed to the office. During his Caliphate, Mahmud of Ghazni look after the empire. The great Mahmud of Ghazni, of Eastern fame, held always a friendly attitude towards the Caliphs, and his victories in the Indian Empire were accordingly announced from the pulpits of Baghdad in grateful and glowing terms. The global Muslim population had climbed to about 4 per cent as against the Christian population of 10 per cent by 1000. Al-Qadir fostered the Sunni struggle against Shiʿism and decreed against heresies such as the Baghdad Manifesto and the createdness of the Qurʾan. He in fact outlawed the Muʿtazila and the end of Islamic philosophy. During this and the next Caliphs' period, Islamic literature, especially Persian literature, flourished under the patronage of the Buwayhids. During Al-Qa'im's reign, the Buwayhid ruler often fled the capital and the Seljuq dynasty gained power. Toghrül overran Syria and Armenia. He then made his way into the Capital, where he was well received both by chiefs and people. In Bahrain, the Qarmatian state collapsed in Al-Hasa. Arabia, recovered from the Fatimids, acknowledged again the spiritual jurisdiction of the Abbasids. Al-Muqtadi was honored by the Seljuq Sultan Malik-Shah I, during whose reign the Caliphate was recognized throughout the extending range of Seljuq conquest. The Sultan, though, grew critical of the Caliph's interference in affairs of state but died before deposing the last of the Caliphs of the Middle Baghdad Abbasids.
Late Baghdad Abbasids
Late High Middle Ages
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The Late Baghdad Abbasids reigned from the beginning of the Crusades to the Seventh Crusade. Here, the Baghdad Abbasids reign began with Al-Mustazhir. Al-Mustadhir was politically irrelevant, despite the civil strife at home and the appearance of the First Crusade in Syria. An attempt was even made by Raymond IV of Toulouse to attack Baghdad, but he was defeated at the Battle of Manzikert. The global Muslim population had climbed to about 5 per cent as against the Christian population of 11 per cent by 1100. In the Late Baghdad Abbasids, Jerusalem was captured by the crusaders and its inhabitants were massacred. Preachers travelled throughout the caliphate proclaiming the tragedy and rousing men to recover the Al-Aqsa Mosque from hands of the European Crusaders (Muslim infidels) . The eastern provinces, though, were occupied with their own troubles. Crowds of exiles rallied for war against the Franks (the name used by Muslims for the crusaders). Neither the Sultan nor the Caliph were interested in sending an army west.
Al-Mustarshid achieved more independence as a ruler while the sultan Mahmud II of Great Seljuq was engaged in war in the East. The Banu Mazyad (Mazyadid State) general, Dubays ibn Sadaqa (emir of Al-Hilla), plundering Bosra and attacked Baghdad together with a young brother of the sultan, Ghiyath ad-Din Mas'ud. Dubays was however crushed by a Seljuq army under Zengi, founder of Zengid dynasty. Mahmud's death was followed by a Seljuq western territories civil war between his son Dawud, his nephew Mas'ud and the atabeg Toghrul II. Zengi was recalled to the East by certain rebel members, stimulated by the Caliph and Dubays. Zengi was beaten and fled. The Caliph pursued him to Mosul, and besieged him there but without success for three months. Mas'ud supported Zengi, besieged by al-Mustarshid's troops in Mosul. It was nonetheless a milestone in the revival of the military power of the caliphate.
After the siege of Damascus (1134), Zengi undertook operations in Syria. Al-Mustarshid launched a military campaign against sultan Mas'ud of western Seljuq and was taken prisoner. He was later found murdered. His son, Al-Rashid failed at independence from Seljuq Turks. Zengi, because of the murder of Dubays, set up a rival Sultan. Mas'ud attacked; the Caliph and Zengi, hopeless of success, escaped to Mosul. The Sultan's power restored, a council was held, the Caliph deposed, and his uncle, son of Al-Muqtafi, appointed as the new Caliph. Ar-Rashid fled to Isfahan and was killed by Hashshashins.
Continued disunion and contests between Seljuq Turks afforded al-Muqtafi opportunity of not only maintaining his authority in Baghdad, but also extending it throughout Iraq. In 1139, al-Muqtafi granted protection to the Nestorian patriarch Abdisho III. The Caliph, as the Crusade was raging furiously, successfully defended Baghdad against Muhammad II of Seljuq in the Siege of Baghdad (1157). The Sultan and the Caliph despatched men in response to an appeal Zengi, but neither the Seljuqs, nor the Caliph, nor their Amirs, had any enthusiasm in war against Crusaders. The next caliph, Al-Mustanjid, saw the Fatimid dynasty extinguished (lasting over 260 years) by Saladin and thus the spiritual supremacy of the Abbasids again prevailed. Al-Mustadi's reign was during the time that Saladin become the sultan of Egypt and declared his allegiance to the Abbasids. An-Nasir, "The Victor for the Religion of God", attempted to restore the Caliphate to its ancient dominant role. He consistently held Iraq from Tikrit to the Gulf without interruption. His long reign of forty-seven years is chiefly marked by ambitious and corrupt dealings with the Tartar chiefs, and by his hazardous invocation of the Mongols, which so soon brought his own dynasty to an end. His son, Az-Zahir, was Caliph for a short period before his death and An-Nasir's grandson, Al-Mustansir, was made caliph. Al-Mustansir founded the Mustansiriya Madrasah. In 1236 Ögedei Khan commanded to raise up Khorassan and populated Herat. The Mongol military governors mostly made their camp in Mughan plain, Azerbaijan. Realizing the danger of the Mongols, rulers of Mosul and Cilician Armenia submitted to the Great Khan. Chormaqan divided the Transcaucasia region into three districts based on military hierarchy. In Georgia, the population were temporarily divided into eight tumens. By 1237 the Mongol Empire had subjugated most of Persia, excluding Abbasid Iraq and Ismaili strongholds, and all of Afghanistan and Kashmir.
Al-Musta'sim was the last Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad and is noted for his opposition to the rise of Shajar al-Durr to the Egyptian throne during the Seventh Crusade. To the east, Mongol forces under Hulagu Khan which swept through the Transoxiana and Khorasan. Baghdad was sacked and the caliph deposed soon afterwards. The Mamluk sultans and Syria later appointed an Abbasid Caliph in Cairo, but they were symbolic as the late Abbasid Caliphs in Baghdad were.
Cairo Abbasid Caliphs
Abbasid "shadow" caliph of Cairo
Late Middle Ages
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The Abbasid "shadow" caliph of Cairo reigned under the tutelage of the Mamluk sultans and nominal rulers used to legitimize the actual rule of the Mamluk sultans. All the Cairene Abbasid caliphs who preceded or succeeded Al-Musta'in were spiritual heads lacking any temporal power. Al-Musta'in was the only Cairo-based Abbasid caliph to shortly hold political power. Al-Mutawakkil III was the last "shadow" caliph. In 1517, Ottoman sultan Selim I defeated the Mamluk Sultanate, and made Egypt part of the Ottoman Empire.
The Fatimids had their origins in Ifriqiya (modern-day Tunisia and eastern Algeria). The dynasty was founded in 909 by ʻAbdullāh al-Mahdī Billah, who legitimised his claim through descent from Muhammad by way of his daughter Fātima as-Zahra and her husband ʻAlī ibn-Abī-Tālib, the first Shīʻa Imām, hence the name al-Fātimiyyūn "Fatimid".
Abdullāh al-Mahdi's control soon extended over all of central Maghreb, an area consisting of the modern countries of Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Libya, which he ruled from Mahdia, his capital in Tunisia.
The Fatimids entered Egypt in the late 10th century, conquering the Ikhshidid dynasty and founding a capital at al-Qāhira(Cairo) in 969. The name was a reference to the planet Mars, "The Subduer", which was prominent in the sky at the moment that city construction started. Cairo was intended as a royal enclosure for the Fatimid caliph and his army, though the actual administrative and economic capital of Egypt was in cities such as Fustat until 1169. After Egypt, the Fatimids continued to conquer the surrounding areas until they ruled from Tunisia to Syria and even crossed over into Sicily and southern Italy.
