Coat of arms
Motto: NO8DO (It [Seville] has not abandoned me) Coordinates: Coordinates: Country Spain Autonomous Community Andalusia Province Sevilla Comarca Sevilla Government - Type Mayor-council - Body Ayuntamiento de Sevilla - Mayor Juan Ignacio Zoido Álvarez (PP) Area - City 140 km2 (54.1 sq mi) Elevation 7 m (23 ft) Population (2010)INE - City 704,198 - Rank 4th - Density 5,002.93/km2 (12,957.5/sq mi) - Metro 1,508,609 Demonym Sevillan, Sevillian
sevillano (m), sevillana (f)
Time zone CET (UTC+1) - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2) Postcode 41001-41080 Website sevilla.org
Seville ( //, Spanish: Sevilla, IPA: [seˈβiʎa]; see also different names) is the artistic, historic, cultural, and financial capital of southern Spain. It is the capital of the autonomous community of Andalusia and of the province of Seville. It is situated on the plain of the River Guadalquivir, with an average elevation of 7 metres (23 ft) above sea level. The inhabitants of the city are known as sevillanos (feminine form: sevillanas) or hispalenses, following the Roman name of the city, Hispalis. The population of the city of Seville was 704,198 as of 2010 (INE), ranking as the fourth largest city of Spain. The population of the metropolitan area (urban area plus satellite towns) was 1,508,605 as of 2010 (INE estimate).
Spal is the oldest known name for Seville. It appears to be related to the Phoenician colonization of the Tartessos culture from south-western Iberia, meaning "lowland". During Roman rule, the name was Latinized as Hispalis. After Moorish invasion, this name evolved to Ishbiliya (Arabic أشبيليّة) due to the phonetic phenomenon called imela, since "p" does not exist in Arabic, and stressed "a" /æ/ turns into "i" /i/. The current Spanish denomination Sevilla come from the Arabic Isbiliya.
Seville is more than 2,000 years old. The passage of the various civilizations instrumental in its growth has left the city a distinct personality, and a large and well-preserved historical center. Although it has a strong medieval, renaissance and baroque heritage, the city was greatly influenced by Arabic culture.
In mythology, the founder of the city is considered to be Hercules. The city was known from Roman times as Hispalis. The nearby Roman city of Italica, a mainly residential city at the time, is well-preserved and gives an impression of how Hispalis may have looked in the later Roman period. Important remains also exist in the nearby city of Carmona. Existing Roman features in Seville include the remnants of an aqueduct, a temple in Mármoles street and vestiges of the walls surrounding the city that was ordered built by Julius Caesar. A sample of these walls in a state of good preservation can be seen next to the Basilica of the Virgen Macarena.
After the conquest of Hispalis by the Moors in 712, Seville was taken by the Muslims. It was capital for the Kings of the Umayyad Caliphate, the Almoravid dynasty, and the Almohad dynasty (from Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i.e., "the monotheists" or "the Unitarians"), from the 8th to 13th centuries. In 1248 forces of King Fernando III of Castile won victory in Seville's chapter of the peninsula's Catholic Reconquista (reconquest).
The Moorish urban influences continued and are very present in contemporary Seville, a legacy appreciated by scholars and travelers. However, most of the Moorish aesthetic buildings actually belong to Mudéjar style, Islamic art developed under Christian rule. Some original elements remain, including public structures, the urban fabric in the historic district, and large sections of the fortified city wall, as well as parts of the Alcázar and the Cathedral, including its bell tower, the Giralda, built up from the Minaret of the original grand mosque. The Alcázar and the Cathedral are both listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site together with the Archivo de Indias.
The city's development continued after the Castilian conquest in 1248. Public buildings constructed including churches, many of which were built in Mudéjar style, and the Seville Cathedral, built during the 15th century with Gothic architecture. The Moors' Palace became the Castilian royal residence, and during Pedro I's rule it was replaced by the Alcázar (the upper levels are still used by the Royal Family as the official Seville residence).
In 1391, Archdeacon Ferrant Martinez closed all the synagogues in Seville, converting them to churches, as in the case of Santa María la Blanca, and also appropriated the Jewish quarter's land and shops (sited in modern-day 'Barrio Santa Cruz'). Thousands were killed during the pogrom, while others were forced to convert. The Plaza de San Francisco was the site of the 'autos de fé'. At first, the activity of the Inquisition was limited to the dioceses of Seville and Cordoba, where Alonso de Hojeda had detected converso activity. The first Auto de Fé took place in Seville on 6 February 1481, when six people were burned alive. Alonso de Hojeda himself gave the sermon. The Inquisition then grew rapidly. By 1492, tribunals existed in eight Castilian cities: Ávila, Cordoba, Jaén, Medina del Campo, Segovia, Sigüenza, Toledo and Valladolid.
The Golden Age
Following the 1492 Christopher Columbus expedition to the New World (from Palos de la Frontera's port), the results from his claiming territory and trade for the Crown of Castile (incipient Spain) in the West Indies began to profit the city, as all goods imported from the New World had to pass through the Casa de Contratacion before being distributed throughout the rest of Spain. A 'golden age of development' commenced in Seville, due to its being the only port awarded the royal monopoly for trade with the growing Spanish colonies in the Americas and the influx of riches from them. Since only sailing ships leaving from and returning to the inland port of Seville could engage in trade with the Spanish Americas, merchants from Europe and other trade centers needed to go to Seville to acquire New World trade goods. The city's population grew to nearly a million people in the first hundred years after Columbus.
