Biodiversity is the degree of variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome, or an entire planet. Biodiversity is a measure of the health of ecosystems. Biodiversity is in part a function of climate. In terrestrial habitats, tropical regions are typically rich whereas polar regions support fewer species.
Since life began on Earth, five major mass extinctions and several minor events have led to large and sudden drops in biodiversity. The Phanerozoic eon (the last 540 million years) marked a rapid growth in biodiversity via the Cambrian explosion—a period during which nearly every phylum of multicellular organisms first appeared. The next 400 million years included repeated, massive biodiversity losses classified as mass extinction events. In the Carboniferous, rainforest collapse led to a great loss of plant and animal life. The Permian–Triassic extinction event, 251 million years ago, was the worst; vertebrate recovery took 30 million years. The most recent, the Cretaceous–Tertiary extinction event, occurred 65 million years ago, and has often attracted more attention than others because it resulted in the extinction of the dinosaurs.
The period since the emergence of humans has displayed an ongoing biodiversity reduction and an accompanying loss of genetic diversity. Named the Holocene extinction, the reduction is caused primarily by human impacts, particularly habitat destruction. Conversely, biodiversity impacts human health in a number of ways, both positively and negatively.
The United Nations designated 2011-2020 as the United Nations Decade on Biodiversity.
The term biological diversity was used first by wildlife scientist and conservationist Raymond F. Dasmann in the 1968 lay book A Different Kind of Country advocating conservation. The term was widely adopted only after more than a decade, when in the 1980s it came into common usage in science and environmental policy. Thomas Lovejoy, in the foreword to the book Conservation Biology, introduced the term to the scientific community. Until then the term "natural diversity" was common, introduced by The Science Division of The Nature Conservancy in an important 1975 study, "The Preservation of Natural Diversity." By the early 1980s TNC's Science program and its head, Robert E. Jenkins, Lovejoy and other leading conservation scientists at the time in America advocated the use of "biological diversity".
The term's contracted form biodiversity may have been coined by W.G. Rosen in 1985 while planning the 1986 National Forum on Biological Diversity organized by the National Research Council (NRC). It first appeared in a publication in 1988 when entomologist E. O. Wilson used it as the title of the proceedings of that forum.
Since this period the term has achieved widespread use among biologists, environmentalists, political leaders, and concerned citizens.
A similar term in the United States is "natural heritage." It predates the others and is more accepted by the wider audience interested in conservation. Broader than biodiversity, it includes geology and landforms (geodiversity).
"Biological diversity" or "biodiversity" can have many interpretations. It is most commonly used to replace the more clearly defined and long established terms, species diversity and species richness. Biologists most often define biodiversity as the "totality of genes, species, and ecosystems of a region". An advantage of this definition is that it seems to describe most circumstances and presents a unified view of the traditional three levels at which biological variety has been identified:
This multilevel construct is consistent with Dasmann and Lovejoy. An explicit definition consistent with this interpretation was first given in a paper by Bruce A. Wilcox commissioned by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) for the 1982 World National Parks Conference. Wilcox's definition was "Biological diversity is the variety of life forms...at all levels of biological systems (i.e., molecular, organismic, population, species and ecosystem)...". The 1992 United Nations Earth Summit defined "biological diversity" as "the variability among living organisms from all sources, including, 'inter alia', terrestrial, marine, and other aquatic ecosystems, and the ecological complexes of which they are part: this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems". This definition is used in the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity.
One textbook's definition is "variation of life at all levels of biological organization".
Measuring diversity at one level in a group of organisms may not precisely correspond to diversity at other levels. However, tetrapod (terrestrial vertebrates) taxonomic and ecological diversity shows a very close correlation.
Biodiversity is not evenly distributed, rather it varies greatly across the globe as well as within regions. Among other factors, the diversity of all living things (biota) depends on temperature, precipitation, altitude, soils, geography and the presence of other species. The study of the spatial distribution of organisms, species, and ecosystems, is the science of biogeography.
