Infobox Region of Italy
name = Sicily
fullname = _it. Regione Autonoma Siciliana
status = Autonomous region
province = Agrigento Caltanissetta Catania Enna Messina Palermo Ragusa Syracuse Trapani
municipality = 390
language = Italian (official), Sicilian
arearank = 1st
area = 25,708
areapercent = 8.5
population_as_of = 2006 est.
populationrank = 4th
population = 5,029,683
populationpercent = 8.4
populationdensity = 195.6
Sicily (Italian and Sicilian: "Sicilia") is an autonomous region of
Italy. Of all the regions of Italy, Sicily covers the largest land area at 25,708 km² and currently has five million inhabitants. It is also the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. In addition, several much surrounding it are also considered to be part of Sicily. Along with Sardinia, the island is officially classified as a region of Insular Italy.
Throughout much of its history, Sicily has been considered a crucial strategic location due in large part to its importance for Mediterranean trade routes. [cite news|url=http://www.keyitaly.com/article/sicily-guide/|publisher=KeyItaly.com|title=Sicily|date=
20 November 2007] The area was highly regarded as part of " Magna Graecia", with Cicerodescribing Siracusa as the greatest and most beautiful city of all Ancient Greece. [cite news|url=http://www.ancientworlds.net/aw/Places/Place/805776|publisher=AncientWorlds.net|title=Sicilia's Urbs of Syracusa|date= 20 November 2007]
Although a region of Italy today, Sicily was once its own country as the
Kingdom of Sicily, ruled from Palermo. The kingdom originally ruled over the island, the southern Italian peninsulaand Maltabefore the Sicilian Vespers. It later became a part of the Two Siciliesunder the Bourbons, with the capital in Naplesrather than Sicily. Since that time the Italian unificationhas taken place and Sicily is now an autonomous part of Italy.
Sicily is considered to be highly rich in its own unique culture, especially with regard to
the arts, cuisine, architecture and even language. The Sicilian economy is largely based on agriculture (mainly orange and lemonorchards); this same rural countrysidehas attracted significant tourismin the modern age as its natural beauty is highly regarded. [cite news|url=http://www.yoursicily.net/wedding_sicily.asp|publisher=YourSicily.net|title=Wedding in Sicily|date= 20 November 2007] Sicily also holds importance for archeologicaland ancient sites such as the Necropolis of Pantalicaand the Valley of the Temples.
The original inhabitants of Sicily were three defined groups of the
Ancient peoples of Italy. The most prominent and by far the earliest of which was the Sicani, who according to Thucydidesarrived from the Iberian Peninsula(perhaps Catalonia). [cite news|url=http://www.experiencefestival.com/a/Sicily_-_History/id/5462681|publisher=Experience Festival|title=Sicily: Encyclopedia II - Sicily - History|date= 7 October2007] [cite news|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=A7kGAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA11&lpg=PA11&dq=segre+sicano&source=web&ots=nafG4zc6s6&sig=x-ViYce3dJazDQqY72a3_4RHjVc|publisher=Ensayo historico|title=Aapologetico de la literatura española contra los opiniones|date= 7 October2007] Important historical evidence has been discovered in the form of cave drawings by the Sicani, dated from the end of the Pleistocene Epoch, around 8000 BC. The Elymians, thought to be from the Aegean Sea, were the next tribe to migrate to join the Sicanians on Sicily. [cite news|url=http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9067615/Sicani|publisher=Britannica.com|title=Sicani|date= 7 October2007] Although there is no evidence of any wars between the tribes, when the Elymians settled in the north-west corner of the island, the Sicanians moved across eastwards. From mainland Italy, thought to originally have been Liguresfrom Liguriacame the Sicelsin 1200 BC; forcing the Sicanians to move back across Sicily settling in the middle of the island.cite news|url=http://www.bestofsicily.com/mag/art141.htm|publisher=Best of Sicily|title=Sicilian Peoples: The Sicanians|date= 7 October2007]
Greek and Roman period
About 750 BC, the Greeks began to
coloniseSicily, establishing many important settlements. The most important colony was Syracuse; other significant ones were Akragas, Gela, Himera, Selinunte, and Zancle. The native Sicani and Sicel peoples were absorbed by the Hellenic culture with relative ease, and the area was part of " Magna Graecia" along with the rest of Southern Italy, which the Greeks had also colonised. Sicily was very fertile, and the introduction of olivesand grape vines flourished, creating a great deal of profitable trading; a significant part of Greek culture on the island was that of Greek religion and many temples were built across Sicily, such as the "Valley of the Temples" at Agrigento. [cite news|url=http://italiansrus.com/articles/temples.htm|publisher=Italiansrus.com|title=Valley of the Temples|date= 7 October2007] Politics on the island was intertwined with that of Greece; Syracuse became desired by the Athenians, who during Peloponnesian Warset out on the Sicilian Expedition. Syracuse gained Spartaand Corinthas allies, as a result the Athenian army and ships were destroyed, with most of the survivors being sold into slavery. [cite news|url=http://www.livius.org/su-sz/syracuse/siege.html|publisher=Livius.org|title=Siege of Syracuse|date= 7 October2007]
While Greek Syracuse controlled much of Sicily, there were a few Carthaginian colonies in the far west of the island. When the two cultures began to clash, the
Sicilian Warserupted. Greece began to make peace with the Roman Republicin 262 BC and the Romans sought to annex Sicily as its empire's first province. Rome intervened in the First Punic War, crushing Carthage so that by 242 BC Sicily had become the first Roman province outside of the Italian Peninsula.cite news|url=http://encyclopedia.farlex.com/Sicily|publisher= Hutchinson Encyclopedia|title=Sicily|date= 7 October2007] The Second Punic War, in which Archimedeswas killed, saw Carthage trying to take Sicily from the Roman Empire. They failed and this time Rome was even more unrelenting in the annihilation of the invaders; during 210 BC the Roman consulM. Valerian, told the Roman Senatethat "no Carthaginian remains in Sicily". [cite news|url=http://www.10000bc.tv/|publisher=10000BC.tv|title=Sensational Sicily|date= 7 October2007]