In the late 16th century the monopoly was broken, with the port of Cádiz also authorized as a port of trade. The Great Plague of Seville in 1649 reduced the population by almost half, and it would not recover until the early 19th century. By the 18th century its international importance was in decline. After the silting up of the harbor by the Guadalquivir (river) upriver shipping ceased and the city went into relative economic decline. Seville's development in the late 19th and early 20th centuries was characterised by population growth and increasing industrialisation, unlike the rest of Andalusia.
Seville fell very quickly at the beginning of the Spanish Civil War in 1936. General Queipo de Llano carried out a coup within the city, quickly capturing the city centre. Radio Seville opposed the uprising and called for the peasants to come to the city for arms, while worker's groups established barricades. De Llano then moved to capture Radio Seville, which he used to broadcast propaganda on behalf of the Francoist forces. After the initial takeover of the city, resistance continued amongst the working-class areas for some time, until a series of fierce reprisals took place.
- The city's Cathedral was built from 1401–1519 after the Reconquista on the former site of the city's mosque. It is amongst the largest of all medieval and Gothic cathedrals, in terms of both area and volume. The interior is the longest nave in Spain, and is lavishly decorated, with a large quantity of gold evident. The Cathedral reused some columns and elements from the mosque, and, most famously, the Giralda, originally a minaret, was converted into a bell tower. It is topped with a statue, known locally as El Giraldillo, representing Faith. The tower's interior was built with ramps rather than stairs, to allow the Muezzin and others to ride on horseback to the top.
- The Alcázar facing the cathedral was developed from a previous Moorish Palace. Construction was started in 1181 and continued for over 500 years, mainly in the Mudéjar style, but also in the Renaissance style. Its gardens are a blend of Moorish, Renaissance, and English traditions.
- The Torre del Oro was built by the Almohad dynasty as a watchtower and defensive barrier on the river. A chain was strung through the water from the base of the tower to prevent boats from traveling into the river port.
- The Town Hall was built in the 16th century in high Plateresque style by master architect Diego de Riaño. The Facade to Plaza Nueva was built in the 19th century in Neoclassical style.
- The Palace of San Telmo, formerly the University of Sailors, and later the Seminary, is now the seat for the Andalusian Autonomous Government. It is one of the most emblematic buildings of baroque architecture, mainly to its world-renowned churrigueresque principal facade and the impressive chapel.
- The University of Seville is housed on the original site of the first tobacco factory in Europe, La Antigua Fábrica de Tabacos, a vast 18th century building in Baroque style and the purported inspiration for the opera Carmen.
- The Plaza de España, in Maria Luisa Park (Parque de Maria Luisa), was built by the architect Aníbal González for the 1929 Exposición Ibero-Americana. It is an outstanding example of Regionalist Revival Architecture, a bizarre and loftily conceived mixture of diverse historic styles, such as Art Deco and Neo-Mudéjar and lavishly ornamented with typical glazed tiles.
- The Metropol Parasol, in La Encarnación square, is a monumental umbrella-like building designed by the German architect Jürgen Mayer, finished in 2011. This modern architecture structure houses the central market and an underground archaeological complex. The terrace roof is a city viewpoint.
The neighbourhood of Triana, situated on the west bank of the Guadalquivir River, played an important role in the history of the city and constitutes by itself a folk, monumental and cultural center.
On the other hand, at the northern side of the city center is found the La Macarena neighbourhood, with some religious and monumental remarks, such as the Museum and Basilica of La Macarena or the Hospital de las Cinco Llagas.
The most important art collection of Seville is the Museum of Fine Arts of Seville. It was established in 1835 in the former Convent of La Merced. It holds many masterworks by Murillo, Pacheco, Zurbarán, Valdés Leal, and others masters of the Baroque Sevillian School, containing also Flemish paintings of the 15th and 16th centuries.
Other remarkable museums in Seville are:
- The Archaeological Museum, which contains collections from the Tartessian and Roman periods, placed in América square at María Luisa Park.
- The Museum of Arts and Traditions, also in América square, in front of the Archaeological museum.
- The Andalusian Contemporary Art Center, placed in La Cartuja.
- The Naval Museum, housed in the Torre del Oro, next to the Guadalquivir river.
- The Carriages Museum, in Los Remedios neighbourhood.
- The Flamenco Art Museum, in Manuel Rojas Marcos street.
- The Bullfight Museum, in La Maestranza bullring
- The Palace of the Countess of Lebrija, a private collection that contains many of the mosaic floors discovered in the nearby Roman town of Italica.
- The "Centro Velázquez" (Velázquez Center) located at the Old Priests Hospital in the turistic Santa Cruz neighbourhood.
- The Antiquarium at Metropol Parasol, an underground museum that exhibits in situ Roman and Muslim remains.
- The Castillo de San Jorge (Castle of St. George) remains, below the Triana market, next to Isabel II bridge. It was the last seat for the Spanish Inquisition.
- The Museum and Treasure of La Macarena, where the patrimony of the Macarena brotherhood is exposed. This exhibition gives to the visitor an accurate impression about what is the Seville Holy Week.
In the future the pottery museum is planned to be placed in Triana neighbourhood, at the west bank of the river.
Parks and gardens
- The Parque de María Luisa (María Luisa Park), a monumental park built for the 1929 World's Fair held in Seville, the Exposición Ibero-Americana. The so-called Jardines de las Delicias (literally, Delighting Gardens), closer to the river, are part of the Parque de María Luisa.
- The Alcázar Gardens, within the Alcázar palace. It is constituted by different sectors developed in different historical styles. A Reinaissance terrace garden heads the space from the Gothic part of the palace, whereas the outermost part is an English style garden. Areas closest to the Mudéjar buildings were kept in Moorish style.