Diversity consistently measures higher in the tropics and in other localized regions such as Cape Floristic Province and lower in polar regions generally. In 2006 many species were formally classified as rare or endangered or threatened; moreover, scientists have estimated that millions more species are at risk which have not been formally recognized. About 40 percent of the 40,177 species assessed using the IUCN Red List criteria are now listed as threatened with extinction—a total of 16,119.
Generally terrestrial biodiversity is up to 25 times greater than ocean biodiversity.
Generally, there is an increase in biodiversity from the poles to the tropics. Thus localities at lower latitudes have more species than localities at higher latitudes. This is often referred to as the latitudinal gradient in species diversity. Several ecological mechanisms may contribute to the gradient, but the ultimate factor behind many of them is the greater mean temperature at the equator compared to that of the poles.
Even though terrestrial biodiversity declines from the equator to the poles, some studies claim that this characteristic is unverified in aquatic ecosystems, especially in marine ecosystems. The latitudinal distribution of parasites does not follow this rule. Other instances of great diversity in higher latitudes have also been recorded.
A biodiversity hotspot is a region with a high level of endemic species. Hotspots were first named in 1988 by Dr. Sabina Virk. Many hotspots have large nearby human populations. While hotspots are spread all over the world, the majority are forest areas and most are located in the tropics.
Brazil's Atlantic Forest is considered one such hotspot, containing roughly 20,000 plant species, 1,350 vertebrates, and millions of insects, about half of which occur nowhere else. The island of Madagascar, particularly the unique Madagascar dry deciduous forests and lowland rainforests, possess a high ratio of endemism. Since the island separated from mainland Africa 65 million years ago, many species and ecosystems have evolved independently. Indonesia's 17,000 islands cover 735,355 square miles (1,904,560 km2) contain 10% of the world's flowering plants, 12% of mammals and 17% of reptiles, amphibians and birds—along with nearly 240 million people. Many regions of high biodiversity and/or endemism arise from specialized habitats which require unusual adaptations, for example alpine environments in high mountains, or Northern European peat bogs.
Accurately measuring differences in biodiversity can be difficult. Selection bias amongst researchers may contribute to biased empirical research for modern estimates of biodiversity. In 1768 Rev. Gilbert White succinctly observed of his Selborne, Hampshire "all nature is so full, that that district produces the most variety which is the most examined."
Biodiversity is the result of 3.5 billion years of evolution. The origin of life has not been definitely established by science, however some evidence suggests that life may already have been well-established only a few hundred million years after the formation of the Earth. Until approximately 600 million years ago, all life consisted of archaea, bacteria, protozoans and similar single-celled organisms.
The history of biodiversity during the Phanerozoic (the last 540 million years), starts with rapid growth during the Cambrian explosion—a period during which nearly every phylum of multicellular organisms first appeared. Over the next 400 million years or so, invertebrate diversity showed little overall trend, and vertebrate diversity shows an overall exponential trend. This dramatic rise in diversity was marked by periodic, massive losses of diversity classified as mass extinction events. A significant loss occurred when rainforests collapsed in the carboniferous. The worst was the Permo-Triassic extinction, 251 million years ago. Vertebrates took 30 million years to recover from this event.
The fossil record suggests that the last few million years featured the greatest biodiversity in history. However, not all scientists support this view, since there is uncertainty as to how strongly the fossil record is biased by the greater availability and preservation of recent geologic sections. Some scientists believe that corrected for sampling artifacts, modern biodiversity may not be much different from biodiversity 300 million years ago., whereas others consider the fossil record reasonably reflective of the diversification of life. Estimates of the present global macroscopic species diversity vary from 2 million to 100 million, with a best estimate of somewhere near 13–14 million, the vast majority arthropods. Diversity appears to increase continually in the absence of natural selection.
The existence of a "global carrying capacity", limiting the amount of life that can live at once, is debated, as is the question of whether such a limit would also cap the number of species. While records of life in the sea shows a logistic pattern of growth, life on land (insects, plants and tetrapods)shows an exponential rise in diversity. As one author states, "Tetrapods have not yet invaded 64 per cent of potentially habitable modes, and it could be that without human influence the ecological and taxonomic diversity of tetrapods would continue to increase in an exponential fashion until most or all of the available ecospace is filled."