Sicily served a level of high importance for the Romans as it acted as the empire's
granary, it was divided into two quaestorships in the form of Syracuse to the east and Lilybaeumto the west. Although under Augustussome attempt was made to introduce the Latin languageto the island, Sicily was allowed to remain largely Greek in a cultural sense, rather than a complete cultural Romanisation.ws|"" in the 1913 "Catholic Encyclopedia".] When Verresbecame governor of Sicily, the once prosperous and contented people were put into sharp decline, in 70 BC noted figure Cicerocondemned the misgovernment of Verres in his oration " In Verrem". [cite book
last = Stockton
first = David
title =Cicero: A Political Biography
publisher =Oxford University Press
isbn = 978-0198720331]
Christianityfirst appeared in Sicily during the years following AD 200, between this time and AD 313 when Constantine the Great finally lifted the prohibition, a significant number of Sicilians became martyrs such as Agatha, Christina, Lucy, Eupliusand many more. Christianity grew rapidly in Sicily during the next two centuries, the period of history where Sicily was a Roman province lasted for around 700 years in total.cite news|url=http://www.bestofsicily.com/history2.htm|publisher=BestofSicily.com|title=Early & Medieval History|date= 7 October2007]
Early Middle Ages
As the Roman Empire was falling apart, a Germanic tribe known as the
Vandalstook Sicily in AD 440 under the rule of their king Geiseric. The Vandals had already invaded parts of Roman Franceand Spain, inserting themselves as an important power in western Europe. However, they soon lost these newly acquired possessions to another East Germanic tribe in the form of the Goths. The Ostrogothic conquest of Sicily (and Italy as a whole) under Theodoric the Greatbegan in 488; although the Goths were Germanic, Theodoric sought to revive Roman culture and government and allowed freedom of religion. [cite news|url=http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9026834/Theodoric#949802.hook|publisher= Encyclopædia Britannica|title=Theodoric|date= 7 October2007] The Gothic War took place between the Ostrogoths and the Eastern Roman Empire, also known as the Byzantine Empire. Sicily was the first part of Italy to be taken under general Belisariuswho was commissioned by Eastern Emperor Justinian I. [cite book
last = Hearder
first = Harry
title =Italy: A Short History
publisher =Cambridge University Press
isbn = 978-0521337199] Sicily was used as a base for the Byzantines to conquer the rest of Italy, with
Naples, Rome, Milanand the Ostrogoth capital Ravennafalling within five years. However, a new Ostrogoth king Totila, drove down the Italian peninsula, plundering and conquering Sicily in 550. Totila, in turn, was defeated and killed in the Battle of Taginaeby the Byzantine general Narsesin 552.cite news|url=http://www.historynet.com/magazines/military_history/3025271.html|publisher=Historynet.com|title=Gothic War: Byzantine Count Belisarius Retakes Rome|date= 7 October2007]
Constans IIdecided to move from the capital Constantinopleto Syracuse in Sicily during 660, the following year he launched an assault from Sicily against the Lombard Duchy of Benevento, which then occupied most of Southern Italy. The rumours that the capital of the empire was to be moved to Syracuse, along with small raidsclarifyme probably cost Constans his life as he was assassinated in 668.cite news|url=http://www.travelmapofsicily.com/syracuse.html|publisher=TravelMapofSicily.com|title=Syracuse, Sicily|date= 7 October2007] His son Constantine IVsucceeded him, a brief usurpation in Sicily by Mezeziusbeing quickly suppressed by the new emperor. Contemporary accounts report that the Greek languagewas widely spoken on the island during this period. [cite news|url=http://www.bestofsicily.com/mag/art165.htm|publisher=BestofSicily.com|title=Sicilian Peoples: The Byzantines|date= 7 October2007] In 826, Euphemius the commander of the Byzantine fleet of Sicily forced a nun to marry him. Emperor Michael IIcaught wind of the matter and ordered that general Constantine end the marriage and cut off Euphemius' nose. Euphemius rose up, killed Constantine and then occupied Syracuse; he in turn was defeated and drove out to North Africa. He offered rule of Sicily over to Ziyadat Allah the AghlabidEmir of Tunisiain return for a place as a general and safety; a Muslim army of Arabs, Berbers, Spaniards, Cretansand Persianswas sent. The conquest was a see-sawaffair: with considerable resistance and many internal struggles, it took over a century for Byzantine Sicily to be conquered. Syracuse held for a long time, Taorminafell in 902, and all of the island was eventually conquered by 965.
Throughout this reign, continued revolts by Byzantine Sicilians happened especially in the east and part of the lands were even re-occupied before being quashed. Agricultural items such as oranges,
lemons, pistachioand sugar canewere brought to Sicily.cite book
last = Privitera
first = Joseph
title =Sicily: An Illustrated History
publisher =Hippocrene Books
isbn = 978-0781809092] As
dhimmis, the native Christians were allowed freedom of religionbut had to pay an extra tax to their rulers. However, the Emirate of Sicilybegan to fragment as inner-dynasty related quarrels took place between the Muslim regime. During this time there was also a minority Jewishpresence. [Raphael Patai, The Jewish Mind, Scribners, 1977, p. 155-6] By the 11th century mainland southern Italian powers were hiring ferocious Norman merecenaries, who were Christian descendants of the Vikingsbased in the Duchy of Normandy; it was the Normans under Roger I who conquered Sicily from the Arabs.cite news|url=http://archaeology.stanford.edu/MountPolizzo/handbookPDF/MPHandbook5.pdf|publisher=Archaeology.Stanford.edu|title=Brief history of Sicily|date= 7 October2007|format=PDF] After taking Apuliaand Calabria, he occupied Messinawith an army of 700 knights. In 1068, Roger Guiscardand his men defeated the Arabs at Misilmeribut the most crucial battle was the siege of Palermo, which led to Sicily being completely in Norman control by 1091.
