- Ahl al-Bayt
Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic: _ar. أهل البيت) is an Arabic phrase literally meaning "People of the House", or "family". The phrase "ahl al-bayt" was used in Arabia before the advent of Islam to refer to one's clan, and would be adopted by the ruling family of a tribe. Within the
Islamic tradition, the term refers to the family of Muhammad, the founder of Islam.Ahl al-Bayt, "Enyclopedia of Islam"] Muslims venerate Muhammad's household as it is given a special significance in the Qur'an, the Muslim holy scripture, and the hadith, reports recording the words and actions of Muhammad.
There are differing interpretations over the scope and importance of Ahl al-Bayt. In
Sunni Islam, Muhammad's household includes his wives, his daughter ( Fatimah), her three children, as well as his cousin and son-in-law, Ali. Other interpretations include Muhammad's blood relatives, such as the Banu Hashimor the Banu Muttalib. In Sunni thought, every Muslim has the obligation to love the Ahl al-Bayt. In Twelverand Ismaili Shi'a Islam, the Ahl al-Bayt are central to Islam and are believed to be the true successors of Muhammad. The Shi'a definition of the phrase includes only Fatimah, Ali, Hasan and Husayn (known collectively as the " Ahl al-Kisa", "people of the mantle") and the Imams, descendants of Fatimah who they consider to be divinely chosen leaders of the Muslim community. [Madelung, 1997, pp. 13-17]
Ahl al-Bayt family
The term "Ahl" signifies the members of a household of a man, including his fellow tribesmen, kin, relatives, wife (or wives), children, and all those who share a family background, religion, housing, city, and country with him.Fact|date=May 2008 "Bayt" refers to habitation and dwelling, including tents and buildings both. It can also be roughly translated as a household. The "Ahl-Al-Bayt" of any person refers to his family members and all those who live in his house (cf. "Mufradat al-Qur'an" by Raghib Isfahani; "Qamus" by Firoozabadi; "Majm'a al-Bahrayn"). Ahlul Bayt is the polite form of addressing the members and wife of the family. Fact|date=May 2008
Mention of the "Ahl al-Bayt", Muhammad's household, is present in a verse of the Qur'an as follows:
The precise definition of the term in this verse has been subject to varying interpretations. In one tradition, according to which Muhammad's companion
Salman al-Farsiis included as a member, it is used to distinguish from the " muhajirin" (Muslim emigrants from Mecca) and " ansar" ( Medinan converts to Islam). According to Sunniopinion, the term includes the wives and dependants of Muhammad, as it addresses them in the preceding verse - an interpretation which is attributed to Ibn Abbasand Ikrimah, both of whom were companions of Muhammad. This is supported by various traditions attributed to Muhammad wherein he addresses each of his wives as "Ahl al-Bayt". [See:
*"Ahl al-Bayt", Encyclopedia of Islam
*Madelung (1997) p. 15] Further members of the household, according to the Sunni perspective, include Ali, Fatimah, Hasan and Husayn, who are mentioned in the tradition of the mantle. Some versions of this tradition recognise
Umm Salamah, a wife of Muhammad, as a part of the household. Thus, according to the "Encyclopedia of Islam", " [t] he current orthodox view is based on a harmonizing opinion, according to which the term ahl bayt includes the ahl al-ʿabāʾ , i.e. the Prophet, ʿAlī, Fāṭima, al-Ḥasan and al-Ḥusayn, together with the wives of the Prophet."
Other interpretations include the family of Ali, as well as the families of Muhammad's relatives such as Aqeel, Ja'far, and al-Abbas. Early jurists
Malik bin Anasand Abu Hanifaincluded the clan of Banu Hashimwithin the definition, while al-Shafi'iincluded the whole of Banu Muttalib.
Shi'athought, the household is limited to Muhammad, Fatimah, Ali, Hasan, Husayn, and their descendants (altogether known as the " Ahl al-Kisa"); as per their deduction from the tradition of the mantle. They interpret the change in pronoun in the Qur'anic verse as showing that only the aforementioned members constitute "Ahl al-Bayt". Madelung writes that " [t] his change of gender has inevitably contributed to the birth of various accounts of a legendary character, attaching the latter part of the verse to the five People of the Mantle." [Madelung (1997) pp. 14-15] Shias view these individuals as infallible and sinless Imams, and regard devotion to them as an essential part of the religion.