On the other hand, changes through the Phanerozoic correlate much better with the hyperbolic model (widely used in population biology, demography and macrosociology, as well as fossil biodiversity) than with exponential and logistic models. The latter models imply that changes in diversity are guided by a first-order positive feedback (more ancestors, more descendants) and/or a negative feedback arising from resource limitation. Hyperbolic model implies a second-order positive feedback. The hyperbolic pattern of the world population growth arises from a second-order positive feedback between the population size and the rate of technological growth. The hyperbolic character of biodiversity growth can be similarly accounted for by a feedback between diversity and community structure complexity. The similarity between the curves of biodiversity and human population probably comes from the fact that both are derived from the interference of the hyperbolic trend with cyclical and stochastic dynamics.
Most biologists agree however that the period since human emergence is part of a new mass extinction, named the Holocene extinction event, caused primarily by the impact humans are having on the environment. It has been argued that the present rate of extinction is sufficient to eliminate most species on the planet Earth within 100 years.
New species are regularly discovered (on average between 5–10,000 new species each year, most of them insects) and many, though discovered, are not yet classified (estimates are that nearly 90% of all arthropods are not yet classified). Most of the terrestrial diversity is found in tropical forests.
Since the stone age, species loss has accelerated above the prior rate, driven by human activity. Estimates of species loss are at a rate 100-10,000 times as fast as is typical in the fossil record.
Non-material benefits include spiritual and aesthetic values, knowledge systems and the value of education.
- The Irish potato blight of 1846 was a major factor in the deaths of one million people and the emigration of another million. It was the result of planting only two potato varieties, both vulnerable to the blight.
- When rice grassy stunt virus struck rice fields from Indonesia to India in the 1970s, 6,273 varieties were tested for resistance. Only one was resistant, an Indian variety, and known to science only since 1966. This variety formed a hybrid with other varieties and is now widely grown.
- Coffee rust attacked coffee plantations in Sri Lanka, Brazil, and Central America in 1970. A resistant variety was found in Ethiopia. Although the diseases are themselves a form of biodiversity.
Monoculture was a contributing factor to several agricultural disasters, including the European wine industry collapse in the late 19th century, and the US Southern Corn Leaf Blight epidemic of 1970.
Although about 80 percent of humans' food supply comes from just 20 kinds of plants, humans use at least 40,000 species. Many people depend on these species for food, shelter, and clothing. Earth's surviving biodiversity provides resources for increasing the range of food and other products suitable for human use, although the present extinction rate shrinks that potential.
Biodiversity's relevance to human health is becoming an international political issue, as scientific evidence builds on the global health implications of biodiversity loss. This issue is closely linked with the issue of climate change, as many of the anticipated health risks of climate change are associated with changes in biodiversity (e.g. changes in populations and distribution of disease vectors, scarcity of fresh water, impacts on agricultural biodiversity and food resources etc.) This is because the species most likely to disappear are those that buffer against infectious disease transmission, while surviving species tend to be the ones that increase disease transmission, such as that of West Nile Virus, Lyme disease and Hantavirus, according to a study done co-authored by Felicia Keesing, and ecologist at Bard College, and Drew Harvell, associate director for Environment of the Atkinson Center for a Sustainable Future (ACSF) at Cornell University.
Some of the health issues influenced by biodiversity include dietary health and nutrition security, infectious disease, medical science and medicinal resources, social and psychological health. Biodiversity is also known to have an important role in reducing disaster risk, and in post-disaster relief and recovery efforts.