Kingdom of Sicily
Palermo continued on as the capital under the
Normans. Roger's son, Roger II of Sicily, was ultimately able to raise the status of the island to a kingdom in 1130, along with his other holdings which included the Duchy of Apulia and Calabriaand the Maltese Islands.cite news|url=http://www.aboutmalta.com/history/time-Line.htm|publisher=AboutMalta.com|title=Classical and Medieval Malta (60-1530) |date= 7 October2007] cite news|url=http://www.initaly.com/regions/sicily/chronol.htm|publisher=In Italy Magazine|title=Chronological - Historical Table Of Sicily|date= 7 October2007] During this period the Kingdom of Sicilywas prosperous and politically powerful, becoming one of the wealthiest states in all of Europe; even wealthier than England. [cite book
last = John Julius
first = Norwich
authorlink = John Julius Norwich
title =The Normans in Sicily: The Normans in the South 1016-1130 and the Kingdom in the Sun 1130-1194
publisher =Penguin Global
isbn = 978-0140152128] Significantly, immigrants from
Northern Italyand Campaniaarrived during this period. Linguistically, the island became Latinised. In terms of church, it would become completely Roman Catholic; previously, under the Byzantines, it had been more Eastern Christian.cite news|url=http://www.bestofsicily.com/mag/art171.htm|publisher=BestofSicily.com|title=Sicilian Peoples: The Normans|date= 7 October2007]
After a century the Norman Hauteville dynasty died out, the last direct descendent and heir of Roger; Constance married Emperor Henry VI. This eventually led to the crown of Sicily been passed on to the
Hohenstaufen Dynastywho were Germans from Swabia. Conflict between the Hohenstaufen house and the Papacy, led in 1266 to Pope Innocent IVcrowning Angevin Dynasty duke Charles I as the king of both Sicily and Naples. Strong opposition of the French officialdom due to mistreatment and taxationsaw the local peoples of Sicily rise up, leading in 1282 to an insurrectionknown as the War of the Sicilian Vespers, which eventually saw almost the entire French population on the island killed. During the war the Sicilians turned to Peter III, son-in-law of the last Hohenstaufen king, of the Kingdom of Aragonfor support after being rejected by the Pope. Peter gained control of Sicily from the French though the French retained control of the Kingdom of Naples. The wars continued until the peace of Caltabellottain 1302, which saw Peter's son Frederick III recognised as king of the Isle of Sicily, while Charles II was recognised as the king of Naples by Pope Boniface VIII. Sicily was ruled as an independent kingdom by relatives of the kings of Aragon until 1409 and then as part of the Crown of Aragon.
Spanish Inquisitionin 1492 saw Ferdinand I decreeing the expulsion of every single Jewfrom Sicily. The island was hit by two very serious earthquakes in the east in both 1542 and 1693, just a few years before the latter earthquake the island was struck by a ferocious plague.cite news|url=http://www.dieli.net/SicilyPage/History/SicilianHist.html|publisher=Dieli.net|title=Sicilian History|date= 7 October2007] There were revolts during the 17th century, but these were quelled with significant force especially the revolts of Palermo and Messina.cite news|url=http://www.knowital.com/history/sicily/sicily-history.html|publisher=KnowItal.com|title=History of Sicily|date= 7 October2007] The Treaty of Utrechtin 1713 saw Sicily assigned to the House of Savoy, however this period of rule lasted only seven years as it was exchanged for the island of Sardiniawith Emperor Charles VI of the Austrian Habsburg Dynasty. [cite news|url=http://www.heraldica.org/topics/france/utrecht.htm|publisher=Heraldica.org|title= The Treaties of Utrecht (1713)|date= 7 October2007]
While the Austrians were concerned with the
War of the Polish Succession, a Bourbon prince, Charles from Spainwas able to conquer Sicily and Naples. [cite news|url=http://www.realcasadiborbone.it/uk/archiviostorico/cs_04.htm|publisher=RealCasaDiBorbone.it|title= Charles of Bourbon - the restorer of the Kingdom of Naples|date= 7 October2007] At first Sicily was able to remain as an independent kingdom under personal union, while the Bourbons ruled over both from Naples. However the advent of Napoleon's First French Empiresaw Naples taken at the Battle of Campo Teneseand Bonapartist Kings of Napleswere instated. Ferdinand III the Bourbon was forced to retreat to Sicily which he was still in complete control of with the help of British naval protection. [cite news|url=http://www.clash-of-steel.co.uk/pages/battle_details.php?battle=CAMPOTENES01|publisher=Clash-of-Steel.co.uk|title=Campo Tenese|date= 7 October2007] Following this Sicily joined the Napoleonic Wars, after the wars were won Sicily and Naples formally merged as the Two Siciliesunder the Bourbons. Major revolutionarymovements occurred in 1820 and 1848 against the Bourbon government with Sicily seeking independence; the second of which, the 1848 revolution was successful and resulted in a sixteen month period of independence for Sicily, until the armed forces of the Bourbons regained control by May 1849. [cite news|url=http://www.ohiou.edu/~Chastain/rz/twosicil.htm|publisher=Ohiou.edu|title=Two Sicilies, Kingdom of, 1848-49|date= 7 October2007]