Muhammad's household is venerated by Muslims, who attach to them a special status. This is derived from verses in the Qur'an and hadith which stipulate love towards Muhammad's relatives, though in some cases interpretations differ. An example of such is: "Say: "No reward do I ask of you for this except the love of those near of kin." cite quran|42|23| According to classical exegete
al-Tabari, the verse most likely refers to Muslim believers related by blood ties. Another interpretation adopted by Shia applies the verse to ahl al-bayt; while another view interprets the verse as commanding love for relatives in general. The latter view is favored by academic scholar Madelung. [Madelung (1997) p. 13] Islamic lawprohibits the administration of " sadaqa" (charity) or " zakat" (tax) to Muhammad's kin (including the Banu Hashim), as Muhammad forbade this income for himself and his family. The explanation given by jurists is that these alms are considered the defilements of the people, who offer them to purify themselves from sin, hence it would be unbecoming of the kin to handle or use them. Instead, they are accorded part of the spoils of war. [Madelung (1997) p. 14] [A verse in the Qur'an reads: "That which Allah giveth as spoil unto His messenger from the people of the townships, it is for Allah and His messenger and for the near of kin and the orphans and the needy and the wayfarer, that it become not a commodity between the rich among you." (cite quran|59|7|)] Muslims in their daily prayers invoke blessings upon them by saying: "O God, bless Muhammad and his family." In many Muslim communities, high social status is attributed to people claiming to be blood-descendants of Muhammad's household, and are labelled " sayyids" or "sharifs". Ahl al-Bayt, Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim world.]
Suficircles (" tariqas") trace their spiritual back through Ali to Muhammad, and many scholars claiming to be "sayyids" often have their graves turned into shrines to become pilgrimage centers. In Shia thought, devotion to Muhammad's household is central to the religion. In one version of Muhammad's farewell sermon, he is represented as saying that God has given believers two safeguards: the Qur'an and his family; in other versions the two safeguards are the Qur'an and his Sunnah(statements and actions of Muhammad). Popular Shia belief ascribes cosmological importance to the family in various texts, wherein it is said that God would not have created heaven and earth, paradise, Adam and Eve, or anything else were it not for them. In Shia thought, therefore, the family has the same salvational function as Noah's Ark. The majority of Shia regard the heads of the family as divinely chosen Imams who are infallibleand sinless.
List of Ahl al-Bayt according to Shia Islam
According to the
Twelverand IsmailiShi'a, the Ahl al-Bayt are in a state of ismah, meaning "infallibility", and they have limitless understanding of the Qu'ran and Hadith. The Ahl al-Kisa together with the Imams make up the Shi'a definition of Ahl al-Bayt. Ahl al-Bayt are seen as divinely appointed individuals and teachers of the Islamic faith after Muhammad. The Zaidi Shi'a do not believe in the concept of ismah.
The Twelver and Ismaili branches of Shi'a Islam differ in regards to the line of Imamate. While the Twelver believe in a lineage known as the
Twelve Imams, the Ismaili believe that the descendants of Isma'il ibn Jafarwere the inheritors of the Imamate instead.
Succession to Muhammad
The Fourteen Infallibles
* [http://www.iranica.com/newsite/articles/v1f7/v1f7a077.html Ahl al-Bayt ] by
Hamid Algarin Encyclopedia Iranica
* [http://www.iranica.com/newsite/index.isc?Article=http://www.iranica.com/newsite/articles/unicode/v1f6/v1f6a065.html Ahl al-Bayt] by I. K. A. Howard in
Encyclopedia IranicaShi'a Links:
* [http://al-islam.org/mot/default.asp?url=14ahlbayt.htm Shia Viewpoint]
* [http://www.imamreza.net/eng/imamreza.php?id=129 Ahl-al-Bayt: Its Meaning and Origin]
* [http://www.islamweb.net/ver2/archive/article.php?lang=E&id=117232 Islam at a glance]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.