Biodiversity provides critical support for drug discovery and the availability of medicinal resources. A significant proportion of drugs are derived, directly or indirectly, from biological sources: at least 50% of the pharmaceutical compounds on the US market are derived from plants, animals, and micro-organisms, while about 80% of the world population depends on medicines from nature (used in either modern or traditional medical practice) for primary healthcare. Only a tiny fraction of wild species has been investigated for medical potential. Biodiversity has been critical to advances throughout the field of bionics. Evidence from market analysis and biodiversity science indicates that the decline in output from the pharmaceutical sector since the mid-1980s can be attributed to a move away from natural product exploration ("bioprospecting") in favor of genomics and synthetic chemistry; meanwhile, natural products have a long history of supporting significant economic and health innovation. Marine ecosystems are particularly important, although inappropriate bioprospecting can increase biodiversity loss, as well as violating the laws of the communities and states from which the resources are taken.
Business and industry
Many industrial materials derive directly from biological sources. These include building materials, fibers, dyes, rubber and oil. Biodiversity is also important to the security of resources such as water, timber, paper, fiber, and food. As a result, biodiversity loss is a significant risk factor in business development and a threat to long term economic sustainability.
Leisure, cultural and aesthetic value
Biodiversity enriches leisure activities such as hiking, birdwatching or natural history study. Biodiversity inspires musicians, painters, sculptors, writers and other artists. Many cultures view themselves as an integral part of the natural world which requires them to respect other living organisms.
Popular activities such as gardening, fishkeeping and specimen collecting strongly depend on biodiversity. The number of species involved in such pursuits is in the tens of thousands, though the majority do not enter commerce.
The relationships between the original natural areas of these often exotic animals and plants and commercial collectors, suppliers, breeders, propagators and those who promote their understanding and enjoyment are complex and poorly understood. The general public responds well to exposure to rare and unusual organisms, reflecting their inherent value.
Philosophically it could be argued that biodiversity has intrinsic aesthetic and spiritual value to mankind in and of itself. This idea can be used as a counterweight to the notion that tropical forests and other ecological realms are only worthy of conservation because of the services they provide.
Biodiversity supports many ecosystem services that are often not readily visible. It plays a part in regulating the chemistry of our atmosphere and water supply. Biodiversity is directly involved in water purification, recycling nutrients and providing fertile soils. Experiments with controlled environments have shown that humans cannot easily build ecosystems to support human needs; for example insect pollination cannot be mimicked, and that activity alone represents tens of billions of dollars in ecosystem services per year to humankind.
Daisyworld simulations, supported by evidence from scientific studies, has proven the positive co-relation of biodiversity with ecosystem stability, protecting against disruption by extreme weather or human exploitation.
Number of species
According to the Global Taxonomy Initiative and the European Distributed Institute of Taxonomy, the total number of species for some phyla may be much higher than what was known in 2010:
- 10–30 million insects; (of some 0.9 million we know today)
- 5–10 million bacteria;
- 1.5 million fungi;(of some 0.075 million we know today)
- 1 million mites
- The number of microbial species is not reliably known, but the Global Ocean Sampling Expedition dramatically increased the estimates of genetic diversity by identifying an enormous number of new genes from near-surface plankton samples at various marine locations, initially over the 2004-2006 period. The findings may eventually cause a significant change in the way science defines species and other taxonomic categories.
Since the rate of extinction has increased, many extant species may become extinct before they are described.
Species loss rates
"No longer do we have to justify the existence of humid tropical forests on the feeble grounds that they might carry plants with with drugs that cure human disease. Gaia theory forces us to see that they offer much more than this. Through their capacity to evapotranspirate vast volumes of water vapor, they serve to keep the planet cool by wearing a sunshade of white reflecting cloud. Their replacement by cropland could precipitate a disaster that is global in scale"
During the last century, decreases in biodiversity have been increasingly observed. In 2007, German Federal Environment Minister Sigmar Gabriel cited estimates that up to 30% of all species will be extinct by 2050. Of these, about one eighth of known plant species are threatened with extinction. Estimates reach as high as 140,000 species per year (based on Species-area theory). This figure indicates unsustainable ecological practices, because few species emerge each year. Almost all scientists acknowledge that the rate of species loss is greater now than at any time in human history, with extinctions occurring at rates hundreds of times higher than background extinction rates.