Expedition of the Thousandled by Giuseppe Garibaldi, Sicily became part of the Kingdom of Italy in 1860 as part of the _it. "risorgimento". The conquest started at Marsalaand was finally completed with the Siege of Gaeta where the final Bourbons were expelled and Garibaldi announced his dictatorship in the name of Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia. An anti-Savoy revolt pushing for Sicilian independence erupted in 1866 at Palermo: this was quelled brutally by the Italians within just a week. [ws|"" in the 1913 "Catholic Encyclopedia"] The Sicilian (and the wider " mezzogiorno") economy collapsed, leading to an unprecedented wave of emigration.cite news|url=http://www.oah.org/pubs/magazine/migrations/townsend.html|publisher=OAH.org|title=Italians around the World: Teaching Italian Migration from a Transnational Perspective|date= 7 October2007] Organisations of workers and peasants known as the " Fasci Siciliani", who were leftist and separatistgroups rose and caused the Italian government to impose martial law again in 1894. [cite news|url=http://www.geocities.com/capitolHill/rotunda/2209/Sicily.html|publisher=Capitol Hill|title=Sicily|date= 7 October2007] [cite news|url=http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9033791/fascio-siciliano|publisher= Encyclopædia Britannica|title=fascio siciliano|date= 7 October2007]
Mafia, a loose confederation of organised crime networks, grew in influence in the late 19th century; the Fascist regime began suppressing them in the 1920s with some success. There was an allied invasion of Sicilyduring World War IIstarting on July 10, 1943. The invasion of Sicily was one of the causes of the July 25 crisis; in general the Allied victors were warmly embraced by the Sicilian population. cite news|url=http://www.bestofsicily.com/history3.htm|publisher=BestofSicily.com|title=The Modern Era |date= 7 October2007] Italy became a Republic in 1946 and as part of the Constitution of Italy, Sicily was one of the five regions given special status as an autonomous region. [cite news|url=http://www.grifasi-sicilia.com/regione_sicilia_gbr.html|publisher=Grifasi-Sicilia.com|title=Sicily autonomy|date= 7 October2007] Both the partial Italian land reformand special funding from the Italian government's " Cassa per il Mezzogiorno" (Fund for the South) from 1950 to 1984, helped the Sicilian economy improve. [cite news|url=http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-27778/Italy#319101.hook|publisher= Encyclopædia Britannica|title=Italy - Land Reforms|date= 7 October2007] [cite news|url=http://www.fcpp.org/images/publications/FB049ItalianEqualizationMarch07draft.pdf|publisher=Frontier Center for Public Policy|title=North and South: The Tragedy of Equalization in Italy|date= 7 October2007|format=PDF]
name = Sicily
image caption = Physical map of Sicily
image size =
map_custom = yes
native name = "Sicilia"
native name link = Sicilian language
total islands =
major islands =
area = convert|25708|km2|sqmi|abbr=on
rank = 45th
highest mount =
elevation = convert|3320|m|ft|abbr=on
country = Italy
country admin divisions title = Region
country admin divisions =
country admin divisions title 1 =
country admin divisions 1 =
country admin divisions title 2 =
country admin divisions 2 =
country capital city =
country largest city =
country largest city population = 675,018
country leader title =
country leader name =
population = 5,029,683
population as of = 2006
density = 195.65
ethnic groups =
additional info =
Sicily is directly adjacent to the Italian region of
Calabria, via the Strait of Messinato the east. The early Roman name for Sicily was " Trinacria", alluding to its triangular shape. Sicily has been noted for two millennia as a grain-producing territory. Citrons, oranges, lemons, olives, olive oil, almonds, and wineare among its other agriculturalproducts. The mines of the Ennaand Caltanissettadistrict became a leading sulfur-producing area in the 19th century but have declined since the 1950s.
Administratively Sicily is divided into nine provinces; Agrigento, Caltanissetta, Catania, Enna, Messina, Palermo, Ragusa, Syracuse and Trapani. Also part of various Sicilian provinces are small surrounding islands:
Aeolian Islandsof Messina, isle of Ustica(Palermo), Aegadian Islands(Trapani), isle of Pantelleria(Trapani) and Pelagian Islands(Agrigento).
The island of Sicily is drained by several rivers, most of which flow through the central area and enter the sea at the south of the island. The
Salso Riverflows through parts of Enna and Caltanissetta before entering the Mediterranean Seaat the port of Licata. To the east the Alcantara in the province of Messina, it exits at Giardini Naxos. The other two main rivers on the island are to the south-west with Beliceand Platani.
Sicily and its small surrounding islands are highly significant in the area of
volcanology. Mount Etna, located in the east, is the only volcanoon mainland Sicily; with a height of 3,320 m (10,900 ft) it is the tallest active volcano in Europe and one of the most active in the world. As well as Etna, there are several non-volcanic mountain ranges in Sicily: Sicani to the west, Eeri in the central area and Iblei in the south-east. Across the north of Sicily there are three others: Madonie, Nebrodiand Peloritani.
Aeolian Islandsto the north-east are volcanically significant with Strombolicurrently active, also in the Tyrrhenian Seaare the three dormant volcanos of Vulcano, Vulcanelloand Lipari. Off the Southern coast of Sicily, the underwater volcano of Ferdinandea, which is part of the larger Empedocles last erupted in 1831. It is located between the coast of Agrigentoand the island of Pantelleria(which itself is a dormant volcano), on the Phlegraean Fields of the Strait of Sicily.
