- Turkish War of Independence
Infobox Military Conflict
conflict = Turkish War of Independence
partof = the
Wars of Independence
caption = Anatolia as partitioned by the Treaty of Sèvres.
May 19, 1919– October 29, 1923
Partitioning of the Ottoman Empireand the Treaty of Sèvres
result = Decisive Turkish victory;
Treaty of Lausanne; recognition of the Republic of Turkey; end of the Ottoman Empire.
combatant1 = flagicon|Turkey spaces|2Turkish Revolutionaries
combatant2 = flagicon|UK|size=20px United Kingdom
commander1 = flagicon|Turkey|size=20px
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
Ali Fuat Cebesoy
commander2 = flagicon|UK|size=20px George Milne
flagicon|France|size=20px Henri Gouraud
The Turkish War of Independencecite web |publisher=Encyclopædia Britannica |url=http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-44425/Turkey |title=Turkey, Mustafa Kemal and the Turkish War of Independence, 1919–23 |accessdate=2007-10-29 |year=2007] cite web |publisher=Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2007 |url=http://encarta.msn.com/encnet/refpages/RefEdList.aspx?refid=210034335 |title=Turkish War of Independence |accessdate=2007-10-29 |year=2007] cite web |publisher=History.com Encyclopedia |url=http://www.history.com/encyclopedia.do?articleId=224643 |title=Turkey, Section: Occupation and War of Independence |accessdate=2007-10-29 |year=2007] ( _tr. Kurtuluş Savaşı;
May 19, 1919ndash October 29, 1923) refers to the political and military resistance developed by Turkish revolutionariesto the Allied partitioning of the Ottoman Empireafter its defeat in World War I. The Turkish National Movementin Anatolia culminated in the formation of a new Grand National Assembly which successfully mobilized its resources under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal. After the military campaigns against Greece, and of the Turkish-Armenian and Franco-Turkish Wars, the Turkish revolutionaries forced the Allies to abandon the Treaty of Sèvresand negotiate the Treaty of Lausannein July 1923, leaving Anatolia and Eastern Thraceto form the Republic of Turkeyin October 1923. On the political front establishment of the Turkish national movementled to the end of the Ottoman "millet" system and with the Atatürk's reformscreated a modern, secular nation-state.
Precursors (October 1918 – May 1919)
The Allies began to implement previously planned secret agreements for
partitioning of the Ottoman Empirewith the Armistice of Mudros( _tr. Mondros Mütarekesi) on October 30 1918. [Mango, Andrew. (1999) "Atatürk - The Biography of the Founder of Modern Turkey", Chap 10] [Erickson, Edward J. (2001) "Ordered To Die, A History Of The Ottoman Empire In The First World War", Westport USA - Greenwood Publishing Group, Chap 1. (Erickson's first chapter has good information on why the Entente Powerswere so keen on taking land from what today is the Republic of Turkey.)] As a special body of the Paris Conference, "The Inter-Allied Commission on Mandates in Turkey" was established by the allies to pursue the secret treaties they had signed between 1915-1917. [ The activities of commission can be find at; Henry Churchill King, Charles Richard Crane, "Report of American Section of Inter-allied Commission of Mandates in Turkey" published by American Section in 1919.] Among the allied objectives was a new Hellenic Empire based on Megali Ideasupported with the promise of territorial gains by British Prime Minister David Lloyd Georgeto Greece. [Erickson, Edward J. (2001) "Ordered To Die, A History Of The Ottoman Empire In The First World War", Westport USA - Greenwood Publishing Group, Chap 8, at the end of the Cost section.] Italy sought control over the southern part of Anatolia under the Agreement of St.-Jean-de-Maurienne. Under the secret Sykes-Picot Agreement, the French expected to exercise control over Hatay, Lebanonand Syria, and also wanted control over a portion of South-Eastern Anatolia. France signed the French-Armenian Agreement, which created the French Armenian Legionand promised the realization of an Armenian state in the Mediterranean region. [Richard G. Hovannisian, Armenia on the Road to Independence, 1967.] The British already had control over Arabia, Palestine, Jordanand Iraq, and were also seeking control over the straits linking the Black Seato the Mediterranean Sea.
occupation of Istanbul. Ottoman soldiers are accompanied by French soldiers while the Allied navy lies off the Dolmabahçe Palace.]