Under the Fatimids, Egypt became the center of an empire that included at its peak North Africa, Sicily, Palestine, Lebanon, Syria, the Red Sea coast of Africa, Yemen and the Hejaz. Egypt flourished, and the Fatimids developed an extensive trade network in both the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean. Their trade and diplomatic ties extended all the way to China and its Song Dynasty, which determined the economic course of Egypt during the High Middle Ages.
Unlike other governments in the area, Fatimid advancement in state offices was based more on merit than on heredity. Members of other branches of Islam, like the Sunnis, were just as to be appointed to government posts as Shiites. Tolerance covered non-Muslims such as Christians and Jews; they took high levels in government founded on ability. There were, however, exceptions to this general attitude of tolerance, notably Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah.
Early and High Middle Ages
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- Also see: Cairo Abbasid Caliphs (above)
During the beginning of the Middle Baghdad Abbasids, the Fatimid Caliphs claimed spiritual supremacy not only in Egypt, but also contested the pulpits of Syria. At the beginning of the Abbasid realm in Baghdad, the Alids faced severe persecution by the ruling party as they were a direct threat to the Abbasid Caliphate. Owing to the Abbasid inquisitions, the forefathers opted for concealment of the Dawa's existence. Subsequently, they traveled towards the Iranian Plateau and distanced themselves from the epicenter of the political world. Al Mahdi's father, Al Husain al Mastoor returned in control the Dawa's affairs. He sent two Dai's to Yemen and Western Africa. Al Husain died soon after the birth of his son, Al Mahdi. A system of information gatherers helped Al Mahdi to be updated on each development which took place in North Africa.
After establishing the first Imam of the Fatimid dynasty, claims to genealogic origins dating as far back as Fatimah through Husayn and Ismail. Al Mahdi began his conquest by establishing his headquarters at Salamiyah and moving towards north-western Africa, under Aghlabid rule, following the success of laying claim to being the precursor to the Mahdi, was instrumental among the Berber tribes of North Africa, specifically the Kutamah tribe. Al Mahdi established himself at the former Aghlabid residence at Raqqadah, a suburb of Al-Qayrawan in Tunisia. At the time of his death he had extended his reign to Morocco of the Idrisids, as well as Egypt itself. In 920, Al Mahdi took up residence at the newly established capital of the empire, Al-Mahdiyyah. After his death, Al Mahdi was succeeded by his son, Abu Al-Qasim Muhammad Al-Qaim, who continued his expansionist policy.
Berbers and Iberian Umayyads
The Arabs, under the command of the Berber General Tarik ibn Ziyad, first began their conquest of southern Spain or al-Andalus in 711. A raiding party led by Tarik was sent to intervene in a civil war in the Visigothic kingdom in Hispania. Crossing the Strait of Gibraltar (named after the General), it won a decisive victory in the summer of 711 when the Visigothic king Roderic was defeated and killed on July 19 at the Battle of Guadalete. Tariq's commander, Musa bin Nusair crossed with substantial reinforcements, and by 718 the Muslims dominated most of the peninsula. There are some later Arabic and Christian sources that present an earlier raid by a certain Ṭārif in 710 and also, the Ad Sebastianum recension of the Chronicle of Alfonso III, refers to an Arab attack incited by Erwig during the reign of Wamba (672–80). The two large armies may have been in the south for a year before the decisive battle was fought.
The rulers of Al-Andalus were granted the rank of Emir by the Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid I in Damascus. After the Abbasids came to power in the, some Umayyads fled to Muslim Spain to establish themselves there. By the end of the 10th century, the ruler Abd al-Rahman III took over the title of Emir of Córdoba(912-961). Soon after, the Umayyads went on developing a strengthened state with its capital as Córdoba. Al-Hakam II succeeded to the Caliphate after the death of his father Abd ar-Rahman III in 961. He secured peace with the Christian kingdoms of northern Iberia, and made use of the stability to develop agriculture through the construction of irrigation works. Economical development was also encouraged through the widening of streets and the building of markets. The rule of the Caliphate is known as the heyday of Muslim presence in the peninsula.
The rule of the Umayyad Caliphate collapsed in 1031 due to political divisions and civil unrest during the rule of Hicham II who was ousted because of his indolence. Al-Andalus then broke up into a number of states called taifa kingdoms (Arabic, Muluk al-ṭawā'if; English, Petty kingdoms). The decomposition of the Caliphate into those petty kingdoms would then weaken the power of the Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula vis-à-vis the Christian kingdoms of the north. Some of the taifas such as that of Seville would be forced to enter into alliances with the Christian princes and pay tributes in money to Castille.
Emirs of Córdoba
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Abd al-Rahman I and Bedr (a former Greek slave, a freedman) escaped with their lives after the popular revolt known as the Abbasid Revolution. Rahman I continued south through Palestine, the Sinai, and then into Egypt. Rahman I was only one of several surviving Umayyad family members to make a perilous trek to Ifriqiya at this time. Rahman I and Bedr reached modern day Morocco near Ceuta. Next step would be to cross to sea to al-Andalus, where Rahman I could not have been sure if he would be welcomed or not in that far-flung province of the empire. Following the Berber Revolt (740s), the province was in a state of confusion, with the Ummah torn by tribal dissensions among the Arabs and racial tensions between the Arabs and Berbers. Bedr lined up three Syrian commanders – Obeid Allah ibn Uthman and Abd Allah ibn Khalid, both originally of Damascus, and Yusuf ibn Bukht of Qinnasrin and contacted al-Sumayl (then in Zaragoza) to get his consent, but al-Sumayl refused, fearing Rahman I would try to make himself emir. After discussion with Yemenite commanders, Rahman I was told to go to al-Andalus. Shortly thereafter, he set off with Bedr and a small group of followers for Europe. Abd al-Rahman landed at Almuñécar in al-Andalus, to the east of Málaga.
During his brief time in Málaga, he was able to amass local support quickly. News of the prince's arrival spread like wildfire throughout the peninsula. In order to help speed his ascension to power, he was prepared to take advantage of the feuds and dissensions. However, before anything could be done, trouble broke out in northern al-Andalus. Abd al-Rahman and his followers were able to control Zaragoza. The fight for the right to rule al-Andalus saw two contingents meeting at the Guadalquivir river, just outside of Córdoba on the plains of Musarah (Battle of Musarah). After a long and difficult fight, Rahman I was victorious with his enemies escaping the field with parts of their army. Rahman I marched into the capital, Córdoba. A counterattack was mounted but negotiations were ended the confrontation. After Rahman I consolidated power, he proclaimed himself the al-Andalus emir. Rahman I did not claim the Muslim caliph, though. One final act had to be performed, however: al-Fihri's general, al-Sumayl, had to be dealt with, and he was garroted in Córdoba's jail. Al-Andalus was a safe haven for the house of Umayya that managed to evade the Abbasids.
In Baghdad, the Abbasid caliph al-Mansur had planne to depose the Umayyad emir of al-Andalus. Rahman I and his army confronted the Abbasids, with most of the Abbasid army killed. The heads of the main Abbasid leaders were cut off. Their heads were preserved in salt, and identifying tags pinned to their ears. The heads were bundled together in a gruesome package and sent to the Abbasid caliph who was on pilgrimage at Mecca.Rahman I continued to put down rebellions in al-Andalus. Near the end of his life, it is said that Abd al-Rahman became increasingly paranoid and would sequester himself to his palaces.
Upon his death, Rahman I's successor was his son Hisham I. Hisham I, born in Córdoba, built many mosques and completed the Mezquita. He called for a jihad that resulted in a campaign against the Kingdom of Asturias and the County of Toulouse; in this second campaign he was defeated at Orange by William of Gellone, first cousin to Charlemagne. His successor Al-Hakam I came to power and was challenged by his uncles, sons of Rahman I. Abdallah went to the court of Charlemagne in Aix-la-Chapelle to negotiate for aid. In the mean time Córdoba was attacked, but was defended. Hakam I spent much of his reign suppressing rebellions in Toledo, Saragossa and Mérida.
Abd ar-Rahman II, the son of Hakam I, succeeded his father and engaged in nearly continuous warfare against Alfonso II of Asturias, whose southward advance he halted. Rahman III repulsed an assault by Vikings who had disembarked in Cadiz, conquered Seville (with the exception of its citadel) and attacked Córdoba. Thereafter he constructed a fleet and naval arsenal at Seville to repel future raids. He responded to William of Septimania's requests of assistance in his struggle against Charles the Bald's nominations.