- The Gardens of Murillo and the Gardens of Catalina de Ribera, both along and outside the South wall of the Alcázar, next to Santa Cruz quarter. They were developed from parts of the Alcazar garden after transferred to the City. The look of the gardens is due to an improvement at the beginning of 20th century, following classic gardening styles with predominant Moorish Revival influence.
- The Parque del Alamillo y San Jerónimo, the largest park of Andalusia, originally built in 1992 for the Seville Expo '92 reproducing the Andalusian native flora. It spans both Guadalquivir shores around the San Jerónimo meander. The impressive 32 meters high bronze sculpture "Birth of the New World" (popularly known as Columbus's Egg, el Huevo de Colón), made by the Georgian sculptor Zurab Tsereteli, is placed in its northwestern sector.
- The American Garden, also completed for the 1992 world Expo of Seville, in La Cartuja. It is a public botanical garden, with a representative collection of American plants donated by different countries on the occasion of the world exposition. A shadehouse, and cactus and palms collections are the best marks of the garden.
Although it is not properly a park, most the Guadalquivir shores constitute a linear string of parks and green areas from Isabel II bridge to the Parque del Alamillo. The Chapina green, between Plaza de Armas bus station and Isabel II bridge, offers a nice view of Triana neighbourhood old quarter, and it is a popular zone for resting and sunbathing. La Cartuja rivershore has a well-developed shady river forest, panoramic piers, and floating walkways.
Other prominent parks and gardens include:
- Jardines de Cristina, Romantic gardens built at 1830 in Puerta Jerez, close to the Cathedral and Alcázar, named after the Fernando VII's second wife María Cristina. After 2011 restoration, they are dedicated to the Generation of '27 poets.
- Parque de los Príncipes, second oldest park of the city built in 1973, in Los Remedios neighbourhood.
- Parque de Miraflores, second largest park of Seville, at the NE side of the city. It houses an area of traditional vegetable gardens, and several farming buildings dated from Roman and Moorish ages.
- Jardines de la Buhaira, in Nervión neighbourhood. It was modified at the end of 20th century, inspired in traditional farming gardening. The irrigation channels and the reservoir are original Moorish remains.
- Jardines del Valle, at NE side of the city center. Developed from the vegetable gardens of an old monastery. Here it is found a well-preserved stretch of the Almohad City Wall.
- Jardines del Guadalquivir, in La Cartuja a modern-art garden built for Expo '92 within the exhibition site as resting area.
- Isla Mágica, Cartuja Island, a theme park just to the west of Seville built on the site of Seville Expo '92.
- After the neighbouring city of Cordoba, Seville has the warmest summer in the European continent (among all cities with a population over 100,000 people), with average daily highs in July of 35.3 °C (96 °F). Average minimum temperatures in July are 19.4 °C (67 °F) and every year the temperature exceeds 40 °C (104 °F) on several occasions. The extremes of temperature registered by the weather station at Seville Airport are −5.5 °C (22 °F) on 12 February 1956, and 46.6 °C (116 °F) on 23 July 1995. There is a non-accredited record by the National Institute of Meteorology which is 47.2 °C (117 °F) on 1 August during the 2003 heat wave, according to a weather station (83910 LEZL) located in the southern part of Seville Airport, near the abandoned military zone. This temperature would be one of the highest ever recorded in Spain and Europe after the European (unofficial) record of 48.5 °C (119 °F) recorded at Catenanuova on 10/08/1999.
- Winters are mild: January is the coolest month, with average maximum temperatures of 15.9 °C (61 °F) and minimum of 5.2 °C (41 °F).
- Precipitation varies from 600 to 800 mm (23.5–31.5 in) per year, concentrated in the period October to April. December is the wettest month, with an average rainfall of 95 millimetres (4 in). On average there are 52 days of rain, 120.75 days of sun and four days of frost per year.
- Average number of days above 32 °C (90 °F) is 88, average number of days below 0 °C (32 °F) is 6. Average morning relative humidity: 84%, average evening relative humidity: 46%.
Climate data for Seville Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Average high °C (°F) 15.9
24.9 Daily mean °C (°F) 10.6
18.6 Average low °C (°F) 5.2
12.7 Precipitation mm (inches) 65
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 6 6 5 7 4 2 0 0 2 6 6 8 52 Sunshine hours 179 183 224 234 287 312 351 328 250 218 186 154 2,898 Source: World Meteorological Organization (UN), Agencia Estatal de Meteorología
The Semana Santa (Holy Week) and the Feria de Sevilla (Seville Fair), also known as Feria de Abril (April Fair), are the two most well-known of Seville's festivals. Seville is internationally renowned for the solemn but beautiful processions during Holy Week and the colourful and lively fair held two weeks after. During Feria, families, businesses and organizations set up casetas (marquees) in which they spend the week dancing, drinking, and socializing. Traditionally, women wear elaborate flamenco dresses and men dress in their best suits. The marquees are set up on a permanent fairground in which each street is named after a famous bullfighter.
The tapas scene is one of the main cultural attractions of the city: people go from one bar to another, enjoying small dishes called tapas (literally "lids" or "covers" in Spanish, referring to their probable origin as snacks served in small plates used to cover drinks.) Local specialities include fried and grilled seafood (including squid, choco (cuttlefish), swordfish, marinated dogfish, and ortiguillas), grilled and stewed meat, spinach with chickpeas, Jamón ibérico, lamb kidneys in sherry sauce, snails, caldo de puchero, and gazpacho. A sandwich known as serranito is the typical and popular version of fast food.