Occupation of Istanbulbegan before the Ottoman Army's leading officers, such as Mustafa Kemal ( November 13 1918), Kazim Karabekir( November 28 1918), Ismet Inönü, and others returned to Istanbul. [Mango, Andrew. (1999) "Atatürkndash The Biography of the Founder of Modern Turkey", chap. 10.] [Lord Kinross. "The Rebirth of a Nation", chap. 20.] The partitioning of Anatoliabegan with the occupation of Izmiron May 15, 1919by the Greek army. [Llewellyn Smith, Michael. (1973) "Ionian Vision: Greece in Asia Minor 1919–1922", Ailen Lane.] A few days later the Italian forces landed in Antalya. British units were in the Black Sea region intending to build a bridge to the Democratic Republic of Armenia(DRA). [Pastirmadjian, Garegin (1918) "Why Armenia Should Be Free". Hairenik Publishing Company, Boston, p. 40. "The Armenians had built their hopes on British assistance, since nothing was expected from the demoralized Russian army. But, unfortunately, the British were unable to reach Baku with large forces from their Bagdad army. Nevertheless, on August 5th, they landed at Baku 2800 men to help the Armenians. The arrival of this small British contingent caused great enthusiasm among the tired and exhausted defenders of the city."] The British occupation authorities soon dismantled the South West Caucasian Republic, which was proclaimed in the city of Kars by the Turkish National Council of the Southwest Caucasus, on December 01, 1918. [cite web |publisher=Encyclopædia of Caucasian Knot |url=http://eng.kavkaz.memo.ru/encyclopediatext/engencyclopedia/id/582432.html |title=Southwest Caucasus Democratic Republic |accessdate=2007-10-29 |year=2007 |quote=On April 12, 1919, English occupation authorities broke up the meeting of the Kars parliament, arresting 30 parliamentarians and government members. Those arrested were first deported to Batum, but it soon became known that the English military government exiled eleven of them to Malta as hostages] DRA invaded Kars in May 1919. [Mango, Andrew. (1999) "Atatürk - The Biography of the Founder of Modern Turkey", chap. 10] The French, aided by French Armenian Legion, landed in Adana on December 211918. [Mango, Andrew. (1999) "Atatürkndash The Biography of the Founder of Modern Turkey", chap. 10, "Mango goes on to explain that the Armenian civilians came back from Syria and ethnic strife escalated. Mango claims that part of the motivation for the Turkish struggle was the invaders' plan to rule Anatolia through minorities of the Ottoman Empire."]
The Sultan and his government lacked any effective power to counter the demands of the Allies as the Ottoman capital was under British control. High Commissioner Admiral
Somerset Arthur Gough-Calthorpewas assigned as the Allied military adviser to Istanbul. Ahmet Izzet Pashawho become the Grand Vizier on October 14and signed the Armistice of Mudros on October 30was replaced by Tevfik Pashaon November 18just after Calthorpe took his position. Calthorpe's first task was to arrest some thirty former members of the Committee of Union and Progresson 29–30 January 1919Mango, Atatürk, 204.] . They were taken to the military detention center at Bekiraga Bolugu. Mustafa Kemal was not one of them. Although a renowned critic of the Committee of Union and Progress, Mustafa Kemal had some friends among these exiles. [Volkan, Vamik and Itzkowitz, Norman, "Immortal Ataturk, A Psychobiography", chap. 9.] [Mango, Andrew. (1999) "Atatürkndash The Biography of the Founder of Modern Turkey", John Murray Publishers, chapter 10. "Mango lists Dr. Tevfik Rüstü (Aras) as such a friend."] The Ottoman government needed respected officers to control the army. Older generals, such as Abdullah Pasha, could not control the army. The war minister Cevat Cobanli, declared that serving officers could not form associations and Mustafa Kemal claiming to advocate political neutrality of the armed forces was not perceived as a threat.
Resistance began soon after the first dictated orders to the Ottoman government came in from allied powers. In reaction to the policies of the Allies, many Ottoman officials organized secret
Outpost Societies("Karakol Cemiyeti"). The objective of the Outpost Societies was to thwart Allied demands through passive and active resistance. Many Ottoman officials participated in efforts to conceal from the occupying authorities details of the burgeoning independence movement spreading throughout Anatolia. Munitions initially seized by the Allies were secretly smuggled out of Istanbul into Central Anatolia, along with Ottoman officers keen to resist any division of Ottoman territories. General Ali Fuat Cebesoyin the meantime had moved his army corps from Syria to Ankara and started organizing resistance groups, including Caucasian immigrants under Çerkez Ethem.
Since the southern rim of Anatolia was effectively controlled by British warships and competing Greek and Italian troops, the
Turkish National Movement's headquarters moved to the rugged terrain of central Anatolia.
Initial organization (May 1919 – March 1920)
Anatoliaand Turkish peopleafter World War I.]
In the face of nationalist resistance, the
sultanand his government bribed major Ottoman Pashas like Mustafa Kemal with important positions in the areas remaining under "direct Ottoman authority" territories defined by the Treaty of Sèvres, areas free of Allied control. The reasons for these new assignments is still a matter of debate; one view is that it was an intentional move to support the national movement, another was that the Sultan wanted to keep Istanbul under his control, a goal which was in total agreement with the aims of the occupation armies which can keep the Sultan in control. The most prominent idea given for the Sultan’s decision was by assigning these officers out of the capital, the Sultan was trying to minimize the effectiveness of these soldiers in the capital. The Sultan was cited as saying that without an organized army, the Allies could not be defeated, and the national movement had two army corps in May 1919, one based in Ankaraunder the command of Ali Fuat Cebesoyand the other based in Erzurumunder the command of Kazim Karabekir.