Muhammad I's reign was marked by the movements of the Muladi (ethnic Iberian Muslims) and Mozarabs (Muslim-Iberia Christians). Muhammad I and succeeded by his son Mundhir I. Mundhir I, during the reign of his father, commanded the military operations against the neighbouring Christian kingdoms and the Muladi rebellions. At his father's death, Mundhir I inherited the throne of Córdoba. During the two years of reign Mundhir I fought against Umar ibn Hafsun. Mundhir I died in 888 at Bobastro and his brother Abdullah ibn Muhammad al-Umawi succeeded him. Umawi showed no reluctance to dispose of those he viewed as a threat. Umawi's government was marked by continuous wars between Arabs, Berbers and Muladi. His power as emir was confined to the area of Córdoba, while the rest had been seized by rebel families that did not accept his authority. The son he had designated as successor was killed by one of Umawi's brothers. The latter was in turn executed by Umawi's father, who named as successor Abd ar-Rahman III, son of the killed son of Umawi.
Caliphs at Córdoba
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Rahman III to help in his fight against the invasion by the Fatimids claimed the Caliphate in opposition to the generally recognized Abbasid Caliph of Baghdad.
Almoravid Ifriqiyah and Iberia
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- Ifriqiyah, Iberian
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Beginning in the 8th century, the Iberian Christian kingdoms had begun the Reconquista aimed at retaking Al-Andalus from the Moors. In 1095, Pope Urban II, inspired by the conquests in Spain by Christian forces and implored by the eastern Roman emperor to help defend Christianity in the East, called for the First Crusade from Western Europe which captured Edessa, Antioch, Tripoli and Jerusalem.
In the early period of the Crusades, the Christian Kingdom of Jerusalem emerged and for a time controlled Jerusalem. The Kingdom of Jerusalem and other smaller Crusader kingdoms over the next 90 years formed part of the complicated politics of the Levant, but did not in a serious manner threaten the Islamic Caliphate nor other powers in the region. After Shirkuh ended the Fatimid rule of Egypt in 1169, uniting it with Syria, the Crusader kingdoms were faced with a threat, and his nephew Saladin (see Ayyubids below) reconquered most of the Kingdom of Jerusalem in 1187, leaving the Crusaders holding a few ports.
In the Third Crusade armies from Europe were unsuccessful in attempts to recapture Jerusalem, though Crusader states lingered on for several decades, and there were further crusades with the intent to recapture the holy city and other Near East lands. The Christian Reconquista continued in Al-Andalus, and was eventually completed with the fall of Granada in 1492. During the low period of the Crusades, the Fourth Crusade was diverted from the Levant and instead took Constantinople, leaving the Eastern Roman Empire (now the Byzantine Empire) further weakened in their long struggle against the Turkish peoples to the east. However, the crusaders did manage to damage existing Islamic caliphates; preventing them from further expansion into Christendom and open to the Mamluks and the Mongols.
The Ayyubid dynasty was founded by Saladin and centered in Egypt. In 1174, Saladin proclaimed himself Sultan and went to conquest the Near East region. The Ayyubids ruled much of the Middle East during the 12th and 13th centuries, controlling included Egypt, Syria, northern Mesopotamia, Hejaz, Yemen, and the North African coast up to the borders of modern-day Tunisia. After the death of Saladin, his sons contested control over the sultanate, but Saladin's brother al-Adil eventually established himself as Sultan in 1200. In the 1230s, the Ayyubid rulers of Syria attempted to assert their independence from Egypt and remained divided until Egyptian Sultan as-Salih Ayyub restored Ayyubid unity by taking over most of Syria, excluding Aleppo, by 1247. In 1250, the dynasty in the Egyptian region was overthrown by a slave regiments. A number of attempts by the rulers of Syria, led by an-Nasir Yusuf of Aleppo, to recover it failed. In 1260, the Mongols sacked Aleppo and wrested control of what remained of the Ayyubid territories soon after.
Sultans of Egypt
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Sultans and Emirs of Damascus
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Emirs of Aleppo
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The Islamic Caliphate after the Crusades saw the Mongol invasions from the East of the 13th century, from which some historians believe the eastern Islamic world never fully recovered, and which mark the end of the Islamic Golden Age. The wave of Mongol invasions, which had commenced in the early 13th century under the leadership of Genghis Khan, marked a violent end to the Abbasid era. The Mongol invasion of Central Asia began in 1219 and, as in other regions conquered later, resulted in a huge loss of civilian life and economic devastation. The Mongols spread throughout Central Asia and Persia: the Persian city of Isfahan had fallen to them by 1237.
With the election of Khan Mongke in 1251, Mongol sights were set upon the Abbasid capital, Baghdad. Mongke's brother, Hulegu, was made leader of the Mongol Army assigned to the task of subduing Baghdad. The fall of Bagdhad in 1258 destroyed what had been the largest city in Islam. The last Abbasid caliph, al-Musta'sim, was captured and killed; and Baghdad was ransacked and destroyed. The cities of Damascus and Aleppo fell afterwards, in 1260. Plans for the conquest of Egypt were delayed due to the death of Mongke at around the same time. The Abbasid army was defeated by the superior Mongol army, but the Mongol invaders were finally held by the Egyptian Mamluks north of Jerusalem in 1260.
Ultimately, the Ilkhanate, Golden Horde, and the Chagatai Khanate - three of the four principal Mongol khanates - embraced Islam, as the Mongol elite favored Islam over other religions. The Mongols remained in power in Syria, Mesopotamia, Persia and further east and over the rest of the 13th century gradually all converted to Islam. Most Ilkhanid rulers were replaced by the new invasion of the new Mongol power founded by Timur (himself a Muslim), who conquered Persia in the 1360s, and moved against the Delhi Sultanate in India and the Ottoman Turks in Anatolia. His invasions were equally destructive, sacking Bagdhad, Damascus, Delhi and many other cities, with enormous loss of life. Timur had attacked areas still recovering from the Black Death, which may have killed one third of the population of the Middle East. It began in China, and reached Alexandria in Egypt in 1347, spreading over the following years to most Islamic areas. The combination of the plague and the wars left the Middle Eastern Islamic world in a seriously weakened position. The Timurid dynasty would found had many branches of Islam, including the Mughals of India.
In 1250, the Ayyubid Egyptian dynasty was overthrown by slave regiments, and a dynasty — the Mamluks — was born. In the 1260s, the Mongols sacked and wrested control of the Islamic Near East territories. The Mamluks, who were Turkic, forced out the Mongols (see Battle of Ain Jalut) after the final destruction of the Ayyubid dynasty. Thus they united Syria and Egypt for the longest period of time between the Abbasid and Ottoman empires (1250–1517). The Mamluks saw a continual state of political conflict, military tension, proxy wars, and economic competition between the "Muslim territory" (Dar al-Islam) and "non-Muslim territory" (Dar al-Harb).
As part of their chosen role as defenders of Islamic orthodoxy, the Mamluks sponsored numerous religious buildings, including mosques, madrasas and khanqahs. Though some construction took place in the provinces, the vast bulk of these projects took place in the capital. Many Mamluk buildings in Cairo survive until today, particularly in the district of Old Cairo.
- Consult particular article for details
The dynasty ruling over Egypt had been replaced in 1250 by a man who was born a prince and struggled as a Mamluks slave, Aybak (known as Lion of Ain Jaloot). This had been done through the marriage between Shajar al-Durr, the widow of Ayyubid caliph al-Salih Ayyub, with the Mamluk general Aybak. Military prestige was at the center of Mamluk society, and it played a key role in the confrontations with the Mongol forces. After the assassination of Aybak, and the succession of Qutuz in 1259, the Mamluks challenged and routed the Mongols at the Battle of Ain Jalut in late 1260. This signalled an adverse shift in fortunes for the Mongols, who were again defeated by the Mamluks at the Battle of Hims a few months later, and then driven out of Syria altogether. With this, the Mamluks were able to concentrate their forces and to conquer the last of the crusader territories in the Levant.