Typical sweet cakes of this province are polvorones and mantecados from the town of Estepa, a kind of shortcake made with almonds, sugar and lard; pestiños, a honey-coated sweet fritter; torrijas, fried slices of bread with honey; roscos fritos, deep-fried sugar-coated ring doughnuts; magdalenas or fairy cakes; yemas de San Leandro, which provide the city's convents with a source of revenue; and tortas de aceite, a thin sugar-coated cake made with olive oil. Polvorones and mantecados are traditional Christmas products, whereas pestiños and torrijas are typically consumed during the Holy Week. In any case they can be tasted the round year in cake shops and patisseries.
The Seville oranges that dot the city landscape, too bitter for modern tastes, are commonly used to make marmalade and lotions; according to legend, the trees were imported when the mosque was constructed in order to provide shade and mask the scent of the medieval city. However, many tourists insist on trying the oranges which taste like sour lemons.
Seville had a strong music scene in the 1970s and 1980s with bands like Triana, Alameda, Smash, Guadalquivir, Gong, Goma, Storm, Nuevos Tiempos... groups influenced by Pink Floyd, King Crimson and Jethro Tull that fused progressive rock with flamenco. In the early 1990s groups like Reincidentes, Sr Chinarro or singer Kiko Veneno kept the city's musical scene vibrant. Today many of those groups are still active. The music scene also has a lot of rap groups like SFDK, Tote King, La Mala Rodríguez, Dogma Crew... Seville's music scene is quite diverse and this is reflected in its nightlife.
The city is also home to many theaters and theater spaces where classical music is offered, such as Teatro Lope de Vega, Teatro La Maestranza, Teatro Central, the Real Alcazar Gardens and the Sala Joaquín Turina.
Flamenco and Sevillanas
The sevillana dance, commonly presented as flamenco, is not thought to be of Sevillan origin. But the folksongs called sevillanas are authentically Sevillan, as is the four-part dance that goes with them.
Seville has a wide variety of entertainment to offer all the day, but especially from late evening to the early morning hours. The pleasant climate and the natural sociability of Sevillians lead people to spend most of their spare time outdoors talking, drinking and eating tapas. The nightclubs and disco-pubs don't fill with crowds before 2:00 am.
The main nightlife attractions are located within and around the city center. The La Alfalfa neighbourhood houses many pubs and tapas bars. A more alternative atmosphere can be found in La Alameda, with a frenetic nightlife of entertainment that ranges from traditional flamenco to heavy metal. Another popular area is El Arenal. Most of the discothèques are found in Betis street in Triana and in La Cartuja.
During spring and summer, outdoor cocktails bars (known as kioskos) are opened along Paseo de Colón, next to the Guadalquivir river.
"NO8DO" is the official motto and the subject of one of the many legends of Seville. The legend has left its very tangible mark throughout the city as NO8DO can be seen on landmarks ranging from the common bike rack, the caps of the municipal sewer and water system, ordinary sidewalks, buses, taxis, monuments, even Christopher Columbus's tomb. The motto of Seville is a visible presence of which any visitor is sure to take note.
The motto is a rebus, combining the Spanish syllables (NO and DO) and a drawing in between of the figure "8". The figure represents a skein of yarn, or in Spanish, a "madeja". When read aloud, "No madeja do" sounds like "No me ha dejado", which means "It [Seville] has not abandoned me".
The story of how NO8DO came to be the motto of the city has undoubtedly been embellished throughout the centuries, but legend has it that after the conquest of Seville from the Muslims in 1248, King Ferdinand III of Castile and León moved his court to the former Muslim palace, the Alcázar of Seville.
After San Fernando's death in the Real Alcázar, his son, Alfonso X assumed the throne. Alfonso X was a scholar king, hence his title. He was a poet, astronomer, astrologer, musician and linguist. Alfonso's son, Sancho IV of Castile, tried to usurp the throne from his father, but the people of Seville remained loyal to their scholar king and this is where NO8DO was believed to have originated when, according to legend, Alfonso X rewarded the fidelity of the "Sevillanos" with the words that now appear on the official emblem of the city of Seville.
Seville has 11 districts and 108 neighborhoods. Districts:
- Casco Antiguo: It's the central area of Seville where the main shops and the principal tourist attractions of the city are located, which include: The cathedral, the Alcázar, the Torre del Oro, the Town Hall, the Palace of San Telmo, the University of Seville, the Metropol Parasol. It has a population of 56,206 inhabitants. Neighborhoods: El Arenal, Encarnación-Regina, Alfalfa, San Bartolomé, San Lorenzo, San Gil, Museo, Santa Catalina, Santa Cruz, Feria, San Julián, San Vicente.
- Distrito Sur: This district is notable for the presence of the Plaza de España, the Parque de María Luisa, Seville's Archaeological Museum, the Prado de San Sebastian and the Traditional Arts and Customs Museum. It has a population of 75,620 inhabitants. Neighborhoods: El Prado-Parque de María Luisa, Huerta de la Salud, El Porvenir, Giralda Sur, El Plantinar, Felipe II-Los Diez Mandamientos, Tabladilla-La Estrella, Bami, Tiro de Línea-Santa Genoveva, La Oliva, Avenida de la Paz, El Juncal-Híspalis, Las Letanías, Polígono Sur.