Sicily's position means that it enjoys a
Mediterranean climatewith mild to warm, wet winters and warm to hot, dry summers. Infobox Weather
source = The Sicily Site [cite news|url=http://www.thesicilysite.com/Pages/sicily_weather.htm|publisher =TheSicilySite.com|title=Sicily weather and climate|date=
8 January 2008]
accessdate = 2008-02-19
The most prominent Sicilian roads are the
motorways(known as _it. "autostrade") running through the northern section of the island, this includes the A19 Palermo- Catania, the A20 Palermo- Messina, the A29 Palermo- Trapani- Mazara del Valloand the toll roadA18 Messina-Catania. Much of the motorway network is elevated by columns due to the mountainous terrain of the island. [cite news|url=http://www.siciliaemoto.it/main.php?plc=a19palermocatania |publisher=SiciliaEMoto.it|title=A 19 autostrada Palermo - Catania|date= 2 January 2008] [cite news|url=http://sicilia.indettaglio.it/ita/lineestradali/autostrade/a20/a20.html|publisher=Sicilia.Indettaglio.it|title=Autostrada A20: Messina - Palermo|date= 24 October 2007] [cite news|url=http://www.siciliaemoto.it/main.php?plc=a29palermotrapanimazara|publisher=SiciliaEMoto.it|title=A 29 autostrada Palermo - Trapani - Mazara del Vallo|date= 2 January 2008] [cite news|url=http://sicilia.indettaglio.it/ita/lineestradali/autostrade/a18/a18.html|publisher=Sicilia.Indettaglio.it|title=Autostrada: A18 Messina - Catania|date= 24 October 2007] The Sicilian public is served by a network of railwayservices, linking to most major cities and towns; this service is operated by Trenitalia. There are services to Naplesand Rome; this is achieved by the trains being loaded onto ferrieswhich cross to the mainland. [cite news|url=http://www.italyheaven.co.uk/sicily/transport.html|publisher=ItalyHeaven.co.uk|title=Sicily Travel and Transport|date= 2 January 2008]
Plans for a bridge linking Sicily to the mainland have been around since 1865. In the modern age, there are plans to link the railway to the mainland via the world's longest
suspension bridge, the Strait of Messina Bridge, however planning for the project has been started, stopped and re-started during the 2000s; as of 2008 it is currently on course for planning. Some have criticised the plans particularly environmentalist Sicilians, leftists who argue the money should be spent elsewhere and the local ferry operators. [cite news|url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/italy/story/0,,1920199,00.html|publisher=Guardian.co.uk|title=Italian MPs kill plan to bridge Sicily and mainland|date= 2 January 2008] [cite news|url=http://online.wsj.com/article/SB120777463250502755.html?mod=todays_us_nonsub_page_one&apl=y&r=769642|publisher=Wall Street Journal|title=No Italian Job Takes Longer Than This Bridge|date= 10 April 2008] In two of the main cities there are underground railway services; these feature in the cities of Palermo and Catania.
Mainland Sicily has three
airportswhich serve numerous European destinations; to the east is the Catania-Fontanarossa Airportwhich is the busiest on the island (and one of the busiest in all of Italy). Palermo hosts the Palermo International Airport, which is also substantially large, the third airport actually on the island is the Trapani-Birgi Airportwhich is smaller. There are also two small airports on smaller islands which are considered part of Sicily; Lampedusa Airportand Pantelleria Airport. By sea, Sicily is served by several ferryroutes most of which are to Sicily's small surrounding islands and mainland Italy (as well as Sardinia), there is also a daily service between Maltaand Pozzallo. [cite news|url=http://it.geocities.com/traghetti2002/sicilia.html|publisher=Traghetti Guida|title=Traghetti Sicily 2008|date= 2 January 2008] [cite news|url=http://www.virtuferries.com/index.aspx|publisher=VirtuFerries.com|title=High speed car/passenger ferry service|date= 2 January 2008]
The people of Sicily are often portrayed as very proud of their island, identity and culture and it is not uncommon for people to describe themselves as
Sicilian, before the more national description of Italian. [cite news|url=http://getaway.ninemsn.com.au/article.aspx?id=17000|publisher=Getaway.com.au|title=Sicily|date= 20 November 2007] Despite the existence of major cities such as Palermo, Catania, Messinaand Syracuse, popular stereotypes of Sicilians commonly allude to ruralism, for example the "coppola" is one of the main symbols of Sicilian identity; it is derived from the flat capof rural Northern Englandwhich arrived in 1800 when Bourbon king Ferdinand I had fled to Sicily and was protected by the British Royal Navy. [cite news|url=http://www.bestofsicily.com/mag/art116.htm|publisher=BestofSicily.com|title=The Coppola Returns|date= 20 November 2007]
Throughout history Sicily has had various different rulers, from various different cultures, who have contributed elements to the overall culture of the island, especially from a gastronomical and
architecturalpoint of view. Sicilian people tend to most closely associate themselves with other southern Italians, who they have the most common history with. Of the ethnicities outside of Italy itself, Sicilians and other southern Italians tend to associate most closely with the Greeks, especially due to the Magna Græciaand Greco-Romancultures. This is exemplified in the saying "una faccia, una razza", meaning "one face, one race", a phrase Greeks and Southern Italians sometimes use in reference to each other. [cite news|url=http://articlevalhalla.net/travel-and-leisure/greek-italy-una-fazza-una-razza|publisher=ArticleValhalla.net|title=Greek Italy|date= 20 November 2007] Modern methods of genetic testingshow that aside from other Italians, Greeks are indeed the closest genetically. [cite news|url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=9223254&dopt=|publisher=L.L. Cavalli-Sforza, 1997|title=Citation Genes, peoples, and languages|date= 20 November 2007] cite book | last = International Journal of Anthropology", vol. 13 | title =Genetic structure of western Sicily| publisher =Springer Netherlands | url =http://www.periodicals.com/html/ihp_e.html?ei52551 | issn = 0393-9383] cite news|url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=9686481&dopt=|publisher=Rickards et al, 1998|title=Genetic history of the population of Sicily|date= 20 November 2007] [cite news|url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=12772214&dopt=|publisher=Francalacci et al, 2003|title=Peopling of three Mediterranean islands (Corsica, Sardinia, and Sicily) inferred by Y-chromosome biallelic variability|date= 20 November 2007] [cite