- Consult particular article for details
- See also: Islamic Egypt governors, Mamluks Era
The global Muslim population had climbed to about 8 per cent as against the Christian population of 14 per cent by 1400.
Kairouan in Tunisia was the first city founded by Muslims in the Maghreb region. Arab general Uqba ibn Nafi erected the city (in 670) and, in the same time, the Great Mosque of Kairouan considered as the oldest and most prestigious sanctuary in the western Islamic world.
This part of Islamic territory has had independent governments during most of Islamic history, with a number being of historical importance.
The Almoravid dynasty was a Berber dynasty from the Sahara that flourished over a wide area of North-Western Africa and the Iberian Peninsula during the 11th century. Under this dynasty the Moorish empire was extended over present-day Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania, Gibraltar, Tlemcen (in Algeria) and a part of what is now Senegal and Mali in the south, and Spain and Portugal in the north.
The Almohad Dynasty or "the Unitarians", were a Berber Muslim religious power which founded the fifth Moorish dynasty in the 12th century, and conquered all Northern Africa as far as Egypt, together with Al-Andalus.
East African region
Islam in East Africa can be dated back to the founding of the religion and the beginning with the hijra; in 615, when a group of Muslims were counseled by Muhammad to escape persecution in Mecca and travel to Abyssinia (an act known as the First migration to Abyssinia), which was ruled by, in Muhammad's estimation, a pious Christian king named al-Najashi (Negus, King of Abyssinia). The people were angered with the current ruler, so they sought to over throw them and they did. Moreover, Islamic tradition states that the first muezzin Bilal al-Habeshi, a companions of Muhammad, was from Abyssinia (Habasha).
There were Islamic governments in Tanzania. The people of Zayd were Muslims that immigrated to East Africa. Islam came to East Africa through trade routes. The African peoples that lived along these routes became converts due to the close contact they had with Arab traders in areas like Tabora. They learned from them the manners of the Muslims and this led to their conversion by the Muslim Arabs. In pre-colonial East Africa, the structure of Islamic authority was held up through the Ulema (wanawyuonis, in Swahili language). Their base was in Zanzibar. These leaders had some degree of authority over most of the Muslims in East Africa at this time; before territorial boundaries were established. This is because the majority of Muslims lived within the sphere of influence of the Sultanate in Zanzibar. The chief Qadi there was recognized for having the final religious authority.
West African region
Usman dan Fodio after the Fulani War, found himself in command of the largest state in Africa, the Fulani Empire. Dan Fodio worked to establish an efficient government, one grounded in Islamic laws. Already aged at the beginning of the war, dan Fodio retired in 1815 passing the title of Sultan of Sokoto to his son Muhammed Bello.
Asia and the Far East
On the Indian subcontinent, Islam first appeared in the south western tip of the peninsula, in today's Kerala state. Arabs had trade relations with Malabar even before the birth of Muhammad. The native legends say that a group of Sahaba, under Malik Ibn Deenar, arrived on the Malabar Coast and preached Islam. According to that legend, the first mosque of India was built by Second Chera King Cheraman Perumal, who accepted Islam and received the name Tajudheen. He traveled to Arabia to meet Muhammad and died on the trip back, somewhere in today's Oman. There are historical records which suggests that the Cheraman Perumal Mosque was built in Hijra 5(629 CE).
Islamic rule came to Pakistan in the 8th century, when Muhammad bin Qasim conquered Sindh. Muslim conquests were expanded under Mahmud and the Ghaznavids until the late 12th century, when the Ghurids overran the Ghaznavids and extended the conquests in Northern India. Qutb-ud-din Aybak conquered Delhi in 1206 and began the reign of the Delhi Sultanates.
In the 14th century, Alauddin Khilji extended Muslim rule south to Gujarat, Rajasthan and Deccan. Various other Muslim dynasties also formed and ruled across India from the 13th to the 18th century such as the Qutb Shahi and the Bahmani, but none rivalled the power and extensive reach of the Mughal Empire at its peak.
In China, four Sahabas (Sa'ad ibn abi Waqqas, Wahb Abu Kabcha, Jafar ibn Abu Talib and Jahsh) preached in 616/17 and onwards after coming from Chittagong–Kamrup–Manipur route after sailing from Abyssinia in 615/16. Sa'ad ibn abi Waqqas later, after conquest of Persia in 636, went with Sa'id ibn Zaid, Qais ibn Sa'd and Hassan ibn Thabit to China in 637 taking the complete volume of the Quran. Sa'ad ibn abi Waqqas again headed for China for the third time in 650-51 after Caliph Uthman asked him to lead an embassy to China, which the Chinese emperor received.
Many of historian predict that Islam reached South East Asia, espescially western part of Indonesia Archipelago on the 13th Century. But, More than Two Thousands years ago Arab traders from Yaman had been connected to other far east Asia through trading and traveling by sea. The trader from Arab is the intermediary trader between Europe to African, Indian, South East Asian, and Far East Asian, including Japan and China. They were not just sold goods from Arab, but also goods from Africa, India, and so on, such as ivory, fragrance, spice, seasoning, gold, etc. Islam reached the islands of Southeast Asia through traders from Mecca in the first century of Islamic Calendar or in the 7th century. The traders who also a good Islamic Believers was mingled to native. In their interaction, many of the native in south east Asia adopt Islam as their new faith. Because Islam offer them more freedom of speech, freedom of faith, and also freedom of caste in society.
There are many strong possibility that Islam had been spread by Arab traders to South East Asia in the 1st Century of Islamic Calendar or 7th Century of Christian/Gregorian Calendar. This Fact is much stronger, according to T.W. Arnold in The Preaching of Islam - In the 2nd Century of Islamic Calender (Hijri), Arab trader had been trade to Ceylon or Srilangka (island in southern part of India). The same argument has been told by Prof.Dr. B.H. Burger and Prof.Dr.Mr. Prajudi in Sedjarah Ekonomis Sosiologis Indonesia (History of Socio Economic of Indonesia)
There are more possibility that Islam was spread by Arab Traders to South East Asia. According to Al Biruni, the Muslim Scholar Geographical Experty, 973 - 1048 AD, in his World Atlas written that Indian or Indonesia Ocean used to be call as Persian Ocean. After the Western Imperialist ruled, it is replaced Persian Ocean to be Indian Ocean.
Soon, many Sufi missionaries translated classical Sufi literature from Arabic and Persian into Malay. Coupled with the composing of original Islamic literature in Malay, this led the way to the transformation of Malay into an Islamic language. By 1292, when Marco Polo visited Sumatra, most of the inhabitants had converted to Islam. The Sultanate of Malacca was founded by Parameswara, a Srivijayan Prince in the Malay peninsula. Through trade and commerce, Islam spread to Borneo and Java, Indonesia. By the late 15th century, Islam had been introduced to the Philippines.
As Islam Spread from 7th Century AD, the social changes had been developed, from the individual faith changes to society changes. Soon, after five centuris of mingled and interaced with assimilation and acculturation with the native south east Asia society, Islam was emerged as political power in the region.
So, As Islam spread, three main Muslim political powers emerged. Aceh, the most important Muslim power, was based in Northern Sumatra. It controlled much of the area between Southeast Asia and India. The Sultanate also attracted Sufi poets. The second Muslim power was the Sultanate of Malacca on the Malay peninsula. The Sultanate of Demak was the third power, appearing in Java, where the emerging Muslim forces defeated the local Majapahit kingdom in the early 16th century. Although the sultanate managed to expand its territory somewhat, its rule remained brief.
Portuguese forces captured Malacca in 1511 under the naval general Afonso de Albuquerque. With Malacca subdued, the Aceh Sultanate and Brunei established themselves as centers of Islam in Southeast Asia. Brunei's sultanate remains intact even to this day.
- Three Early Modern empires
In the 15th and 16th centuries three major Muslim empires were created: the aforementioned Ottoman Empire in much of the Middle East, the Balkans and Northern Africa; the Safavid Empire in Greater Iran; and the Mughul Empire in South Asia. These imperial powers were made possible by the discovery and exploitation of gunpowder, and a more efficient administration. By the end of the 19th century, all three had declined, and by the early 20th century, with the Ottomans' defeat in World War I, the last Muslim empire collapsed.