Jared Diamond describes an "Evil Quartet" of habitat destruction, overkill, introduced species, and secondary extinctions. Edward O. Wilson prefers the acronym HIPPO, standing for habitat destruction, invasive species, pollution, human over population, and over-harvesting. The most authoritative classification in use today is IUCN’s Classification of Direct Threats which has been adopted by major international conservation organizations such as the US Nature Conservancy, the World Wildlife Fund, Conservation International, and Birdlife International.
Habitat destruction has played a key role in extinctions, especially related to tropical forest destruction. Factors contributing to habitat loss are: overpopulation, deforestation, pollution (air pollution, water pollution, soil contamination) and global warming or climate change.
Habitat size and numbers of species are systematically related. Physically larger species and those living at lower latitudes or in forests or oceans are more sensitive to reduction in habitat area. Conversion to "trivial" standardized ecosystems (e.g., monoculture following deforestation) effectively destroys habitat for the more diverse species that preceded the conversion. In some countries lack of property rights or lax law/regulatory enforcement necessarily leads to biodiversity loss (degradation costs having to be supported by the community).
A 2007 study conducted by the National Science Foundation found that biodiversity and genetic diversity are codependent—that diversity among species requires diversity within a species, and vice versa. "If any one type is removed from the system, the cycle can break down, and the community becomes dominated by a single species." At present, the most threatened ecosystems are found in fresh water, according to the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005, which was confirmed by the "Freshwater Animal Diversity Assessment", organised by the biodiversity platform, and the French Institut de recherche pour le développement (MNHNP).
Co-extinctions are a form of habitat destruction. Co-extinction occurs when the extinction or decline in one accompanies the other, such as in plants and beetles.
Introduced and invasive species
Barriers such as large rivers, seas, oceans, mountains and deserts encourage diversity by enabling independent evolution on either side of the barrier. Invasive species occur when those barriers are blurred. Without barriers such species occupy new niches, substantially reducing diversity. Repeatedly humans have helped these species circumvent these barriers, introducing them for food and other purposes. This has occurred on a time scale much shorter than the eons that historically have been required for a species to extend its range.
Not all introduced species are invasive, nor all invasive species deliberately introduced. In cases such as the zebra mussel, invasion of US waterways was unintentional. In other cases, such as mongooses in Hawaii, the introduction is deliberate but ineffective (nocturnal rats were not vulnerable to the diurnal mongoose). In other cases, such as oil palms in Indonesia and Malaysia, the introduction produces substantial economic benefits, but the benefits are accompanied by costly unintended consequences.
Finally, an introduced species may unintentionally injure a species that depends on the species it replaces. In Belgium, Prunus spinosa from Eastern Europe leafs much sooner than its West European counterparts, disrupting the feeding habits of the Thecla betulae butterfly (which feeds on the leaves). Introducing new species often leaves endemic and other local species unable to compete with the exotic species and unable to survive. The exotic organisms may be predators, parasites, or may simply outcompete indigenous species for nutrients, water and light.
At present, several countries have already imported so many exotic species, particularly agricultural and ornamental plants, that their own indigenous fauna/flora may be outnumbered.
Endemic species can be threatened with extinction through the process of genetic pollution, i.e. uncontrolled hybridization, introgression and genetic swamping. Genetic pollution leads to homogenization or replacement of local genomes as a result of either a numerical and/or fitness advantage of an introduced species. Hybridization and introgression are side-effects of introduction and invasion. These phenomena can be especially detrimental to rare species that come into contact with more abundant ones. The abundant species can interbreed with the rare species, swamping its gene pool. This problem is not always apparent from morphological (outward appearance) observations alone. Some degree of gene flow is normal adaptation, and not all gene and genotype constellations can be preserved. However, hybridization with or without introgression may, nevertheless, threaten a rare species' existence.