news|url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=15322918&dopt=|publisher=DiGiacomo et al, 2004|title=Citation Y chromosomal haplogroup J as a signature of the post-neolithic colonization of Europe|date= 20 November 2007] while other former rulers gene flows are very limited. cite book | last = International Journal of Anthropology", vol. 13 | title =Genetic structure of western Sicily| publisher =Springer Netherlands | url =http://www.periodicals.com/html/ihp_e.html?ei52551 | issn = 0393-9383] [cite news|url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=10380375&dopt=|publisher=Simoni et al, 1999|title=Patterns of gene flow inferred from genetic distances in the Mediterranean region|date= 20 November 2007] [cite news|url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=10510571&dopt=|publisher=Kandil et al, 1999|title=Red cell enzyme polymorphisms in Moroccans and Southern Spaniards: New data for the genetic history of the Western Mediterranean|date= 20 November 2007] [cite news|url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=11543889|publisher=Scozzari et al, 2001|title=Human Y-chromosome variation in the western Mediterranean area: Implications for the peopling of the region|date= 20 November 2007] [cite news|url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?holding=npg&cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=15042509&dopt=|publisher=Cruciani et al, 2004|title= Phylogeographic Analysis of Haplogroup E3b (E-M215) Y Chromosomes Reveals Multiple Migratory Events Within and Out of Africa|date= 20 November 2007] [cite news|url=http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1529-8817.2005.00224.x|publisher=Capelli et al, 2005|title= Population Structure in the Mediterranean Basin: A Y Chromosome Perspective|date= 20 November 2007] The genetic contribution of Greek chromosomes to the Sicilian gene pool is estimated to be about 37% whereas the contribution of North African populations is estimated to be around 6%.In particular, the presence of a modal haplotype coming from the southern Balkan Peninsula and of its one-step derivates associated to E3b1a2-V13, supports a common genetic heritage between Sicilians and Greeks. [http://lib.bioinfo.pl/auth:Underhill,PA]
The island of Sicily itself has a population of approximately five million, and there are an additional ten million people of Sicilian descent around the world, mostly in
North America, Argentina, Australiaand other European countries. Like the rest of Southern Italy, immigration to the island is very low compared to other regions of Italy because workers tend to head to Northern Italyinstead, due to better employment and industrial opportunities. The most recent ISTATfigures show around 74 thousand immigrants out of the total five million population; Tunisianswith 14 thousand make up the most immigrants, followed by Moroccans, Sri Lankans, Albaniansand other Eastern Europeans. [cite news|url=http://demo.istat.it/str2005/query.php?lingua=eng&Rip=S5&Reg=R19&Pro=P000&Com=&paese=A9999&submit=Table|publisher=ISTAT.it|title=Region: Sicilia|date= 20 November 2007]
In Sicily there are fifteen cities and towns which have a population level above 50,000 people, these are;
The island has a long history of producing a variety of noted cuisines and
wines, to the extent that Sicily is sometimes nicknamed "God’s Kitchen" because of this. [cite news|url=http://www.sundaycircle.com/sundaycircle/article.aspx?id=35075|publisher=Sunday Circle|title=Our Man Abroad|date= 24 June2007] The ingredients are typically rich in taste while remaining affordable to the general populace. [cite news|url=http://www.italianfoodforever.com/iff/articles.asp?id=55|publisher=ItalianFoodForever.com|title=The Foods Of Sicily - A Culinary Journey|date= 24 June2007] The savory dishes of Sicily are viewed to be healthy, using fresh vegetables and fruits, such as tomatoes, artichokes, olives (including olive oil), citrus, apricots, aubergines, onions, beans, raisins commonly coupled with sea food, freshly caught from the surrounding coastlines, including tuna, sea bream, sea bass, cuttlefish, swordfish, sardines and others.cite book | last = Piras | first = Claudia and Medagliani, Eugenio | title =Culinaria Italy | publisher =Konemann | url =http://www.amazon.com/Culinaria-Italy-Claudia-Piras/dp/3833134461 | isbn = 978-3833134463]
Perhaps the most well known part of Sicilian cuisine is the rich
sweetdishes including ice creams and pastries. Cannoli, a tube-shaped shell of fried pastry dough filled with a sweet filling usually containing ricotta cheese, is in particular strongly associated with Sicily worldwide.cite book
last = Senna
first = Luciana
title =Authentic Sicily
publisher =Touring Club of Italy
isbn = 978-8836534036] Biancomangiare, biscotti ennesi (cookies native to
Enna), braccilatte a Sicilian version of doughnuts, buccellato, ciarduna, pignoli, bruccellati, sesame seed cookies, a sweet confection with sesame seeds and almonds ( torronein Italy) is cubbaita, frutta martorana, cassata, pignolata, granitaand cuccìaare amongst some of the most notable sweet dishes.cite book | last = Senna | first = Luciana | title =Authentic Sicily | publisher =Touring Club of Italy | url =http://books.google.com/books?id=E7BYFRh5b7oC&pg=PA158&lpg=PA158&dq=buccellato+cannoli&source=web&ots=eI-wS9E0l7&sig=j1EGw38mRzZl__Om01QutSjva0I#PPA158,M1 | isbn = 978-8836534036]
Like the cuisine of the rest of southern Italy,
pastaplays an important part in Sicilian cuisine, as does rice; for example with arancini. [cite news|url=http://fxcuisine.com/default.asp?Display=9|publisher=FXCuisine.com|title=Arancini, the cult Sicilian dish|date= 24 June2007] As well as using some other cheeses, Sicily has spawned some of its own, using both cows and sheeps milk, such as pecorino and caciocavallo. [cite news|url=http://www.bestofsicily.com/mag/art87.htm|publisher=BestofSicily.com|title=Sicilian Cheese|date= 24 June2007] Spices used include saffron, nutmeg, clove, pepper, and cinnamonwhich were introducted by the Arabs. Parsleyis used abundantly in many dishes. Although commonly associated with sea food cuisines, meat dishes including goose, lamb, goat, rabbit, and turkeyare also found in Sicily, it was the Normansand Hohenstaufenwho first introduced a fondness for meat dishes to the island. [cite news|url=http://www.bestofsicily.com/food.htm|publisher=BestofSicily.com|title=Sicilian Food and Wine|date= 24 June2007] Some varieties of wine are produced from vines which are relatively unique to the island, such as the Nero d'Avolamade near the baroque of town of Noto.