- Triana: Like other neighborhoods that were historically split from the main city, it was known as an arrabal. Triana is placed in an almost-island between two branches of the Guadalquivir, narrowly linked to the mainland in the north. Betis street contains many of the city's most popular discotecas. It also offers what might be considered the best panoramic view of Seville's city center. At the top of the district is the Monastery of La Cartuja, the Isla Mágica amusement park, the site of Expo 92, the Cartuja Park, university faculties, various clubs, the Olympic Stadium, and the spectacular Barcelo Renacimiento hotel. Presently the Cajasol Tower is being built. It will stand 178 meters high and will be completed in 2013. Triana has a population of 52.401 inhabitants. Neighborhoods: Triana Casco Antiguo, Barrio León, El Tardón-El Carmen, Triana Este, Triana Oeste.
- Macarena: It's the traditional and historical name of the area of Seville located north of the city center. Nowadays, La Macarena is the name of the neighborhood placed on both sides of the north city wall, but also a much bigger administrative district of Seville. Attractions: The Basilica of Nuestra Señora de la Esperanza Macarena, the Córdoba Gate and the Parliament of Andalusia. Neighborhoods: Santa María de Ordas-San Nicolás, Pío XII, La Barzola, El Carmen, Cruz Roja-Capuchinos, Villegas, Santas Justa y Rufina-Parque Miraflores, Los Príncipes-La Fontanilla, Begoña-Santa Catalina, Polígono Norte, La Paz-Las Golondrinas, La Palmilla-Doctor Marañón, Hermandades-La Carrasca, Macarena 3 Huertas-Macarena 5, El Torrejón, El Cerezo, Doctor Barraquer-Grupo Renfe-Policlínico, Retiro Obrero, Cisneo Alto-Santa María de Gracia, Campos de Soria, León XIII-Los Naranjos, El Rocío, Pino Flores, Las Avenidas.
- Nervión: It's a large, modern neighborhood in the eastern zone of Seville. The neighborhood is an important commercial district of the city, where much of the regional capital's business takes place. The population is 16,129 inhabitants. It is the second focal point of the city, and is home to a number of important sites:
–Estadio Ramón Sánchez Pizjuán, is home to Sevilla FC, one of Seville's two top-level soccer teams in the top flight of La Liga. The area's name is the origin of one of Sevilla FC's nickname Los Nervionenses.
–Nervión Plaza, a commercial shopping complex with many chain stores and a large movie theater with 20 screens.
–El Prado, a gardened zone that serves as a major short-distance bus hub.
–Estación de Cadiz, the lesser of the city's two trains stations. It currently serves as a fresh produce market.
The Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales (School of Business) of the University of Seville is located in this neighborhood. Neighborhoods: Nervión, San Bernardo, Huerta del Pilar, La Florida, La Buhaira, La Calzada, San Roque, Ciudad Jardín.
- Distrito Norte: It has 71,963 inhabitants. Attractions: The old airport, the cemetery of San Fernando, the monastery of San Jeronimo de Buenavista and the Temple or Shrine of San Onofre. Neighborhoods: Pino Montano, Consolación, El Gordillo, Las Almenas, San Jerónimo, La Bachillera, Los Carteros, San Diego (Sevilla), Los Arcos, Las Naciones-Parque Atlántico-Las Dalias, San Matías, Aeropuerto Viejo, Valdezorras.
- Los Remedios: South of the ancient neighborhood of Triana. It derives its name from a Carmelite convent of the same name found in that area. Before development in the latter half of the 20th Century, this was one of the few standing structures in what is now Los Remedios. It has a population of 27.007. Attractions: The Parque de los Príncipes, the Seville Fair, the Puente de San Telmo, the Museo de Carruajes, Los Remedios' tower and the Cuba Square. Neighborhoods: Tablada and Los Remedios.
- Este-Alcosa-Torreblanca: It has a population of 94,761 inhabitants. Attractions: The Congress and Exhibitions Palace, the Holy Week in Torreblanca and the San Pablo Airport. Neighborhoods: Colores-Entreparques, Torreblanca, Parque Alcosa-Jardines del Edén, Palacio de Congresos-Urbadiez-Entrepuentes.
- Cerro-Amate: It has a population of 88.667 inhabitants. Attractions: Amate Park and Amate Sports Center. Neighborhoods: Amate, Juan XXIII, Los Pájaros, Rochelambert, Santa Aurelia-Cantábrico-Atlántico-La Romería, Palmete, El Cerro, La Plata.
- Bellavista-La Palmera: It has a population of 35.785. Attractions: Heliopolis' typical houses, the Estadio Benito Villamarín, the Luís del Sol Sports City, the Nuestra Señora de Valme Chapel and the Puente del V Centenario. Neighborhoods: Bellavista, Heliópolis, Elcano-Los Bermejales, Sector Sur-La Palmera-Reina Mercedes, Pedro Salvador-Las Palmeritas, Barriada de Pineda.
- San Pablo-Santa Justa: It has a population of 66.600. Attractions: The Sports Palace of Seville and Kansas City Avenue. Neighborhoods: Árbol Gordo, La Corza, Las Huertas, San Carlos-Tartessos, San José Obrero, El Fontanal-María Auxiliadora-Carretera de Carmona, Santa Clara, Zodiaco, San Pablo A y B, San Pablo C, San Pablo D y E, Huerta de Santa Teresa.
- Angers, France, since 2000
- Baler, Philippines
- Barcelona, Spain
- Buenos Aires, Argentina
- Columbus, United States
- Guadalajara, Mexico (1977)
- Havana, Cuba
- Kansas City, United States
- Rabat, Morocco
- Tifariti, Western Sahara
- Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam (2009)
The economic activity of Seville cannot be detached from the geographical and urban context of the city; the capital of Andalusia is the centre of a growing metropolitan area. Aside from traditional neighborhoods such as Santa Cruz, Triana and others, those further away from the centre, such as Nervión, Sevilla Este, and El Porvenir have seen recent economic growth. Over the past twenty years, this urban area has seen significant population growth and the development of new industrial and commercial parks.