Through manipulation and the help of friends and sympathizers, Mustafa Kemal became the Inspector General of virtually all of the Ottoman forces in Anatolia, tasked with overseeing the disbanding process of the remaining Ottoman forces. [Lord Kinross. "The Rebirth of a Nation", Chap 19. "Kinross writes that the Erkân-i Harbiye Reis Muavini, ie the General Commander of the Ottoman Empire at the time was Fevzi Pasa, and old friend. Although he was temporarily absent, his substitute was Kâzim (Inanç) Pasa, another old friend. Neither Mehmet VI, nor the Prime Minister Damat Ferit had actually seen the actual order."] He and his carefully selected staff left Constantinople (Istanbul) aboard SS "Bandirma", an old steamer for
Samsunon the evening of May 16, 1919. [Lord Kinross. "The Rebirth of a Nation", chap 19.] The inspector general stepped ashore on May 19and set up his quarters in the Mintika Palace Hotel. Mustafa Kemal made the people of Samsun aware of the Greek and Italian landings, staged mass meetings (whilst remaining discreet) and made, thanks to the excellent telegraph network, fast connections with the army units in Anatolia and began to form links with various nationalist groups. He sent telegrams of protest to foreign embassies and the War Ministry about British reinforcements in the area and about British aid to Greek brigand gangs. After a week in Samsun, Mustafa Kemal and his staff moved to Havza, about 85 kilometers inland.
Mustafa Kemal writes in his memoir that he needed nationwide support. The importance of his position, and his status as a hero after the
Battle of Gallipoli, gave him some credentials. On the other hand, this was not enough to inspire everyone. While officially occupied with the disarming of the army, he had increased his various contacts in order to build his movement's momentum. He met with Rauf Orbay, Ali Fuat Cebesoy, and Refet Beleon June 21, 1919 and declared the Amasya Circular( 22 June 1919).
Decoding Mustafa Kemal (June 1919)
Damat Ferid Pashagovernment and Sultan Mehmed VIwere under the impression that Mustafa Kemalwas a good choice for the task of stopping ethnic strife between Turks and Pontic Greeks. [Lord Kinross. "The Rebirth of a Nation", Chap 19.] However, the British, who had better intelligence, were alarmed when they learned that Mustafa Kemal had become Inspector General, as they believed that Mustafa Kemal had nationalist ideals. A British detachment entered and searched for documents in his mother's house where he was residing at the time. [Volkan, Vamik and Itzkowitz, Norman, "Immortal Ataturk, A Psychobiography", chap 9.] The British were correct in their suspicions, as Mustafa Kemal at the time was meeting in that house with the Ottoman Army generals and commanders who were to become leaders in the coming war. [Volkan, Vamik and Itzkowitz, Norman, "Immortal Ataturk, A Psychobiography", chap 9. "The regular guests of this house included Kâzim (Karabekir), Ali Fuat, Ismet (Inönü)"] Britain urged the Sultan to recall Kemal. Thanks to friends and sympathizers in government circles, a compromise was worked out whereby the power of the Inspector General was curbed. As a result, Inspector General became a title that had no power, at least on paper. On June 23High Commissioner Admiral Calthorpe, realizing the significance of Mustafa Kemal's discreet activities in Anatolia, sent a report about Kemal to the Foreign Office. His remarks were down played by George Kidson of the Eastern Department. Captain Hurst (British army) in Samsun warned Admiral Calthorpe one more time, but Hurst's units were replaced with a Brigade of Gurkhas. The movement of British units alarmed the population of the region and convinced the population that Mustafa Kemal was right. Right after this "The Association for Defense of National Rights" (Müdafaa-i Hukuk Cemiyeti) was founded in Trabzon, and a parallel association in Samsun was also founded, which declared that the Black Sea region was not safe. The same activities that happened during the Occupation of Izmirwere happening in the region. When the British landed in Alexandretta, Admiral Calthorpe resigned on the basis that this was against the Armistice that he had signed and was assigned to another position on August 5, 1919. [Lord Kinross. (1999) "Atatürk: The Re-birth of a Nation", chap. 16.]
The Ottoman War Minister
Damat Ferid Pashaordered Refet Beleand Mustafa Kemal to work on reducing the tensions among the Muslim Black Sea population. Ferit Pasha promised that the British would not take any action against them. Mustafa Kemal said to his close friends "Ferit Pasha does not understand the realities of the region; he should resign for the benefit of the Empire".
2 July, in Erzincan, Kemal received a telegram from the Sultan himself. The Sultan asked him to cease his activities in Anatolia and return to the capital. Mustafa Kemal did not want to return to Istanbul. Fearing that the foreign authorities might have designs for him beyond the Sultan's plans, he felt the best course for him was to take a two month leave of absence.
Representational problem (October 1919)
Ali Riza Pasha sent a navy minister
Hulusi Salih Pasha, who had not been in World War I, to negotiate with the Turkish National Movement. Salih Pasha and Mustafa Kemal met in Amasyaon October 16 1919. Mustafa Kemal put the representational problems of Ottoman Parliament on the agenda. Kemal wanted to have a signed protocol between Ali Riza Pasha and the "representative committee" established at the Sivas Congress( 4 September 1919ndash 11 September 1919). On the advice of the British, Ali Riza Pasha rejected any form of recognition or legitimacy claims by this unconstitutional political formation in Anatolia.
In December 1919, fresh elections were held for the Ottoman parliament in Istanbul in an attempt to build a better representative structure. The Ottoman parliament was seen as a way to reassert the central government's claims of legitimacy in response to the emerging nationalist movement in Anatolia. In the meantime, groups of Ottoman Greeks had formed Greek nationalist militias within Ottoman borders and were acting on their own. Greek members of the Ottoman parliament repeatedly blocked any progress in the parliament, and most Greek subjects of the Sultan boycotted the new elections.