Overexploitation occurs when a resource is consumed at an unsustainable rate. This occurs on land in the form of overhunting, excessive logging, poor soil conservation in agriculture and the illegal wildlife trade. Joe Walston, director of the Wildlife Conservation Society’s Asian programs, called the latter the "single largest threat" to biodiversity in Asia. The international trade of endangered species is second in size only to drug trafficking.
Hybridization, genetic pollution/erosion and food security
In agriculture and animal husbandry, the Green Revolution popularized the use of conventional hybridization to increase yield. Often hybridized breeds originated in developed countries and were further hybridized with local varieties in the developing world to create high yield strains resistant to local climate and diseases. Local governments and industry have been pushing hybridization. Formerly huge gene pools of various wild and indigenous breeds have collapsed causing widespread genetic erosion and genetic pollution. This has resulted in loss of genetic diversity and biodiversity as a whole.
(GM organisms) have genetic material altered by genetic engineering procedures such as recombinant DNA technology. GM crops have become a common source for genetic pollution, not only of wild varieties but also of domesticated varieties derived from classical hybridization.
Genetic erosion coupled with genetic pollution may be destroying unique genotypes, thereby creating a hidden crisis which could result in a severe threat to our food security. Diverse genetic material could cease to exist which would impact our ability to further hybridize food crops and livestock against more resistant diseases and climatic changes.
Global warming is also considered to be a major threat to global biodiversity. For example coral reefs -which are biodiversity hotspots- will be lost in 20 to 40 years if global warming continues at the current trend.
In 2004, an international collaborative study on four continents estimated that 10 percent of species would become extinct by 2050 because of global warming. "We need to limit climate change or we wind up with a lot of species in trouble, possibly extinct," said Dr. Lee Hannah, a co-author of the paper and chief climate change biologist at the Center for Applied Biodiversity Science at Conservation International.
From 1950 to 2011, world population increased from 2.5 billion to 7 billion and is forecast to reach a plateau of more than 9 billion during the 21st century. Sir David King, former chief scientific adviser to the UK government, told a parliamentary inquiry: "It is self-evident that the massive growth in the human population through the 20th century has had more impact on biodiversity than any other single factor."
The Holocene extinction
Rates of decline in biodiversity in this sixth mass extinction match or exceed rates of loss in the five previous mass extinction events in the fossil record. Loss of biodiversity results in the loss of natural capital that supplies ecosystem goods and services. The economic value of 17 ecosystem services for Earth's biosphere (calculated in 1997) has an estimated value of US$ 33 trillion (3.3x1013) per year.
The conservation ethic advocates management of natural resources for the purpose of sustaining biodiversity in species, ecosystems, the evolutionary process, and human culture and society.
Conservation biology is reforming around strategic plans to protect biodiversity. Preserving global biodiversity is a priority in strategic conservation plans that are designed to engage public policy and concerns affecting local, regional and global scales of communities, ecosystems, and cultures. Action plans identify ways of sustaining human well-being, employing natural capital, market capital, and ecosystem services.
Protection and restoration techniques
Exotic species removal allows less competitive species to recover their ecological niches. Exotic species that have become a pest can be identified taxonomically (e.g. with Digital Automated Identification SYstem (DAISY), using the barcode of life. Removal is practical only given large groups of individuals due to the econimic cost.
Once the preservation of the remaining native species in an area is assured. "missing" species can be identified and reintroduced using databases such as the Encyclopedia of Life and the Global Biodiversity Information Facility.
- Biodiversity banking places a monetary value on biodiversity. One example is the Australian Native Vegetation Management Framework.
- Gene banks are collections of specimens and genetic material. Some banks intend to reintroduce banked species to the ecosystem (e.g. via tree nurseries).
- Reducing and better targeting of pesticides allows more species to survive in agricultural and urbanized areas.
- Location-specific approaches are less useful for protecting migratory species. One approach is to create wildlife corridors that correspond to the animals' movements. National and other boundaries can complicate corridor creation.
Focusing on limited areas of higher potential biodiversity promises greater immediate return on investment than spreading resources evenly or focusing on areas of little diversity but greater interest in biodiversity.