Dar al-'Ahd (House of truce) began to developed in the Ottoman Empire's relationship with its tributary states. In the contemporary National period, the term refers to those non-Muslim governments which have armistice or peace agreements with Muslim governments. Today, the actual status of the non-Muslim country in question may vary from acknowledged equality to tributary states.
The Mughal Empire was a product of various Central Asian invasions into the Indian subcontinent. It was founded by the Timurid prince Babur in 1526 with the destruction of the Delhi sultanate, with its capital in Agra. Babur's death some years later, and the indecisive rule of his son, Humayun, brought a degree of instability to Mughal rule. The resistance of the Afghani Sher Shah, through which a string of defeats had been dealt to Humayun, weakened the Mughals. Just a year before his death, however, Humayun managed to recover much of the lost territories, leaving a substantial legacy for his son, the 13 year old Akbar (later known as Akbar the Great), in 1556. Under Akbar, consolidation of the Mughal Empire occurred through both expansion and administrative reforms. After Akbar, Jahangir and Shah Jahan came to power. Subsequently, Aurangazeb ruled vast areas including Afghanisthan, Pakistan, India and Bangladesh.
The empire ruled most of present-day India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan for several centuries, before it declined in the early 18th century, which led to India being divided into smaller kingdoms and states. The Mughal dynasty was dissolved by the British Empire after the Indian rebellion of 1857. It left a lasting legacy on Indian culture and architecture. Famous buildings built by the Mughals, include: the Taj Mahal, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Lahore Fort, the Shalimar Gardens and the Agra Fort. During the empire's reign, Muslim communities flourished all over India, in Gujarat, Bengal and Hyderabad. Various Sufi orders from Afghanistan and Iran were very active throughout the region. Consequently, more than a quarter of the population converted to Islam.
The Safavids dynasty from Azarbaijan ruled from 1501 to 1736, and which established Twelver Shi'a Islam as regions's official religion and united its provinces under a single sovereignty, thereby reigniting the Persian identity.
Although claiming to be the descendants of Ali ibn Abu Talib, the Safavids were Sunni (the name "Safavid" comes from a Sufi order called Safavi). Their origins go back to Firuz Shah Zarrinkolah, a local dignitary from the north. During their rule, the Safavids recognized Twelver Shi'a Islam as the State religion, thus giving the region a separate identity from its Sunni neighbours.
In 1524, Tahmasp I acceded to the throne, initiating a revival of the arts in the region. Carpet making became a major industry, gaining importance. The tradition of Persian miniature painting in manuscripts reached its peak, until Tahmasp turned to strict religious observance in middle age, when he prohibited the drinking of wine, forbade the use of hashish and ordered the removal of gambling casinos, taverns and brothels. Tahmasp's nephew Ibrahim Mirza continued to patronize a last flowering of the tradition until he was murdered, after which many artists were recruited by the Mughal dynasty.
Tahmasp's grandson, Shah Abbas I, also managed to increase the glory of the empire. Abbas restored the shrine of the eighth Twelver Shi'a Imam, Ali al-Ridha at Mashhad, and restored the dynastic shrine at Ardabil. Both shrines received jewelry, fine manuscripts and Chinese porcelains. Abbas also moved the empire's capital to Isfahan, revived old ports, and established thriving trade with the Europeans. Amongst Abbas's most visible cultural achievements was the construction of Naqsh-e Jahan Square ("Design of the World"). The plaza, located near a Friday mosque, covered 20 acres (81,000 m2).
The Seljuq Turks declined in the second half of the 13th century, after the Mongol invasion of Anatolia. This resulted in the establishment of multiple Turkish principalities, known as beyliks. Osman I, the founder of the Ottoman dynasty, assumed leadership of one of these principalities (Söğüt) in 1281, succeeding his father Ertuğrul. Declaring an independent Ottoman emirate in 1299, Osman I afterwards led it in a series of consecutive battles with the Byzantine Empire. By 1331, the Ottomans had captured Nicaea, the former Byzantine capital, under the leadership of Osman's son and successor, Orhan I. Victory at the Battle of Kosovo against the Serbs in 1389 then facilitated their expansion into Europe. The Ottomans were established in the Balkans and Anatolia by the time Bayezid I ascended to power in the same year, now at the helm of a growing empire.
Further growth was brought to a halt, as Bayezid I had been captured by Mongol warlord Timur (also known as "Tamerlane") in the Battle of Ankara in 1402, upon which a period known as the Ottoman Interregnum ensued. This episode was characterized by the division of the Ottoman territory amongst Bayezid I's sons, who submitted to Timurid authority. When a number of the territories conquered by the Ottomans regained independent status, potential ruin for the Ottoman Empire became imminent. However, the empire recovered, as the youngest son of Bayezid I, Mehmed I, waged offensive campaigns against his ruling brothers, thereby reuniting Asia Minor and declaring himself the Ottoman sultan in 1413.
Around this time the naval fleet of the Ottomans developed, such that they were able to challenge Venice, a naval power. Focus was also directed towards reconquering the Balkans. By the time of Mehmed I's grandson, Mehmed II (ruled 1444 — 1446; 1451 — 1481), the Ottomans felt strong enough to lay siege to Constantinople, the capital of Byzantium. A factor in this siege was the use of firearms and large cannons introduced by the Ottomans, against which the Byzantines were unable to compete. The Byzantine fortress succumbed to the Ottoman invasion in 1453, after 54 days of siege. Mehmed II, entering the city victorious, renamed it Istanbul. With its capital fallen to the Ottomans, the rest of the Byzantine Empire disintegrated. The future successes of the Ottomans and later empires would depend upon the exploitation of gunpowder.
In the early 16th century, the Shi'ite Safavid dynasty assumed control in Persia under the leadership of Shah Ismail I, upon the defeat of the ruling Turcoman federation Aq Qoyunlu (also called the "White Sheep Turkomans") in 1501. The Ottoman sultan Selim I sought to repel Safavid expansion, challenging and defeating them at the Battle of Chaldiran in 1514. Selim I also deposed the ruling Mamluks in Egypt, absorbing their territories into the Ottoman Empire in 1517. Suleiman I (also known as Suleiman the Magnificent), Selim I's successor, took advantage of the diversion of Safavid focus to the Uzbeks on the eastern frontier and recaptured Baghdad, which had fallen under Safavid control. Despite this, Safavid power remained substantial, with their empire rivalling the Ottomans'. Suleiman I also advanced deep into Hungary following the Battle of Mohács in 1526 — reaching as far as the gates of Vienna thereafter, and signed a Franco-Ottoman alliance with Francis I of France against Charles V of the Roman Empire 10 years later. Suleiman I's rule (1520 — 1566) signified the height of the Ottoman Empire, after which it fell into a relative decline with the rapid industrialization of the European empires.
The modern age brought technological and organizational changes to Europe and the Islamic countries continued the previous patterns of earlier centuries. Europe's state-based government allowed the Great Powers to the globalize economically and several Islamic countries faced colonization.
Ottoman Empire partition
By the end of the 19th century, the Ottoman empire had declined due to internal conflict. The decision to back Germany in World War I meant they shared the Central Powers' defeat in that war, which led to the overthrow of the Ottomans by Turkish nationalists led by the victorious general of the Battle of Gallipoli: Mustafa Kemal, who became known to his people as Atatürk, "Father of the Turks." It was Atatürk who was were credited with renegotiating the treaty of Sèvres (1920) which ended their involvement in the war and establishing the modern Republic of Turkey, which was recognized by the Allies in the Treaty of Lausanne (1923). Atatürk went on to implement an ambitious program of modernization that emphasized economic development and secularization. He transformed Turkish culture to reflect European style laws and, adopted Hindu-Arabic numerals, the Roman alphabet, separated the religious establishment from the state, and emancipated woman- even giving them the right to vote analogous with the same transformation in western law for the first time.