Due to its size and location, Seville is economically the strongest of the Andalusian cities. The infrastructure available in the city contributes to the growth of an economy dominated by the service sector, but in which industry still holds a considerable place.
The 1990s saw massive growth in investment in infrastructure in Seville, largely due to the hosting of the Universal Exposition of Seville in 1992, which saw the economic development of the city and its urban area is supported by good transport links to other Spanish cities, including a high-speed AVE railway link to Madrid, and a new international airport.
- Seville has the only inland port of Spain, located 80 km (50 mi) from the mouth of the River Guadalquivir. This harbor complex offers access to the Atlantic and the Mediterranean, and allows trade in goods between the south of Spain (Andalusia, Extremadura) and Europe, the Middle East and North Africa. The port has undergone reorganisation. Annual tonnage rose to 5.3 million tonnes of goods in 2006.
- Seville has conference facilities, including the Congress Palace.
- The city and its surrounding province have a number of large industrial parks and technology centres: Dos Hermanas accommodates the largest Andalusian industrial park, while Alcalá de Guadaíra has the largest industrial complex by surface area in Andalusia; the Parque Científico Tecnológico Sevilla Tecnopolis, gathers companies, research centres and university departments directed towards the development of new technologies; the Parque Tecnológico y Aeronáutico Aerópolis is focused on the aircraft industry.
- Outside of Seville are 9 PS20 solar power towers providing most of the city of Seville with clean and renewable energy. These towers use mirrors to focus sunlight on the tower, heating it and creating superheated steam. This steam drives turbines that in turn create electric power and provide electricity during day and night.
Characteristics by sector
The town of Seville and its agglomeration have, by their situation by the river Guadalquivir, maintained dynamic agricultural activity. Agroalimentary industry may be productive. Nevertheless, for a long time the area has been looking to the future, while investing massively in industrial activities, supported by the existing infrastructures. The service sector and new technologies are increasingly important. Seville concentrated, in 2004, 31% of large Andalusian companies and 128 of the 6,000 largest national companies. In 2005, the metropolitan area counted a working population of 471,947 people, of which 329,471 (69.81%) worked within the city centre.
- Agriculture represents less than 1.3% of the workers of the city. Cereal, fruit and olive-growing constitute the principal agricultural activities in this area of Andalusia.
- Industry contributes up to 28% of the economic output of Seville. It employed in 2005 15.2% of workers in the city. It is well established in the metropolitan area, stimulated by the various industrial parks, the presence of good infrastructure and the proximity of the complexes of the Bays of Cádiz, Algeciras, and Huelva.
- The service sector employs 83.5% of the working population of Seville. It represents a significant share of the local economy and is centred on tourism, trade and financial services.
Research and development
The city of Seville makes a significant contribution to scientific research, as it houses the first and largest DNA bank in Spain, through the local company Neocodex. Neocodex stores 20,000 DNA samples and is recognised internationally. In addition, Seville is also considered an important technological and research centre for renewable energies and the aeronautics industry.
Through its high-tech centres and its fabric of innovating companies, the Andalusian capital has risen to among the most important Spanish cities in term of development and research. Moreover, the scientific and technological activity of the three Seville universities has to be added, whose certain laboratories and research centres work in close connection with the local socio-economic power. Thus, the Parque Científico Tecnológico Cartuja 93 gathers private and public actors in various fields of research.
The principal innovation and research orientations are telecommunications, new technologies, biotechnologies (in relation to local agricultural specificities), environment and renewable energy.
Seville is served by the TUSSAM (Transportes Urbanos de Sevilla) bus network which runs buses throughout the city. Two bus stations serve transport with surrounding areas and other cities: Plaza de Armas station, with destinations towards north and west, and Prado de San Sebastián stations, covering routes to south and east.
On April 2, 2009, the city opened its first metro line, that runs from the South to the Aljarafe comarca, with stops at San Bernardo transport hub (tram and buses) and Puerta Jerez, gate to city center.
A single tram line runs from San Bernardo to Plaza Nueva at city center. It has stops at Prado de San Sebastián and the Cathedral.
The Santa Justa train station is served by the AVE high-speed rail system, and is operated by the Spanish formerly state-owned rail company Renfe. A five-line commuter rail service (Cercanías) joins the city with the Metropolitan area.
The Sevici community bicycle program has integrated bicycles into the public transport network. Across the city, bicycles are available for hire at low cost and green bicycle lanes can be seen on most major streets. This network of lanes (carriles) is also currently being expanded.
Seville Airport is a medium sized international airport that serves the city and surrounding region. Jerez Airport, in the nearby city of Jerez de la Frontera, complement the airway services of Seville.
Seville is home to several universities. The University of Seville, Universidad Pablo de Olavide (UPO) and the Universidad Internacional de Andalucía are public institutions. Additionally, the Menéndez Pelayo International University, based in Santander, operates a branch campus in Seville.