The elections were held and a new parliament of the Ottoman State was formed under the occupation. However, Ali Riza Pasha was too hasty in thinking that his parliament could bring him legitimacy. The house of the parliament was under the shadow of the British battalion stationed at Istanbul. Any decisions by the parliament had to have the signatures of both Ali Riza Pasha and the commanding British Officer. The freedom of the new government was limited. It did not take too long for the members of parliament to recognize that any kind of integrity was not possible in this situation. Ali Riza Pasha and his government had become the voice of the
Triple Entente. The only laws that passed were those acceptable to, or specifically ordered by the British.
Ottoman Parliament acts alone (January 1920)
January 12, 1920, the last Ottoman Chamber of Deputies met in the capital. First the sultan’s speech was presented and then a telegram from Mustafa Kemal, manifesting the claim that the rightful government of Turkey being in Ankara in the name of the Representative Committee.
A group called "Felâh-i Vatan" among the Ottoman parliament worked to acknowledge the decisions taken at the
Erzurum Congressand the Sivas Congress. The British began to sense that something had been flourishing that they did not want. The Ottoman government was not doing what it could to suppress the nationalists. On January 28the deputies met secretly. Proposals were made to elect Mustafa Kemal president of the Chamber, but this was deferred in the certain knowledge that the British would prorogue the Chamber before it could do what has been planned all along, namely accept the declaration of the Sivas Congress.
28 January, 1920, the Ottoman parliament developed the National Pact ( Misak-i Milli) and published it on 12 February 1920. This pact adapted six principles; which called for self-determination, the security of Constantinople, and the opening of the Straits, also the abolishment of the capitulations. In effect the Misak-i Milli solidified a lot of nationalist notions, which were in conflict with the Allied plans.
hift from "de facto" to "de jure" occupation (February 1920)
The National Movement, which persuaded the Ottoman parliament to declare "Misak-i Milli", prompted the British government to take matters into its own hands. To put an end to this situation the British decided they needed to systematically bring Turkey under its control. The plan was to dismantle every organization beginning from Istanbul to deep into Anatolia. Mustafa Kemal's National Movement was the main problem. The British Foreign Office was asked to devise a plan on how to deal with it. The Foreign Office developed the same plan they used during the
Arab Revolt, but this time the resources were channeled to warlords like Ahmet Anzavur. The political side of this decision was solidified under the Treaty of Sèvres. Anatolia was to be westernized under Christian governments. That was the only way that Christians could be safe said the British government. The Treaty of Sèvres placed most of Anatolia under Christian control. This policy aimed to break down the authority in Anatolia by separating the Sultan, its government, and putting Christians (Greece and Democratic Republic of Armenia, Armenians of Cilia) against Muslims. The details of these covert operations is summarized under the title Jurisdictional Conflict.
On the night of
March 15British troops began to occupy key buildings and arrest Turkish nationalists. It was a very messy operation. At the military music school there was resistance. At least ten students died but the official death toll is unknown even today. The British tried to capture the leadership of the movement. They secured the departments of the Minister of War and of the Chief of the General Staff, Fevzi Çakmak. Çakmak was an able and relatively conservative officer who was known as one of the army’s oldest field commanders. He soon became one of the principal military leaders of the National Movement.
Mustafa Kemal was ready for this move. He warned all the nationalist organizations that there would be misleading declarations from the capital. He warned that the only way to stop the British was to organize protests. He said "Today the Turkish nation is called to defend its capacity for civilization, its right to life and independencendash its entire future". Mustafa Kemal was extensively familiar with the Arab Revolt and British involvement. He managed to stay one step ahead of the British Foreign Office. This, as well as his other abilities, gave Mustafa Kemal considerable authority among the revolutionaries.
March 18the Ottoman parliament sent a protest to the Allies. The document stated that it was unacceptable to arrest five of its members. But the damage had been done. It was end of the Ottoman political system. This show of force by the British had left the Sultan as sole controller of the Empire. But the Sultan depended on their power to keep what was left of the empire. He was now a puppet for the Allies.
Jurisdictional conflict (March 1920 – March 1922)
The new government, hoping to undermine the National Movement, passed a
fatwa(legal opinion) from Seyhülislam. The fatwa stated that true believers should not go along with the nationalist (rebels) movement. Along with this religious decree, the government sentenced Mustafa Kemal and prominent nationalists to death in absentia. At the same time, the müftiof Ankara ( Rifat Börekçi, who later became President of Religious Affairs) in defense of the nationalist movement, issued a counteracting fatwa declaring that the capital was under the control of the Entente and the Ferit Pasha government. In this text, nationalist movement's goal was stated as freeing the sultan and Caliphatefrom its enemies.
Dissolution of the Ottoman parliament (March 1920)
Mustafa Kemal expected the Allies neither to accept the Harbord report nor to respect his parliamentary immunity if he went to the Ottoman capital, hence he remained in Anatolia. Kemal moved the Representative Committee's capital from
Erzurumto Ankara so that he could keep in touch with as many deputies as possible as they traveled to Istanbul to attend the parliament. He also started a newspaper, the "Hakimiyet-i Milliye" ("National Sovereignty"), to speak for the movement both in Turkey and the outside world ( January 10, 1920).