Sicily has long been associated with
the arts; many poets, writers, philosophers, intellectuals, architects and paintershave roots on the island. The history of prestige in this field can be traced back to Greek philosopher Archimedes, a Syracuse native who has gone on to become renowned as one of the greatest mathematicians of all time. [cite book | last = Calinger| first = Ronald S | title =A Contextual History of Mathematics| publisher =Prentice Hall | url =http://www.amazon.com/Contextual-History-Mathematics-Ronald-Calinger/dp/0023182857| isbn =978-0023182853] Gorgiasand Empedoclesare two other highly noted early Sicilian-Greek philosophers, while the Syracusan Epicharmus is held to be the inventor of comedy. [cite book | last = Talfourd| first = Thomas Noon | title =History of Greek Literature|publisher = University of Michigan| url =http://books.google.com/books?id=BDJBAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA173&lpg=PA173&dq=%22invented+comedy%22+Epicharmus&source=web&ots=YLYRp8DDTJ&sig=3pAaO5PptN4IbQKcdydEk73QAO8&hl=en] [cite news|url=http://www.greeknewsonline.com/modules.php?name=News&file=print&sid=3450|publisher=GreekNewsOnline.com|title=Discovering the Similarity of the Greek and Sicilian Spirit|date= 2 January 2008] The golden age of Sicilian poetry began in the early 13th century with the Sicilian School, which was highly influential. Some of the most noted figures in the area of Sicilian poetry and writing are Luigi Pirandello, Salvatore Quasimodo, Antonio Veneziano and Giovanni Verga. On the political side notable Sicilian philosophers include: Giovanni Gentilewho wrote " The Doctrine of Fascism" and Julius Evola. Terra cottaceramics from the island are well known, the art of ceramics on Sicily goes back to the original ancient peoples named the Sicanians, it was then perfected during the period of Greek colonisation and is still prominent and distinct to this day. [cite news|url=http://www.bestofsicily.com/ceramic.htm|publisher=BestOfSicily.com|title=Sicilian Ceramic Art|date= 2 January 2008] There are two prominent folk arttraditions on Sicily, both draw heavily from Norman influence; Sicilian cartis the painting of wooden carts with intricate decorations of scenes from the Norman romantic poems, such as " The Song of Roland". [cite news|url=http://www.civilization.ca/cultur/presenza/pszaz63e.html|publisher=Civilization.ca|title=Travelling in Style|date= 2 January 2008] The same tales are told in traditional puppet theatresor "teatro dei pupi", which feature hand-made wooden marionettes, depicting Normans and Saracens, who engage in mock battles. this is especially popular in Acireale. [cite news|url=http://www.teatropupimacri.it/index_en.htm|publisher=Puppi Siciliani|title=History of our Sicilian puppets|date= 2 January 2008] Famous Sicilian painters include Renaissanceartist Antonello da Messina, Renato Guttusoand Greek born Giorgio de Chiricowho is commonly dubbed the "father of Surrealist art" and founder of the metaphysical artmovement. [cite book | last = Thrall Soby | first = James | title =The Early Chirico | publisher =Ayer Co Pub | url =http://books.google.com/books?id=GtnYEBkmkIcC&pg=PA93&lpg=PA93&dq=%22father+of+surrealist+art%22&source=web&ots=4F8VZQun88&sig=HaBU3gtJ09nU2PS0Cy9C_mTZeY4#PPA92,M1 | isbn = 978-0405007361] Palermohosts the Teatro Massimo, which is the largest opera housein Italy and the third largest in all of Europe. [cite news|url=http://selectitaly.com/theater.php?product_id=6|publisher=SelectItaly.com|title=Teatro Massimo in Palermo |date= 2 January 2008] Sicilian composers vary from Vincenzo Bellini, Sigismondo d'India, Giovanni Paciniand Alessandro Scarlatti, to contemporary composers such as Salvatore Sciarrino. Many award winning and acclaimed films of Italian cinema have been filmed in Sicily, amongst the most noted of which are; Visconti's " La Terra Trema" and " Il Gattopardo", Rosi's "Salvatore Giuliano" and Antonioni's " L'avventura".
Many Sicilians are bilingual in Italian and Sicilian, an entirely separate Romance language which is not derived from Italian and has a sizeable vocabulary with at least 250,000 words. Some of the words are
loan words with slight changes, taking influence from Greek, Latin, Catalan, Arabic, Spanish and others. [cite news|url=http://www.leoluca-criscione.net/HTM-DOCUMENTI/DIALetto-english%20version.htm|publisher=LeoLuca-Criscione.net|title=The Sicilian Language|date= 7 October2007] The Sicilian language is also spoken to some extent in Calabriaand Apulia; it had a significant influence on the Maltese language. In the modern age as Italian is taught in schools and is the language of the media, especially in some of the urban areas Sicilian is now a secondary language amongst much of the youth.The Sicilian language was an early influence in the development of the first Italian standard, although its use remained confined to an intellectual élite. This was a literary language in Sicily created under the auspices of Frederick II and his court of notaries, or "Magna Curia", which, headed by Giacomo da Lentinialso gave birth to the Sicilian School, widely inspired by troubadour literature. Its linguistic and poetic heritage was later assimilated into the Florentine by Dante Alighieri, the father of modern Italian who, in his _it. "De Vulgari Eloquentia" claims that "In effect this vernacular seems to deserve a higher praise than the others, since all the poetry written by Italians can be called Sicilian". [cite book
last = Alighieri
first = Dante
authorlink = Dante Alighieri
title =De vulgari eloquentia
publisher =Cambridge University Press
isbn = 978-0521400640] It is in this language that appeared the first
sonnet, whose invention is attributed to Giacomo da Lentini himself.
There are also a couple of less common, unofficial languages spoken on the island. In around five small Palermitan villages,
Arbëreshëdialect of the Albanian languagehas been spoken since a wave of refugees settled there in the 15th century; these people are predominantly Byzantine Catholics and chant Greek at local Byzantine liturgy. [cite news|url=http://www.bestofsicily.com/mag/art183.htm|publisher=BestofSicily.com|title=Sicilian Peoples: The Albanians|date= 7 October2007] There are also several Ennese towns where dialects of the Lombard languageof the Gallo-Italicfamily are spoken. [cite news|url=http://www.omniglot.com/writing/lombard.htm|publisher=Omniglot.com|title=Lombard language, alphabet and pronunciation|date= 7 October2007] Much of these two groups of people are tri-lingual, being able to also speak Italian and Sicilian.