A second strategy focuses on areas that retain most of their original diversity, which typically require little or no restoration. These are typically non-urbanized, non-agricultural areas. Tropical areas often fit both criteria, given their natively high diversity and relative lack of development.
Biodiversity is taken into account in some political and judicial decisions:
- The relationship between law and ecosystems is very ancient and has consequences for biodiversity. It is related to private and public property rights. It can define protection for threatened ecosystems, but also some rights and duties (for example, fishing and hunting rights).
- Law regarding species is more recent. It defines species that must be protected because they may be threatened by extinction. The U.S. Endangered Species Act is an example of an attempt to address the "law and species" issue.
- Laws regarding gene pools are only about a century old. Domestication and plant breeding methods are not new, but advances in genetic engineering has led to tighter laws covering distribution of genetically modified organisms, gene patents and process patents. Governments struggle to decide whether to focus on for example, genes, genomes, or organisms and species.
Global agreements such as the Convention on Biological Diversity), give "sovereign national rights over biological resources" (not property). The agreements commit countries to "conserve biodiversity", "develop resources for sustainability" and "share the benefits" resulting from their use. Biodiverse countries that allow bioprospecting or collection of natural products, expect a share of the benefits rather than allowing the individual or institution that discovers/exploits the resource to capture them privately. Bioprospecting can become a type of biopiracy when such principles are not respected.
Sovereignty principles can rely upon what is better known as Access and Benefit Sharing Agreements (ABAs). The Convention on Biodiversity implies informed consent between the source country and the collector, to establish which resource will be used and for what, and to settle on a fair agreement on benefit sharing.
Uniform approval for use of biodiversity as a legal standard has not been achieved, however. Bosselman argues that biodiversity should not be used as a legal standard, claiming that the remaining areas of scientific uncertainty cause unacceptable administrative waste and increase litigation without promoting preservation goals.
Taxonomic and size relationships
Less than 1% of all species that have been described have been studied beyond simply noting their existence. The vast majority of Earth's species are microbial. Contemporary biodiversity physics is "firmly fixated on the visible [macroscopic] world". For example, microbial life is metabolically and environmentally more diverse than multicellular life (see e.g., extremophile). "On the tree of life, based on analyses of small-subunit ribosomal RNA, visible life consists of barely noticeable twigs. The inverse relationship of size and population recurs higher on the evolutionary ladder—"to a first approximation, all multicellular species on Earth are insects". Insect extinction rates are high—supporting the Holocene extinction hypothesis.
- ^ Raup, D. M. (1994). "The role of extinction in evolution". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 91 (15): 6758–6763. Bibcode 1994PNAS...91.6758R. doi:10.1073/pnas.91.15.6758. PMC 44280. PMID 8041694. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=44280.
- ^ a b Sahney, S., Benton, M.J. & Falcon-Lang, H.J. (2010). "Rainforest collapse triggered Pennsylvanian tetrapod diversification in Euramerica" (PDF). Geology 38 (12): 1079–1082. doi:10.1130/G31182.1. http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/cgi/content/abstract/38/12/1079.
- ^ a b Sahney, S. and Benton, M.J. (2008). "Recovery from the most profound mass extinction of all time" (PDF). Proceedings of the Royal Society: Biological 275 (1636): 759–65. doi:10.1098/rspb.2007.1370. PMC 2596898. PMID 18198148. http://journals.royalsociety.org/content/qq5un1810k7605h5/fulltext.pdf.
- ^ Bambach, R.K.; Knoll, A.H.; Wang, S.C. (December 2004). "Origination, extinction, and mass depletions of marine diversity". Paleobiology 30 (4): 522–42. doi:10.1666/0094-8373(2004)030<0522:OEAMDO>2.0.CO;2. ISSN 0094-8373. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa4067/is_200410/ai_n9458414/. Retrieved 2008-01-24.