Mustafa Kemal declared that the only legal government of Turkey was the Representative Committee in Ankara and that all civilian and military officials were to obey it rather than the government in Istanbul. This argument gained very strong support, as by that time the fact of the Ottoman Parliament being fully under the Allied control had been established.
Declaration of the Grand National Assembly (April 1920)
The strong measures taken against the nationalists by the Ottoman government created a distinct new phase. Mustafa Kemal sent a note to the governors and force commanders, asking them to implement election of delegates to join the Grand National Assembly, which would convene in Ankara. Mustafa Kemal appealed to the Islamic world asking for help to make sure that everyone knew he was still fighting in the name of the sultan who was also the caliph. He stated he wanted to free the Caliph from the Allies. Plans were made to organize a new government and parliament in Ankara, and then ask the sultan to accept its authority.
A flood of supporters moved to Ankara just ahead of the Allied dragnets. Included among them were
Halide Edip, Adnan Adivar, Ismet Inönü, Kemal’s important allies in the Ministry of War, and the Celaleddin Arifthe president of the Chamber of Deputies. Yunus Nadi Abalioglu, the owner of " Yeni Gun" newspaper, journalist-author and deputy of Izmir, Halide Edip Adivar met in Geyve on March 31. Two intellectuals discussed the necessity that a news agency should be established to allied military administration's censure over the news. They chose "Anadolu" as the name. Mustafa Kemal, which they meet in Ankara, immediately launched initiatives to herald establishment of Anadolu Agency[http://www.aa.com.tr/tarihce_en/ History of Anadolu Agency ] ] . Kemal wanted to transmit news stories to the world. Kemal also stressed the importance of making the national struggle be heard inside and outside of the country. Celaleddin Arif's desertion of the capital was of great significance. Celaleddin Arif stated that the Ottoman Parliament had been dissolved illegally. The Armistice did not give Allies power over dissolving the Ottoman Parliament and the Constitution of 1909 which removed the power from Sultan to prevent what Abdulhamid did in 1879.
Some 100 members of the Ottoman Parliament were able to escape the Allied roundup and joined 190 deputies elected around the country by the national resistance group. Ismet Inonü joined as a deputy from
Edirne. On March 1920, Turkish revolutionaries announced that the Turkish nation was establishing its own Parliament in Ankara under the name Grand National Assembly (GNA). The GNA assumed full governmental powers. On April 23, 1920, the new Assembly gathered for the first time, making Mustafa Kemal its first president and Ismet Inonü chief of the General Staff. The new regime’s determination to revolt against the government in the capital and not the Sultan was quickly made evident.
Early pressure on nationalist militias (April and June 1920)
Anatolia had many forces on its soil: British battalions,
Ahmet Aznavurforces, and the Sultan's army. The Sultan gave 4,000 soldiers from his Kuva-i Inzibatiye(Caliphate Army). Then using money from the Allies, he raised another army, a force about 2,000 strong from non-Muslim inhabitants which were initially deployed in Iznik (Nicaea). The sultan's government sent forces under the name of the caliphate army to the revolutionaries and aroused counterrevolutionary outbreaks. [George F. Nafziger, "Islam at War: A History", p. 132.] .
The British being skeptical of how formidable these insurgents were, decided to use irregular power to counteract this rebellion. The nationalist forces were distributed all around Turkey, so many small units were dispatched to face them. In
Izmitthere were two battalions of the British army. Their commanders were living on the Ottoman warship "Yavuz". These units were to be used to rout the partisans under the command of Ali Fuat Cebesoyand Refet Bele.
13 April 1920, the first conflict occurred at Düzce as a direct consequence of the sheik ul-Islam's fatwa. On 18 April, the Düzce conflict was extended to Bolu; on 20 April, it extended to Gerede. The movement engulfed an important part of northwestern Anatolia for about a month. The Ottoman government had accorded semi-official status to the "Kuva-i Inzibatiye" and Ahmet Anzavur held an important role in the uprising. Both sides faced each other in a pitched battle near Izmit on June 14 1920. Ahmet Aznavur's forces and British units outnumbered the militias. Yet under heavy attack some of the Kuva-i Inzibatiye deserted and joined the opposing ranks. This revealed the Sultan did not have the unwavering support of his men. Meanwhile the rest of these forces withdrew behind the British lines which held their position.
The clash outside Izmit brought serious consequences. The British forces opened fire on the nationalists and bombed them from the air. This bombing forced a retreat but there was a panic in Istanbul. The British commander General George Milne, asked for reinforcements. This initiated a chain reaction to determine what was required to handle the Turkish nationalists. Marshal
Ferdinand Fochsigned the investigative report on the matter. The report ended with the summation that twenty seven divisions would be sufficient. British army did not have twenty seven divisions to spare. Also a deployment this size could have disastrous political consequences. The Great War had just ended for British and the public back home would not support another lengthy and costly expedition.
The British accepted the fact that a nationalist movement could not be faced without deployment of consistent and well-trained forces. On
June 25the forces originating from Kuva-i Inzibatiye were dismantled under British supervision. The official stance was that there was no use for them. The British realized that the best option to overcome these Turkish nationalists was to use a force that was battle-tested and fierce enough to fight the Turks on their own soil. The British had to look no further than Turkey's neighbor: Greece.