Following World War I, the vast majority of former Ottoman territory located outside of Asia Minor was handed over to the victorious European powers as European protectorates. The Allies had promised the subjected people of the former Ottoman Empire during the war future independence in exchange for their assistance fighting the central Turkish powers in Asia Minor. To their dismay, old-fashioned European imperialism was put into practice through this system of "protectorates" which was a mere smoke-screen for their continued subjugation by the powers in the region: the British and the French. The struggles for independence from their Turkish overlords and the cooperation of partisan forces with the British were romanticized in the stories of British secret intelligence agent T.E. Lawrence- later known as "Lawrence of Arabia." Ottoman successor states include today's Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Egypt, Greece, Iraq, Lebanon, Montenegro, Romania, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Syria, Jordan, Turkey, other Balkan states, North Africa and the north shore of the Black sea.
Many Muslim countries sought to adopt European political organization and nationalism began to emerge in the Muslim world. Countries like Egypt, Syria and Turkey organized their governments with definable policies and sought to develop national pride amongst their citizens. Other places, like Iraq, were not as successful due to a lack of unity and an inability to resolve age-old prejudices between Muslim sects and against non-Muslims.
Some Muslim countries, such as Turkey and Egypt, sought to separate Islam from the secular government. In other cases, such as Saudi Arabia, the government brought out religious expression in the re-emergence of the puritanical form of Sunni Islam known to its detractors as Wahabism which found its way into the Saudi royal family.
The partition of India refers to the creation in August 1947 of the two sovereign states of India and Pakistan. The two nations were formed out of the former British Raj, including treaty states, when Britain granted independence to the area (see Undivided India). In particular, the term refers to the partition of Bengal and Punjab, the two main provinces of what would be Pakistan.
In 1947, after the partition of India, Pakistan became the largest Islamic country in the world (by population) and the tenth largest post-World War II state in the modern world. In 1971, after a bloody war of independence, the Bengal part of Pakistan became an independent state called Bangladesh. Pakistan in the contemporary era is the second largest Islamic country in the world following Indonesia. Pakistan is the only known nuclear power of the Muslim world.
Between 1953 and 1964, King Saud reorganized the government of the monarchy his father, Ibn Saud, had created. Saudi Arabia's ministries included Communication (1953), Agriculture and Water (1953), Petroleum (1960), Pilgrimage and Islamic Endowments (1960), Labour and Social Affairs (1962) and Information (1963). He also put Talal, one of his many younger brothers (by 29 years his junior) in charge of the Ministry of Transport.
In 1958-59, Talal proposed the formation of a National Council. As he proposed it, it would have been a consultative body, not a legislature. Still, he thought of it as a first step toward broader popular participation in the government. Talal presented this proposal to the king when the Crown Prince was out of the country. Saud forwarded the proposal to the ulama asking them whether a National Council was a legitimate institution in Islam. The idea seems to have died in committee, so to speak. It would be revived more than three decades later. A Consultative Council came into existence in 1992.
Meantime, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries came into existence in 1960. For the first decade or more of its existence, it was ineffectual in terms of increasing revenue for the member nations. But that would change. Tension between Faisal and Saud continued to mount until a final showdown in 1964. Saud threatened to mobilize the Royal Guard against Faisal and Faisal threatened to mobilize the National Guard against Saud. It was Saud who blinked, abdicating and leaving for Cairo, then Greece, where he would die in 1969. Faisal then became King.
The Six-Day War of June 5–10, 1967, a war between Israel and the neighbouring states of Egypt, Jordan, and Syria. had other effects. It closed the Suez canal, it may have contributed to the revolution in Libya that put Muammar al-Gaddafi in power, and it led in May 1970 to the closure of the "tapline" from Saudi Arabia through Syria to Lebanon. These developments had the effect of increasing the importance of petroleum in Libya, which is a short (and canal-free) shipping distance from Europe.
In 1970, it was Occidental Petroleum which constituted the first crack in the wall of oil company solidarity in dealing with the oil producing nations; specifically, in this case, with the demands for price increases from the Qaddafi government.
In October 1973, another war between Israel and its Muslim neighbors, known as the Yom Kippur War, broke out just as oil company executives were heading to Vienna, site of a planned meeting with OPEC leaders. OPEC had been emboldened by the success of Libya's demands anyway, and the war strengthened the unity of their demands.
The Arab defeats in the Six Day and the victory in 1973 Arab-Israeli wars triggered the 1973 oil crisis. In response to the emergency resupply effort by the West that enabled Israel to defeat Egyptian and Syrian forces, the Arab world imposed the 1973 oil embargo against the United States and Western Europe. Faisal agreed that Saudi Arabia would use some of its oil wealth to finance the "front-line states", those that bordered Israel, in their struggle.
The centrality of petroleum, the Arab-Israeli Conflict and political and economic instability and uncertainty remain constant features of the politics of the region.
The Iranian Constitutional Revolution took place between 1905 and 1911. The revolution marked the beginning of the end of Iran's feudalistic society and led to the establishment of a parliament in Persia and the restriction of the power of Shah (king). The first constitution of Iran was approved. But after the final victory of the revolutionaries over the Shah, the modernist and conservative blocks began to fight with each other. Then World War I took place and all of the combatants invaded Iran and this weakened the government and threatened the independence of Iran. The system of constitutional monarchy created by the decree of Mozzafar al-Din Shah that was established in Persia as a result of the Revolution, was weakened in 1925 with the dissolution of the Qajar dynasty and the ascension of Reza Shah Pahlavi to the throne.
In 1979 the Iranian Revolution, the regional "The Islamic Revolution", transformed Iran from a constitutional monarchy, under Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, to a populist theocratic Islamic republic under the rule of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, a Shi`i Muslim cleric and marja. Following the Revolution, an Iranian referendum established the Islamic republic as a government, and a constitution was approved, electing Ruhollah Khomeini as Supreme Leader of Iran. During the following two years, liberals, leftists, and Islamic groups fought with each other, and the Islamics captured power. At the same time, the U.S., the USSR, and most of the Arab governments of the Middle East feared that their dominance in the region was challenged by the Islamic ideology, so they encouraged and supported Saddam Hussein to invade Iran, which resulted in the Iran-Iraq war.
Contemporary National period
The Arab-Israeli conflict spans about a century of political tensions and open hostilities. It involves the establishment of the modern State of Israel as a Jewish nation state, the consequent displacement of the Palestinian people, as well as the adverse relationship between the Arab nations and the state of Israel (see related Israeli-Palestinian conflict). Despite at first involving only the Arab states bordering Israel, animosity has also developed between other Muslim nations and Israel. Many countries, individuals and non-governmental organizations elsewhere in the world feel involved in this conflict for reasons such as cultural and religious ties with Islam, Arab culture, Christianity, Judaism, Jewish culture or for ideological, human rights, or strategic reasons. While some consider the Arab-Israeli conflict a part of (or a precursor to) a wider clash of civilizations between the Western World and the Arab or Muslim world, others oppose this view. Animosity emanating from this conflict has caused numerous attacks on supporters (or perceived supporters) of each side by supporters of the other side in many countries around the world.
Since the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, there has been a strong tradition of secularism in Turkey established and institutionalized by Atatürk's Reforms. Although the First Grand National Assembly of Turkey had rallied support from the population for the Independence War against the occupying forces on behalf of Islamic principles, Islam was omitted from the public sphere after the Independence War. The principle of secularism was thus inserted in the Turkish Constitution as late as 1937. This legal action was assisted by stringent state policies against domestic Islamist groups and establishments to neutralize the strong appeal of Islam in Turkish society. Even though an overwhelming majority of the population, at least nominally, adheres to Islam in Turkey, the state, which was established with the Kemalist ideology has no official religion nor promotes any and it monitors the area between the religions using the Presidency of Religious Affairs. The Republic Protests were a series of mass rallies by Turkish secular citizens that took place in Turkey in 2007. The target of the first protest was the possible presidential candidacy of the Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, afraid that if elected President of Turkey Erdoğan would alter the Turkish secularist state. The struggle between the secularist and democratic citizens and the Islamic fanatics who has just emigrated from rural areas are still a argument over both religion and democracy.
In the Near East and North Africa, a series of protests and demonstrations calling for democracy and freedom across the region became known as the Arab Spring. The protests, uprisings and revolutions brought about the overthrow of the Tunisian and Egyptian governments. The period of political liberalization also affected countries that were not part of the Arab world.