The best known and most popular sport on the island of Sicily is football, which was introduced in the late 1800s under the influence of the English. Some of the oldest football clubs in all of Italy are Sicilian: the three most successful are Palermo, Messina and Catania, who have all, at some point, played in the prestigious
Serie A. To date, no Sicilian side has ever won Serie A, however football is deeply embeded in local culture, all over Sicily each town has its own representative team.
Palermo and Catania have a heated rivalry and compete in the
Sicilian derbytogether: to date Palermo is the only Sicilian team to have played on the European stage, in the UEFA Cup. The most noted Sicilian footballer is Salvatore Schillaciwho won the Golden Boot at the 1990 FIFA World Cupwith Italy. Other noted Sicilian players include Giuseppe Furino, Pietro Anastasi, Francesco Coco, Christian Riganòand Roberto Galia.cite news|url=http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/main.jhtml?xml=/sport/2004/11/11/sfneur11.xml|publisher=Telegraph.co.uk|title= Sicilian derby takes centre stage |date= 7 October2007] There have also been some noted managers from the island, such as Carmelo Di Bellaand Franco Scoglio.
Although football is by far the most popular sport in Sicily, the island also has participants in other fields.
Amatori Cataniacompete in the top Italian national rugby unionleague called Super 10, they have even participated at European level in the European Challenge Cup. Competing in the basketballvariation of Serie A is Orlandina Basketfrom Capo d'Orlandoin the province of Messina, the sport has a reasonable following. Various other sports which are played to some extent includes volleyball, handball and water polo. Previously, in motorsportSicily held the prominent Targa Floriosports car race, that took place in the Madonie Mountains, with the start-finish line in Cerda. The event was started in 1906 by Sicilian industrialist and automobile enthusiast Vincenzo Florio, and ran until it was cancelled due to safety concerns in 1977.cite news|url=http://www.porsche.com/all/targaflorio/international.aspx|publisher=Porsche.com|title=Targa Florio 1906-1977 |date= 7 October2007]
Sicilian lifestyle and folklore
The family is at the heart of Sicilian culture as it has always been for generations. Family members often live close together, sometimes in the same housing complex, and sons and daughters usually remain at home with their parents until they marry, which tends to occur later than in previous decades. Couples today have fewer children than before, yet babies and children are much revered in Sicilian culture and almost always accompany their parents to social events. [Best of Sicily Magazine]
Sicilian weddings are lavish, expensive, and traditional. They are normally held in church. The
Catholicchurch is an important feature in Sicilian life. Almost all public places are adorned with crucifixes upon their walls, and most Sicilian homes contain pictures of saints, statues, and other relics. Each town and city has it's own patron saint, and the feastdays are marked by gaudy processions through the streets, with marching bands, and displays of fireworks.
In Sicily today, many women are employed outside the home, and are to be found in nearly every occupational sphere. However, a Sicilian woman's primary role remains that of a "casalinga" or housewife, occupied with child-rearing, cooking, and other domestic chores. This is especially true in the smaller villages and towns. [Best of Sicily Magazine]
Other aspects of Sicilian culture include the "presepe vivente", or animated
crib, which takes place at Christmas time. Deftly combining religion and folklore, it is a constructed mock 19th century Sicilian village, complete with a nativity scene, and has people of all ages dressed in the costumes of the period, some impersonating the Holy Family, and others working as artisans of their particular assigned trade. It is normally concluded on Ephiphany, often highlighted by the arrival of the magion horseback. These attract many visitors, and some have been nationally televised by RAI, including the animated crib at Santa Maria La Stella, a small community, in the Comuneof Aci Sant'Antonio, in the province of Catania[Una Mattina programme RAI UNO, televisised 30 December 2005]
Sicilians also enjoy outdoor festivals, held in the local square or "piazza" where live music and dancing is performed on stage, and food fairs or "sagras" are set up in booths lining the square. These offer various local specialties as well as typical Sicilian food. Normally these events are concluded with fireworks.
Like her Italian counterparts, young Sicilian females are very concerned with their physical appearance, and spend large sums of money on clothing, shoes, jewelry, hair and beauty products. The current (as of 2008) "Miss Italy" winner is a Sicilian girl Miriam Leone from
* festivity of Santa Rosalia in
* Sant'Agata in
* Madonna della lettera, a procession from Vara to
* Santa Lucia in Siracusa
* San Giorgio in
* processions of
Good Fridayin Ennaand Trapani
* San Sebastiano in
* San Pancrazio in
Giardini Naxos, a procession by water to Cape TaorminaLaical events:
The most important laic event in Sicily is the
carnival. Famous carnival are in Misterbianco, Regalbuto, Paternò, Sciacca, Acireale, Termini Imerese.
World Heritage Sites
Noto, Catania, Ragusa, and particularly Acirealecontain some of Italy's best examples of Baroquearchitecture, carved in the local red sandstone.
* Fabio Spadi (2001) [http://iclq.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/50/2/411 "The Bridge on the Strait of Messina: 'Lowering' the Right of Innocent Passage?"] "International and Comparative Law Quarterly" 50: 411 ff.
* Mary Spicuzza (2004) [http://www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/fellows/sicily0404/intro.html "Sicily: A Bridge Too Far?"] PBS Frontline/World Fellows.
* "From Rome to Sicily: Plane or Train?" [http://travelqa.blogs.nytimes.com/tag/sicily/ Expert Travel Advice, The New York Times, Feb. 7, 2008] The New York Times.
* [http://www.regione.sicilia.it/ Sicily Region — Official website]
* [http://wikitravel.org/it/Sicilia Sicily wikitravel] Template group
title = Geographic locale
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