- Maria Antonietta of Spain, Queen consort of Sardinia (1729–1785)
- Roman emperors Trajan and Hadrian were born in Italica
- Abu Marwan Abd al-Malik Ibn Zuhr (known in the West as Avenzoar) - 1091-1161 C.E - "Master Physician"
- The family of the Arabic historian and sociologist Ibn Khaldun
- Renaissance composer Cristóbal de Morales, Francisco Guerrero
- 16th century novelist Mateo Alemán
- Playwrights Lope de Rueda, Hermanos Alvarez Quintero
- Historian of New Spain Bartolomé de Las Casas
- Explorer Juan Díaz de Solís, born in Lebrija
- Spanish Linguist and Grammarian Antonio de Nebrija, born in Lebrija
- Baroque painters Diego Velázquez, Valdés Leal and Murillo
- Explorer and astronomer Antonio de Ulloa
- Renaissance poet Gutierre de Cetina
- Romantic poet Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer
- Bullfighters Juan Belmonte, Curro Romero, Ignacio Sánchez Mejías and Joselito el Gallo
- 20th century poets:
- Composer Joaquín Turina
- Actors Juan Diego, Paco León
- Actresses Soledad Miranda, Verónica Sánchez, Carmen Sevilla, Paz Vega
- Miss España 2003 (representing Andalusia), beauty queen and model Eva Maria González
- Singers Isabel Pantoja, Juanita Reina, Lole y Manuel, Paquita Rico, El Caracol, Falete
- Comedian Manuel Summers
- Football (soccer) players José Antonio Reyes, Fernando "Nando" Muñoz, Ricardo Serna, Sergio Ramos, Jesús Navas, Antonio Puerta, Carlos Marchena.
- Olympic swimmer Fátima Madrid
- Politicians Felipe González, President of the Government of Spain from 1982 to 1996, and Alfonso Guerra, vice president from 1982 to 1991
- Ibn Arabi (known in the West as Dr. Maximus), 1165-1240 C.E - Muslim mystic known as "The Greatest Master" - his family moved to Seville from Murcia when he was 8.
- Seville is the hometown of two rival football (soccer) teams: Sevilla Fútbol Club and Real Betis Balompié.
- Seville housed the Tennis Davis Cup in 2004 and the 7th Athletics World Championships in 1999, among other international sport events.
- Seville also unsuccessfully bid for the 2004 and 2008 Summer Olympics, which it lost to Athens and Beijing, respectively. It was also unable to bid for the 2012 Summer Olympics as Madrid was proposed by the Olympic Council of Spain instead.
- Sevilla FC stadium Ramón Sánchez Pizjuán hosted the 1982 World Cup Semi-Finals in which Germany beat France in the penalty shoot-outs after a 3-3 tie.
- Seville FC stadium Ramón Sánchez Pizjuán hosted the 1986 European Cup Final, in which Steaua Bucharest (Romania) unexpectedly defeated FC Barcelona (Spain).
- Seville also hosted in 2003 the UEFA Cup Final in the new Olympic stadium. The final was between Celtic F.C. (Scotland) and Futebol Clube do Porto (Portugal). The match finished in extra time 3–2 to Porto after a 2-2 draw at 90 minutes. Around 80,000 Celtic fans travelled to Seville to watch the match.
- Sevilla FC won the 2006 UEFA Cup, their first European trophy, with an emphatic 4-0 victory over Middlesbrough FC of England in the final, played at the Philips Stadion in Eindhoven on May 10, 2006. Sevilla retained the UEFA Cup in 2007 against fellow Spaniards Espanyol in 3-1 on penalties, after a 2-2 draw at Hampden Park, Glasgow. They are also won the European Supercup with a 0-3 defeat of F.C. Barcelona (Spain) in Stade Louis II in Monaco on August 26, 2006. On June 23, 2007 Sevilla FC won the King's Cup (Copa del Rey) beating Getafe 1-0 in the Santiago Bernabéu Stadium.
- Seville's Guadalquivir river is one of only 3 FISA approved international traning centres, the other 2 being Oberschleißheim and Marathon
- The picaresque novel Rinconete y Cortadillo by Miguel de Cervantes takes place in the city of Seville.
- The novel La femme et le pantin, ("Woman and puppet") (1898) by Pierre Louÿs, adapted for film several times, is set mainly in Seville.
- Seville is the setting for the legend of Don Juan (inspired by the real aristocrat Don Miguel de Mañara) on the Paseo Alcalde Marqués de Contadero
- Seville is the primary setting of many operas, the best known of which are Bizet's Carmen (based on Mérimée's novella), Rossini's The Barber of Seville, Verdi's La forza del destino, Beethoven's Fidelio, Mozart's Don Giovanni and The Marriage of Figaro, and Prokofiev's Betrothal in a Monastery.
- Seville is the setting of the novel "The Seville Communion" by Arturo Pérez-Reverte.
- Seville is both the location and setting for much of the 1985 Doctor Who television serial The Two Doctors.
- Seville is also used as one of the locations in Dan Brown's "Digital Fortress".
- Arthur Koestler's book Spanish Testament is based on the writer's experiences while held in the Seville prison, under a sentence of death, during the Spanish Civil War.
- Robert Wilson's police novel The Hidden Assassins (2006) concerns a terrorist incident in Seville and the political context thereof, with much local color. Note also his title The Blind Man of Seville (2004).
- The Plaza de España in the Parque de María Luisa appears in George Lucas' Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones as well as in Lawrence of Arabia as the British Army HQ in Cairo, while the courtyard was the King Alfonso XIII Hotel.
- The Plaza of the Americas also appeared in Lawrence, substituting for Jerusalem, and in Anthony Mann's El Cid. It would also serve as the Palace of Vladek Sheybal's Bashaw in The Wind and the Lion (1975) (including the memorable attack scene by the US Marines.)
- ^ "La Emergencia de Sevilla". Universidad de Sevilla. http://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/fichero_articulo?codigo=634185&orden=0. Retrieved 2011-05-11.