Establishment of the army (July 1920)
Amasya Circular( 22 June 1919), Mustafa Kemal met with a Bolshevikdelegation headed by Colonel Semyon Budyonny. The Bolsheviks wanted to annex the parts of the Caucasus, including Democratic Republic of Armenia, which were formerly part of Czarist Russia. They also saw a Turkish Republic as a buffer state or possibly a communist ally. Kemal's official response was "Such questions had to be postponed until Turkish independence was achieved." Having this support was important for the national movement [ By Stanford J. Shaw, Ezel Kural Shaw History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey Page 344]
The first objective was the securing of arms from abroad. They obtained these primarily from the Soviet Union and from Italy and France. These arms, especially the Soviet weapons, allowed the Turks to organize an effective army. After the
Treaty of Kars( October 23, 1921) nationalists agreed to cede Nachicevanand Batumand in response they received support and gold. For the promised resources, the nationalists had to wait until the Battle of Sakarya(August – September, 1921). On August 4 1920, Turkey's representative in Moscow, Riza Nur, sent a telegram saying that soon 60 Krupp artillery pieces, 30,000 shells, 700,000 grenades, 10,000 mines, 60,000 Romanian swords, 1.5 million captured Ottoman rifles, 1 million Russian rifles, 1 million Manlicher rifles, as well as some more modern Martini-Henry rifles and 25,000 bayonets would be in the possession of the Turkish nationalists. Kapur, H "Soviet Russia and Asia, 1917–1927"]
The Turks also received arms from Italy and France, who threw in their lot with the Kemalists against Greece which was seen as a British clientFact|date=November 2007. The Italians used their base in Antalya to arm and train Turkish troops to assist the Kemalists against the GreeksFact|date=November 2007.
Treaty of Sèvres (August 1920)
The Ottoman Government signed the
Treaty of Sèvreson the basis that the Treaty did not dismember the Caliphate and Istanbul was left to the Sultan. The Treaty was rejected by the Turkish national movement, which thought the territorial settlements were not made on the basis of broad practical statesmanship to arrange durable frontiers and a tolerable future for the peoples concerned. Rather, it was drawn on the momentary interests of foreign policy.
Also Venizelos drew the Greek gains in the Treaty as other nations had to let Greece occupy these regions. It was not that the Triple Entente wanted to see these regions detached from Bulgaria and Anatolia, but they were not strong enough, either their domestic policy or armed units did not have the will to go forward, to take themselves.
Conflicts in the East (June – November 1920)
The border of the
Democratic Republic of Armenia(ADR) and Ottoman Empire was defined with Brest-Litovsk ( March 3, 1918) after the Bolshevik revolution and later with Treaty of Batum( June 4, 1918) with the ADR. It was obvious that after the Armistice of Mudros( October 30 1918) the eastern border was not going to stay as it was drawn. There were talks going on with the Armenian Diasporaand Triple Entente on reshaping the border. The Fourteen Pointswas seen as an incentive to ADR, if Armenians could prove that they were the majority of the population and that they had military control over the eastern regions. The Armenian movements on the borders were being used as an argument to redraw the border between Ottoman Empire and ADR. Woodrow Wilsonagreed to transfer the territories back to the ADR as given the ideas that they are dominantly controlled by Armenians. The results of these talks were to be reflected on the Treaty of Sèvres( August 10 1920). There was also a movement of Armenians from southeast with the French support. The French-Armenian Agreement granted the Armenian claims to Ciliciawith establishment of French Armenian Legion. The general idea at that time was to integrate ADR to the French supported southeast Armenian movement. This way ADR could gain much sought resources to balance the Bolshevik expansionist movements.
One of the most important fights had taken place on this border. The very early onset of national army was the proof of this, even though there was a pressing Greek danger on the west. The stage of the east campaign developed through Kâzim Karabekir's two reports (
May 30and June 4, 1920) outlining the situation in the region. He was detailing the activities of the Armenian Republic and advising on how to shape the sources at the eastern borders, especially in Erzurum. Russian government sent a message to settle not only the Democratic Republic of Armeniabut also Iranian border through diplomacy under Russian control. The Soviet support was absolutely vital for the Turkish nationalist movement, as Turkey was underdeveloped and had no domestic armaments industry. Bakir Sami Beywas assigned for the talks. Bolsheviks demanded that Van and Bitlisbe transferred to Armenia. This was unacceptable to the Turkish revolutionaries. The revolutionaries were also faced with another dilemma: their hesitation to move forces to prevent the Armenian raids was causing a growing unsettlement among the Turks. The Greek threat and diplomatic connections needed to be balanced.
Before more diplomatic exchanges took place, to show a sign of power on the discussion table, Armenia moved its forces to
Oltu, leading to the Battle of Oltu. The Battle of Oltu ended the discussions with Russian government and in a couple of days the Treaty of Sèvreswas signed by the Ottoman Empire. This was followed by occupation of Artvinby Georgian forces on 25 July.
Treaty of Alexandropol( December 2, 1920) was the first treaty signed by the Turkish revolutionaries. It nullified the Armenian activities on the east border which was reflected on the Treaty of Sèvres as succession of regions named as Wilsonian Armenia. The tenth item in the Treaty of Alexandropol stated that Armenia renounced the Treaty of Sèvres, which stipulated the Wilsonian Armenia.