Dynasties of Muslim Rulers
- ^ Halliday, Fred, 100 Myths about the Middle East, Saqi Books, 2005. p.85-6
- ^ Milestones of Islamic History
- ^ Khaddūrī, Majīd (2002). The Islamic Law of Nations: Shaybani's Siyar. JHU Press. pp. 19–20. ISBN 0801869757, 9780801869754. http://books.google.dk/books?id=89spaKByt_MC&printsec=frontcover&dq=majid+khadduri+siyar&hl=da&ei=9LP0TfmOGZKGvAO05LHeBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=%22the%20stages%20through%20which%22&f=false.
- ^ Mecca: a literary history of the Muslim Holy Land By Francis E. Peters
- ^ Schimmel, Annemarie; Barbar Rivolta (Summer, 1992). "Islamic Calligraphy". The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, New Series 50 (1): 3.
- ^ W. Montgomery Watt. Khārijite thought in the Umayyad Period. Der Islam. Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 215–231, ISSN (Online) 1613-0928, ISSN (Print) 0021-1818, DOI: 10.1515/islm.1922.214.171.124, //1961
- ^ a b The Encyclopædia Britannica by Hugh Chisholm. Page 28
- ^ Roberts, J: "History of the World.". Penguin, 1994.
- ^ Dermenghem, E. (1958). Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him) and the Islamic tradition. New York: Harper Brothers. Page 183.
- ^ The Succession to Muhammad: A Study of the Early Caliphate By Wilferd Madelung. Page 340.
- ^ Encyclopaedic ethnography of Middle-East and Central Asia: A-I, Volume 1 edited by R. Khanam. Page 543
- ^ Blankinship, Khalid Yahya (1994). The End of the Jihad State, the Reign of Hisham Ibn 'Abd-al Malik and the collapse of the Umayyads. State University of New York Press. p. 37. ISBN 0791418278
- ^ answering-ansar.org. ch 8.
- ^ answering-ansar.org. ch 7.
- ^ Kokab wa Rifi Fazal-e-Ali Karam Allah Wajhu, Page 484, By Syed Mohammed Subh-e-Kashaf AlTirmidhi, Urdu translation by Syed Sharif Hussein Sherwani Sabzawari, Published by Aloom AlMuhammed, number B12 Shadbagh, Lahore, 1 January 1963. Page 484.
- ^ History of the Arab by Philip k hitti
- ^ History of Islam by prof.Masudul Hasan
- ^ The Empire of the Arabs by sir John Glubb
- ^ Umar II pushing to end drinking and bathhouses where men and women would mix freely. Umar is considered one of the finest rulers in Muslim history, second only to the Four Rightly Guided Caliphs. He continued the welfare programs of the last few Umayyad caliphs, expanding them and including special programs for orphans and the destitute.
- ^ http://people.uncw.edu/bergh/par246/L21RHadithCriticism.htm
- ^ In the Al Andalus (the Iberian Peninsula), North Africa and in the east populations revolted. In A.H. 102 (720-721) in Ifriqiyah, the harsh governor Yazid ibn Muslim was overthrown and Muhammad ibn Yazid, the former governor, restored to power. The caliph accepted this and confirmed Muhammad ibn Yazid as governor of Ifriqiyah.
- ^ *Eggenberger, David (1985). An Encyclopedia of Battles: Accounts of Over 1,560 Battles from 1479 BC. to the Present. Courier Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-24913-1 p. 3.
- ^ von Ess, "Kadar", Encyclopedia of Islam 2nd Ed.
- ^ Theophilus. Quoted Robert Hoyland, Seeing Islam as Others Saw It (Darwin Press, 1998), 660
- ^ a b c "Islam". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online.
- ^ Lewis (1993), p.84
- ^ Holt (1977a), p.105
- ^ Holt (1977b), pp.661-663
- ^ a b c "Abbasid Dynasty", The New Encyclopædia Britannica (2005)
- ^ "Islam", The New Encyclopædia Britannica (2005)
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j Applied History Research Group. "The Islamic World to 1600". University of Calagary. http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/islam/index2.html. Retrieved 2007-04-18.
- ^ Ira Lapidus. A History of Islamic Societies. Cambridge University Press. 2002 ISBN 0-521-77056-4 p.54
- ^ Nasr (2003), p.121
- ^ Khaddūrī, Majīd (2002). The Islamic Law of Nations: Shaybani's Siyar. JHU Press. pp. 21-22..
- ^ Abdel Wahab El Messeri. Episode 21: Ibn Rushd, Everything you wanted to know about Islam but was afraid to Ask, Philosophia Islamica.
- ^ Fauzi M. Najjar (Spring, 1996). The debate on Islam and secularism in Egypt, Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ).
- ^ Nasr (2003), p. 121-122
- ^ Lapidus (1988), p.129
- ^ Hindu rebellions in Sindh were put down, and most of Afghanistan was absorbed with the surrender of the leader of Kabul. Mountainous regions of Iran were brought under a tighter grip of the central Abbasid government, as were areas of Turkestan. There were disturbances in Iraq during the first several years of Al-Ma'mun's reign. Egypt continued to be unquiet. Sindh was rebellious, but Ghassan ibn Abbad subdued it. An ongoing problem for Al-Ma'mun was the uprising headed by Babak Khorramdin. In 214 Babak routed a Caliphate army killing its commander Muhammad ibn Humayd.
- ^ The Mihna subjected traditionalist scholars whose social influence and intellectual quality to imprisonment, a religious tests, and loyalty oaths. Al-Ma'mun introduced the Mihna with the intention to centralize religious power in the caliphal institution and test the loyalty of his subjects. The Mihna had to be undergone by elites, scholars, judges and other government officials, and consisted of a series of questions relating to theology and faith. The central question was about the quality and state of the creation of the Qur'an, if the interrogatee stated he believed the Qur'an to be created, he was free to leave and continue his profession.
- ^ It is said that, had he been victorious over the Byzantine Emperor, Al-Ma'mun would have made a condition of peace be that the emperor hand over of a copy of the "Almagest".
- ^ Its minaret were spiralling cones 55 metres (180 ft) high with a spiral ramp and had 17 aisles with its wall paneled with mosaics of dark blue glass.
- ^ A sum of 120,000 golden pieces was paid for the freedom of the captives.
- ^ Examples of the former include the loss of Mosul in 990, and the loss of Ṭabaristān and Gurgān in 997. An example of the latter is the Kakūyid dynasty of Isfahān, whose fortunes rose with the decline of the Būyids of northern Iran.
- ^ ʻIzz al-Dīn Ibn al-Athīr, Donald Sidney Richards, The chronicle of Ibn al-Athīr for the crusading period from al-Kāmil fī'l-ta'rīkh: The years 491-541/1097-1146 : the coming of the Franks and the Muslim response.
- ^ Jean Richard, The Latin kingdom of Jerusalem: Volume 1. 1979. Page 36.
- ^ It is supposed by an emissary of the Hashshashins, who had no love for the Caliph. Modern historians have suspected that Mas'ud instigated the murder although the two most important historians of the period Ibn al-Athir and Ibn al-Jawzi did not speculate on this matter.
- ^ Grigor of Akanc-The history of the nation of archers, (tr. R.P.Blake) 303
- ^ Kalistriat Salia-History of the Georguan Nation, p.210
- ^ Thomas T. Allsen-Culture and Conquest in Mongol Eurasia, p.84
- ^ Beeson, Irene (September/October 1969). "Cairo, a Millennial". Saudi Aramco World: 24, 26–30. http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/196905/cairo-a.millennial.htm. Retrieved 2007-08-09.
- ^ Firestone, R. (2008). An introduction to Islam for Jews. Philadelphia: JPS/Jewish Publication Society. Page 66
- ^ Lane, J.-E., Redissi, H., & Ṣaydāwī, R. (2009). Religion and politics: Islam and Muslim civilization. Farnham, England: Ashgate Pub. Company. Page 83
- ^ Cairo_of_the_mind, oldroads.org
- ^ Collins (2004), 139.
- ^ Hourani, pg.41
- ^ Glubb, John Bagot (1966). The course of empire: The Arabs and their successors. Prentice-Hall. pp. 128.
- ^ Glick, Thomas F. (2005). Islamic and Christian Spain in the early Middle Ages. BRILL. pp. 102. ISBN 9-0041-4771-3.
