:"This article is about Hygiene in Islam".Tayammum ( _ar. تيمم) refers to the dry ablution in Islam using sand or dust, which may be performed in place of wudu or ghusl, only if no clean water is readily available.

Circumstances when Tayammum is necessary

Tayammum becomes necessary in place of wudu or ghusl when one of the following circumstances prevails:

*When there is no water.
*When water is scarce.
*When it is dangerous to go to a place where there is water.
*When water is located very far away.
*During illness, when washing with water will increase the illness or delay recovery.

Performing Tayammum

Tayammum consists of the following steps:

#Finding a piece of ground which is free of najaasah. This could be any natural surface such as rock, sand, dust, grass.
#Recite the "bismillah".
#Make "niya", or intention to make tayammum.
#Place the hands on the surface of the ground.
#Lift hands with palms downwards, ensuring that no dust remains, may rub them together
#Rub face with hands.
#Press hands to ground and touch sides of hands together.
#Rub right arm with left hand, from the fingers to the elbow, and back along the inner arm to the hand. Do the same with the other arm.

The same conditions that invalidate wudu also invalidate tayammum. In addition, a person's tayammum is invalidated as and when water becomes available.

Historical controversy

Umar denied that tayammum could constitute ghusl, although the Qur'an explicitly says it can [Qur'an 4:43 and 5:6] , and even though Ammar ibn Yasir reminded him that it was Sunnah [Sahih Muslim [http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/fundamentals/hadithsunnah/muslim/003.smt.html#003.0716 3.0716] , [http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/fundamentals/hadithsunnah/muslim/003.smt.html#003.0718 3.0718] ] . Although it's legality is no longer in dispute, the historical controversy is regularly mentioned in Shi'a - Sunni debates.


* Lemu, B. A. "Islamic Aqidah and Fiqh:A textbook of Islamic Belief and Jurisprudence" revised and expanded edition of Tawhid and Fiqh), IQRA' International Educational Foundation, Chicago, 1997.

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