After the peace agreement with Turkish nationals, in late November, a Soviet-backed communist uprising happened in Armenia. On November 28, 1920, the 11th Red Army under the command of Anatoliy Hekker crossed from the
Soviet Azerbaijanto Armenia. The second Soviet-Armenian war lasted only a week. The ADR was not eliminated by the Turkish revolutionaries, whom Armenians could no longer threaten after being defeated. It is also possible to claim that had the ADR been content with the boundaries as of 1919, she could have shown more resistance to the Bolshevik conquest, both internally and externally.
March 16, 1921, the Bolsheviks and nationalists signed more comprehensive agreement Treaty of Karswhich involved representatives of Soviet Armenia, Soviet Azerbaijanand Soviet Georgia.
The arms left by the defeated ADR forces were sent to the west to develop the resistance to the Greeks.
Conflicts in the West
The war arose because the western Allies, particularly British Prime Minister
David Lloyd George, had promised Greece territorial gains at the expense of the Ottoman Empire if Greece entered the war on the Allied side. These included Eastern Thrace, the islands of Gökçeada(Imbros) and Bozcaada(Tenedos), and parts of Western Anatolia around the city of Izmir (Smyrna). Greece wanted to occupy Istanbul (Constantinople), the historical capital of the Byzantine Empire, to achieve the Megali Idea, but Entente powers did not give permission.
It was decided by the Triple Entente that Greece would occupy a zone around Izmir (Smyrna) and
Ayvalikin western Asia Minor. The reason for these landings were prior Italian landings on the southern coast of Turkey, including in the city of Antalya. The Allies worried about further Italian expansion and saw Greek landings as a way to avoid this.
May 28, Greeks landed on Ayvalik. It was no surprise that this small town was chosen as this town was the Greek-speaking stronghold before the Balkan Wars. The Balkan Wars changed the nature of this region. The Turkish inhabitants who were forced out with the extending borders of Greece, mainly from Crete, settled in this area. Under an old Ottoman Lieutenant Colonel Ali Çetinkaya, these people formed a unit. Along Ali Çetinkaya's units population in the region gathered around Resit, Tevfik and Çerkes Ethem. These units were very determined to fight against Greece as there was no other place that they can be pushed back. Resit, Tevfik and Ethem were of Circassianorigin who were expelled from their ancestral lands in the Caucasusby the Russiansand Armenians. They were settled around the Aegean coast. Greek troops first met with these irregulars. Mustafa Kemal asked Admiral Rauf Orbay, if he could help in coordinating the units under Ali Çetinkaya, Resit, Tevfik and Çerkez Ethem. Rauf Orbay, also of Circassian origin, managed to link these groups. He asked them to cut the Greek logistic support lines.
The Allied decision to allow a Greek landing in Smyrna resulted from earlier Italian landings at Antalya. Faced with Italian annexation of parts of Asia Minor with a significant ethnic Greek population, Venizelos secured Allied permission for Greek troops to land in Smyrna, ostensibly in order to protect the civilian population from turmoil. Turks claim that Venizelos wanted to create a homogeneous Greek settlement to be able to annex it to Greece, but his statements indicated that the Greeks were in Smyrna to protect the locals:"Greece is not making war against Islam, but against the anachronistic Ottoman Government, and its corrupt, ignominious, and bloody administration, with a view to the expelling it from those territories where the majority of the population consists of Greeks." ["Not War Against Islam-Statement by Greek Prime Minister" in The Scotsman, June 29 1920 p.5] Greek territorial ambitions and claims at this time contradict this statement.
As soon as Greek forces landed in Izmir, a Turkish nationalist opened fire prompting brutal reprisals. Greek forces used this as a base for launching attacks deeper into Turkey. Atatürk refused to accept even a temporary Greek presence in Izmir. Eventually the Turkish revolutionaries would push the Greeks out of Izmir.
With the borders secured with treaties and agreements at east and south, Kemal was now in a commanding position. The Nationals were then able to insist that unconditionally, the Greeks evacuate east Thrace, Imbros and Tenedos as well as Asia Minor, and the Meriç River to be set as the border at Thrace at its pre-1914 position.
France, Italy and Britain called Mustafa Kemal to
Venicefor cease-fire negotiations. In return, Mustafa Kemal demanded negotiations be started at Mudanya. Negotiations at Mudanya began on October 3, and it was concluded with the Mudanya Armistice.
Conflicts in the south (January 1920 – February 1921)
The French wanted to settle in Syria. With a pressure against French, Cilicia would be easily left to the nationalists. The Taurus Mountains were critical for Mustafa Kemal. The French soldiers were foreign to the region and they were using Armenian militia to acquire their intelligence. Turkish nationals had been in cooperation with Arab tribes in this area. Within time Mustafa Kemal said "The French army will leave the region". If compared to the Greek threat, they were the second most dangerous for Mustafa Kemal. He proposed that if the Greek threat could be disseminated, the French would not resist. His insights all came through.
The resistance of the national forces was a big surprise to France. They blamed the British forces which did not curb the resistance power of the local sources. The strategic goal of opening a front at the south by moving Armenians against the Turkish National forces was a failure after the defeat of the Greek-British forces on the west. The use of armed local Armenians in the region against the Turkish National forces turned out to be a failure. Most of the Armenians in this region had to migrate alongside the French army. Even though most of the fight was organized alongside the Armenian sources, the loss of French soldiers generated much disapproval in France, which tried to mend the results of the continental wars. France asked for 1,500,000 gold coins from the Turkish National Government (Mustafa Kemal) for their loss, which was denied.