- ^ Luscombe, David Edward; Jonathan Riley-Smith (2004). The new Cambridge medieval history. Cambridge University Press. pp. 599. ISBN 0-5214-1410-5.
- ^ O'Callaghan, Joseph F. (1983). A History of Medieval Spain. Cornell University Press. pp. 133. ISBN 0-8014-9264-5.
- ^ Constable, Olivia Remie (1997). "The Political Dilemma of a Granadan Ruler". Medieval Iberia: Readings from Christian, Muslim, and Jewish Sources. University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 103. ISBN 0-8122-15699.
- ^ This was likely because al-Andalus was a land besieged by many different loyalties, and the proclamation of caliph would have likely caused much unrest. Abd al-Rahman's progeny would, however, take up the title of caliph.
- ^ Encyclopedia Americana, Grolier Incorporated, p. 680
- ^ The spread of Islam: the contributing factors By Abū al-Faz̤l ʻIzzatī, A. Ezzati, pg. 274
- ^ Islam in Russia: the four seasons By Ravilʹ Bukharaev, pg. 145
- ^ Hourani, pg.85
- ^ Kairouan Capital of Political Power and Learning in the Ifriqiya (Muslim Heritage.com)
- ^ Clifford Edmund Bosworth, Historic cities of the Islamic world. Brill. 2007. p. 264
- ^ Curtis, Edward E. (2002). Islam in Black America: identity, liberation, and difference in African-American Islamic thought. SUNY Press. pp. 119. ISBN 0-7914-5370-7.
- ^ Nicolini, B., & Watson, P.-J. (2004). Makran, Oman, and Zanzibar: Three-terminal cultural corridor in the western Indian Ocean, 1799-1856. Leiden: Brill. Page 35
- ^ Nimtz, Jr., August H. (1980). Islam and Politics in East Aftrica. the Sufi Order in Tanzania. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
- ^ Gustave Le Bon. 1956. Hadarat al Arab. Translation of La Civilisation-des Arabes. 3rd Print. Cairo. P.95.
- ^ Suryanegara, Ahmad Mansyur.2009. API Sejarah. 1st Printed. Bandung. Indonesia. P. 2 - 3
- ^ Sir Thomas Arnold and Alfred Guilaume, (Editor), 1965. The Legacy of Islam. Oxford University Press, New York, P.87.
- ^ Nasr (2003), p. 143
- ^ Spencer C. Tucker, The encyclopedia of the Spanish-American and Philippine-American wars: a political, social, and military history, Volume 1, ABC-CLIO, 2009, page 419
- ^ Bloom and Blair (2000), p. 226-230
- ^ Armstrong (2000) p. 116
- ^ a b c Bloom and Blair (2000), p. 211-219
- ^ Bloom and Blair (2000), p. 199-204
- ^ Holt (1977a), p.263
- ^ Kohn, G. C. (2006). Dictionary of wars. New York: Facts on File. Page 94.
- ^ Koprulu (1992), p.109
- ^ Koprulu (1992), p.111
- ^ Armstrong (2000), p.116
- ^ www.muslimdecline.blogspot.com
- ^ Bentley, Jerry H. and Ziegler, Herbert F. (2006). Traditions and Encounters: A Global Perspective on the Past. New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 961 and 969.
- ^ Citation: Bentley, Jerry H. and Ziegler, Herbert F. "Traditions and Encounters: A Global Perspective on the Past." New York: McGraw Hill, 2006, pp. 971-972.
- ^ Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History, vol.4, p.1402
- ^ Causes of Anti-Americanism in the Arab World: A Socio-Political Perspective by Abdel Mahdi Abdallah (MERIA Journal. Volume 7, No. 4 - December 2003
- ^ Arab-Israeli Conflict: Role of religion (Israel Science and Technology)
- ^ Arab-American Psychiatrist Wafa Sultan: There is No Clash of Civilizations but a Clash between the Mentality of the Middle Ages and That of the 21st Century
- ^ "Secular rally targets Turkish PM", BBC News, April 14, 2007.
References and further reading
Books, articles, and journals
- Armstrong, Karen (2000). Islam: A Short History. Modern Library. ISBN 978-0679640400.
- Bloom and Blair (2000). Islam:A Thousand Years of Faith and Power.
- Esposito, John (2000b). Oxford History of Islam. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195107999.
- Hart, Michael (1978). The 100:Ranking of the most influential persons in history. New York: Carol Publishing Group. ISBN 0-8065-1057-9.
- Holt, P. M.; Bernard Lewis (1977a). Cambridge History of Islam, Vol. 1. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521291364.
- Holt, P. M.; Ann K. S. Lambton, Bernard Lewis (1977b). Cambridge History of Islam, Vol. 2. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521291372.
- Hourani, Albert; Ruthven, Malise (2003). A History of the Arab Peoples. Belknap Press; Revised edition. ISBN 978-0674010178.
- Koprulu, Mehmed Fuad; Leiser, Gary (1992). The Origins of the. SUNY Press. ISBN 0791408191.
- Lapidus, Ira M. (1988). A History of Islamic societes. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-22552-3.
- Lewis, B. (1993). The Arabs in History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-285258-2.
- Rahman, F. (1982). Islam & Modernity: Transformation of an Intellectual Tradition. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-70284-7.
- Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (2003). Islam:Religion, History and Civilization. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. ISBN 0-06-050714-4.
- Sonn, Tamara (2004). A Brief History of Islam. Blackwell Publishing Ltd. ISBN 1-4051-0900-9.
- Ankerl, Guy (2000). Coexisting Contemporary Civilizations: Arabo-Mulsim, Bharati, Chinese, and Western. INUPress. ISBN 2-88155-004-5.
- Hourani, Albert (2002). A History of the Arab Peoples. Faber & Faber. ISBN 0-571-21591-2.
- al-Balādhurī, A. Y., & Hitti, P. K. (1916). The origins of the Islamic state: Being a translation from the Arabic accompanied with annotations, geographic and historic notes of the Kitâbfutûḥ al-buldân of al-Imâm abu l'Abbâs Aḥmad ibn-Jâbir al-Balâdhuri. New York.
- In Williams, H. S. (1904). The historians' history of the world: Parthians, Sassanids, and Arabs. The crusades and the papacy. New York: The Outlook Company
- Le, S. G. (1900). Baghdad during the Abbasid caliphate: From contemporary Arabic and Persian sources. Oxford: Clarendon Press
- Zaydān, J., & Margoliouth, D. S. (1907). Umayyads and ʻAbbásids: Being the fourth part of Jurjí Zaydán's history of Islamic civilization. Leyden: E.J. Brill, imprimerie orientale; [etc.].
- The World's work. (1900). New York: Doubleday, Page & Co "Islam Aflame with Revolt".
- Sir William Muir (1877). The life of Mahomet: from original sources. Smith, Elder.
- Irving, W. (1868). Mahomet and his successors. New York: Putnam.
- Sale, G., Psalmanazar, G., Bower, A., Shelvocke, G., Campbell, J., & Swinton, J. (1779). A universal history: From the earliest accounts to the present time. Vol 21.London: Printed for C. Bathurst.
- Brill Archive, A history of muslim historiography.
- P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs, ed. Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Brill Academic Publishers. ISSN 1573-3912.
- William H. McNeill, Jerry H. Bentley, David Christian, ed (2005). Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History. Berkshire Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-9743091-0-1.
- The New Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, Incorporated; Rev Ed edition. 2005. ISBN 978-1-59339-236-9.
- Baynes, T. S. (1888). The Encyclopædia Britannica: A dictionary of arts, sciences, and general literature. New York, N.Y: H.G. Allen. Page 545 - 606.
- In Pace, E. A. (1922). The Catholic encyclopedia: An international work of reference on the constitution, doctrine, discipline and history of the Catholic Church. New York: Encyclopedia Press. "Mohammed and Mohammedanism.". Pg. 424–428
- BBC Islamic History Special
- Chronological history of Islam and Muslims up to current time
- Islam: 662AD - Present
- Internet Islamic History Sourcebook
- A history of Islam in America
- Ethiopian Muslims History The Haven of the First Hijra (Migration): an African nation is the Muslims’ first refuge
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- Chronological history of Islam
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- Islamic Civilization
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