- ^ "La invasión árabe. Los árabes y el elemento árabe en español". http://faculty.ksu.edu.sa/khemais/Biblioteca/Los%20%C3%A1rabes%20y%20el%20elemento%20%C3%A1rabe%20en%20espa%C3%B1ol.pdf. Retrieved 2011-05-11.
- ^ "Ruiz, Hernán. 'Blueprints of Seville's Cathedral and Giralda'". Fidas.es. http://www.fidas.es/usuarios/mh/MH/MH4%20varios/MH43%20dibujos/430.dibujosHR.htm. Retrieved 2011-04-10.
- ^ A. MacKay: "POPULAR MOVEMENTS AND POGROMS IN FIFTEENTH-CENTURY CASTILE", Past and Present (1972) 55 (1): 33-67. doi: 10.1093/past/55.1.33. Oxford University Press
- ^ "99.06.01: Human-Environment Relations: A Case Study of Donana National Park, Andalucia, Spain and the Los Frailes Mine Toxic Spill of 1998". Yale.edu. http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/1999/6/99.06.01.x.html. Retrieved 2011-04-10.
- ^ a b c The Spanish Civil War, Hugh Thomas, Penguin, 1961, p221-3, ISBN 0-14-013593-6
- ^ Lonely Planet Andalucia. Books.google.com. http://books.google.com/books?id=-ncWULEubPQC&pg=PA93&lpg=PA93&dq=seville+fell+1936&source=web&ots=6GMvQVt4EY&sig=XAVObPeB8A3ChkDoOLEdTPpbiOk#PPA93,M1. Retrieved 2011-04-10.
- ^ "Plaza De Espańa And Maria Luisa Park Sevilla - Seville". Sevilla5.com. http://www.sevilla5.com/monuments/plespana.html. Retrieved 2011-04-10.
- ^ Quintero, Josephine. "The City of Sevilla, the Maria Luisa Park in Sevilla, Andalucia, Spain". Andalucia.com. http://www.andalucia.com/cities/seville/marialuisapark.htm. Retrieved 2011-04-10.
- ^ "Ordenación Urbana - Metropol Parasol". Sevilla21.com. http://www.sevilla21.com/urbanismo/ordenacionurbana.php?id=1. Retrieved 2011-04-10.
- ^ ABC
- ^ "Jardines de Cristina - Conocer Sevilla Informacion - Grupo Arte Sacro". Artesacro.org. http://www.artesacro.org/conocersevilla/sitios/parques/cristina/index.html. Retrieved 2011-09-15.
- ^ M. Kottek; J. Grieser, C. Beck, B. Rudolf, and F. Rubel (2006). "World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated". Meteorol. Z. 15: 259–263. doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130. http://koeppen-geiger.vu-wien.ac.at/pics/kottek_et_al_2006.gif. Retrieved April 22, 2009.
- ^ "World Weather Information Service - Sevilla". Worldweather.org. 2006-10-05. http://www.worldweather.org/083/c01237.htm. Retrieved 2011-04-10.
- ^ "Valores climatológicos normales: Sevilla Aeropuerto - Agencia Estatal de Meteorología - AEMET. Gobierno de España" (in (Spanish)). Aemet.es. http://www.aemet.es/es/elclima/datosclimatologicos/valoresclimatologicos?l=5783&k=and. Retrieved 2011-04-10.
- ^ Roy, Shourin (2009-08-21). "Why do English clubs have such boring and redundant names?". SoccerBlog.com. http://www.soccerblog.com/2009/08/why-do-english-clubs-have-such.htm. Retrieved 2011-09-15.
- ^ "Noticias - Sevilla Y Barcelona Colaborarán Estrechamente Para Difundir Los Valores Del Fórum". Noticias.info. http://www.noticias.info/archivo/2004/200403/20040320/20040320_20532.shtm. Retrieved 2011-04-10.
- ^ a b Hermanamientos con Latinoamérica (102,91 kB). [29-9-2008]
- ^ [dead link]
- ^ "Nos Visitó El Poder Popular De Ciudad De La Habana " Comité Local Pca-Sevilla". Pcasevilla.wordpress.com. http://pcasevilla.wordpress.com/2008/10/15/nos-visito-el-poder-popular-de-ciudad-de-la-habana/. Retrieved 2011-04-10.
- ^ [dead link]
- ^ "Red de Hermanamientos entre Ciudades Marroquies y Andaluzas - Convenios y hermanamientas". An-mar.org. 2006-05-01. http://www.an-mar.org/index.php?Itemid=61&id=20&option=com_content&task=view. Retrieved 2011-04-10.
- ^ "Kraków otwarty na świat". www.krakow.pl. http://www.krakow.pl/otwarty_na_swiat/?LANG=UK&MENU=l&TYPE=ART&ART_ID=16. Retrieved 2009-07-19.
- ^ Sevilla metro inaugurated, Railway Gazette International 2009-04-06
- ^ "Sistema Educativo LOE by the Spanish Ministry of Education(Spanish Only)" (in (Spanish)). Mec.es. Archived from the original on 2008-04-12. http://web.archive.org/web/20080412073035/http://www.mec.es/educa/sistema-educativo/loe/sistema-educativo-loe.html. Retrieved 2010-04-13.
- ^ http://www.unia.es
- ^ "Inicio en Sede de Sevilla". Uimp.es. 2011-03-22. http://www.uimp.es/blogs/sevilla/. Retrieved 2011-04-10.
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed (1854–57). "article name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray.
- 111 Gigapixel photo of Seville
- (Spanish) Official website of the city council.
- Seville in 360º
- Seville photos
- Seville travel guide from Wikitravel
- Islamic Seville by Paul Lunde
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.