Conference of London (March 1921)
In salvaging the
Treaty of Sèvres, The Triple Entente forced the Turkish Revolutionariesto agree with the terms through a series of conferences in London. The Conference of London, with sharp differences, failed in both the first stage and the second stages. The modified Sèvres of the conference as a peace settlement was incompatible with the National Pact.
The conference of London gave the Triple Entente an opportunity to reverse some of their policies. In October, parties of the conference received a report from Admiral
Mark Lambert Bristol. He organized commission to analyze the situation, inquire into the bloodshed during the Occupation of Izmirand the following activities in the region. The commission reported that if annexation would not follow, Greece should not be the only occupation force in this area. Admiral Bristol was not so sure how to explain this annexation to U.S. President Woodrow Wilsonas he insisted on 'respect for nationalities' in the Fourteen Points. He believed that the sentiments of the Turks 'will never accept this annexation'.
Neither the Conference of London nor Admiral Mark Lambert Bristol's report changed British Prime Minister
David Lloyd George's position. On February 12 1921he went with the annexation of the Aegean cost which was followed by the Greek offensive. David Lloyd George acted with his sentiments that were developed during Battle of Gallipoli, opposed to General Milne who was his officer on the ground.
Stage for peace (March 1922 – October 1923)
The first communication between the sides were during the failed
Conference of London. The stage for peace effectively began after the Triple Entente's recognition to make an arrangement with the Turkish revolutionaries. Before the talks with Entente, the nationalists partially settled their eastern borders with Democratic Republic of Armeniasigning Treaty of Alexandropol, but changes in the Caucasus especially establishment of the Armenian SSRrequired one more round of talks. The outcome was the Treaty of Kars, a successor treaty to the earlier Treaty of Moscow of March 1921. It was signed in Kars with the Russian SFSRon October 23, 1921[ru icon [http://www.amsi.ge/istoria/sab/yarsi.html Text of the Treaty of Kars] ] and ratified in Yerevanon September 11, 1922[ [http://groong.usc.edu/treaties/kars.html English translation of the Treaty of Kars] ] .
Armistice of Mudanya (October 1922)
Marmarasea resort town of Mudanyahosted the conference to arrange the armistice on October 3, 1922. Ismet Inonü, commander of the western armies was in front of Allies. The scene was unlike Mondros as the British and the Greeks were on the defense. Greece was represented by the Allies.
The British still expected the Grand National Assembly, to make concessions. From the first speech, the British were startled as Ankara demanded fulfillment of the National Pact. During the conference the British troops in Istanbul were preparing for a Kemalist attack. There was never any fighting in
Thrace, as Greek units withdrew before the Turks crossed the straits from Asia Minor. The only concession that Ismet made to the British was an agreement that his troops would not advance any farther toward the Dardanelles, which gave a safe haven for the British troops as long as the conference continued. The conference dragged on far beyond the original expectations. In the end, it was the British who yielded to Ankara's advances.
The Armistice of Mudanya was signed on
October 11. By its terms the Greek army would move west of the Maritsa, clearing Eastern Thrace to the Allies. The famous American author Ernest Hemingwaywas in Thrace at the time, and he covered the evacuation of Eastern Thrace of its Greek population. He has several short stories written about Thrace and Smyrna, which appear in his book "In Our Time". The agreement came into force starting October 15. Allied forces would stay in Eastern Thrace for a month to assure law and order. In return Ankara would recognize continued British occupation of Istanbul and the Straits zones until the final treaty was signed. Refet Belewas assigned to seize the control of Eastern Thrace from the Allies. He was the first representative to reach the old capital. The British did not allow the hundred gendarmes who came with him. That resistance lasted till the next day.
Abolition of the Sultanate (November 1922)
The form of the government in
Istanbul, resting on the sovereignty of the Sultan, had already ceased to exist when the British forces occupied the city after the World War I. [Kinross, Rebirth of a Nation, p. 348] The law for the abolition of the Sultanate was submitted to the National Assembly for voting. Furthermore, it was argued that although the Caliphatehad belonged to the Ottoman Empire, it rested on the Turkish state by its dissolution and Turkish National Assembly would have right to choose a member of the Ottoman family in the office of Caliph. On 1 November, the Grand Assembly voted for the abolition of the Ottoman Sultanate. The last Sultan left Turkey on 17 November 1922, in a British battleship on his way to Malta. This was last act in the end of the Ottoman Empire.
Conference of Lausanne (November 1922)
Treaty of Lausanne (July 1923)
Establishment of the Republic (October 1923)
The Republic was proclaimed on
October 29, 1923, in the new capital of Ankara. Mustafa Kemal was elected as the first President. In forming his government, he placed Fevzi Çakmak, Kazım Özalpand Ismet Inönüin important positions. They helped him to establish the Atatürk's Reforms.
Aftermath of World War I
Chronology of the Turkish War of Independence
Pontic Greek Genocide
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*cite book |last=Kinross|first=Patrick|authorlink=John Balfour, 3rd Baron Kinross|title=Atatürk: The Rebirth of a Nation |publisher=Phoenix Press |year=2003 |location=London|isbn=978-1842125991|oclc=55516821
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