- ^ Sala, Osvaldo E.; Meyerson, Laura A.; Parmesan, Camille (26 January 2009). Biodiversity change and human health: from ecosystem services to spread of disease. Island Press. pp. 3–5. ISBN 9781597264976. http://books.google.com/books?id=x6WBmO8Muc4C&pg=PA2. Retrieved 28 June 2011.
- ^ Dasmann, R. F. 1968. A Different Kind of Country. MacMillan Company, New York. ISBN 0-02-072810-7.
- ^ M. E. Soulé and B. A. Wilcox. 1980. Conservation Biology: An Evolutionary-Ecological Perspective. Sinauer Associates. Sunderland, Massachusetts.
- ^ "Robert E. Jenkins". Nature.org. 2011-08-18. http://www.nature.org/aboutus/index.htm. Retrieved 2011-09-24.
- ^ Edward O.Wilson, editor, Frances M.Peter, associate editor, Biodiversity, National Academy Press, March 1988 ISBN 0-309-03783-2 ; ISBN 0-309-03739-5 (pbk.), online edition
- ^ Global Biodiversity Assessment. UNEP, 1995, Annex 6, Glossary. ISBN 0-521-56481-6, used as source by "Biodiversity", Glossary of terms related to the CBD, Belgian Clearing-House Mechanism. Retrieved 2006-04-26.
- ^ Tor-Björn Larsson (2001). Biodiversity evaluation tools for European forests. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 178. ISBN 9788716164346. http://books.google.com/books?id=zeTU8QauENcC&pg=PA178. Retrieved 28 June 2011.
- ^ Davis. Intro To Env Engg (Sie), 4E. McGraw-Hill Education (India) Pvt Ltd. pp. 4–. ISBN 9780070671171. http://books.google.com/books?id=n0FvYeoHtAIC&pg=SA4-PA40. Retrieved 28 June 2011.
- ^ Campbell, AK (2003). "Save those molecules: molecular biodiversity and life". Journal of Applied Ecology 40 (2): 193–203. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2664.2003.00803.x.
- ^ a b Wilcox, Bruce A. 1984. In situ conservation of genetic resources: determinants of minimum area requirements. In National Parks, Conservation and Development, Proceedings of the World Congress on National Parks,, J.A. McNeely and K.R. Miller, Smithsonian Institution Press, pp. 18-30.
- ^ a b D. L. Hawksworth (1996). Biodiversity: measurement and estimation. Springer. p. 6. ISBN 9780412752209. http://books.google.com/books?id=E0F7zhnx1cgC&pg=PA6. Retrieved 28 June 2011.
- ^ Kevin J. Gaston & John I. Spicer. 2004. "Biodiversity: an introduction", Blackwell Publishing. 2nd Ed., ISBN 1-4051-1857-1(pbk.)
- ^ a b c d e f Sahney, S.; Benton, M.J.; Ferry, Paul (2010). "Links between global taxonomic diversity, ecological diversity and the expansion of vertebrates on land". Biology Letters (The Royal Society) 6 (4): 544–7. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2009.1024. PMC 2936204. PMID 20106856. http://rsbl.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/early/2010/01/22/rsbl.2009.1024.abstract.
- ^ "Endangered Species List Expands to 16,000". http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2006/05/0502_060502_endangered.html. Retrieved 2007-11-13.
- ^ Benton M. J. (2001). "Biodiversity on land and in the sea". Geological Journal 36 (3–4): 211–230. doi:10.1002/gj.877.
- ^ Currie, D. J., G. G. Mittelbach, H. V. Cornell, D. M. Kaufman, J. T. Kerr, T. Oberdorff, J.-F. Gu‚gan. 2004. A critical review of species-energy theory. Ecology Letters 7:1121-1134.
- ^ Allen A. P., Gillooly J. F., Savage V. M., Brown J. H. (2006). "Kinetic effects of temperature on rates of genetic divergence and speciation". PNAS 103 (24): 9130–9135. Bibcode 2006PNAS..103.9130A. doi:10.1073/pnas.0603587103. PMC 1474011. PMID 16754845. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1474011.
- ^ Hillebrand H (2004). "On the generality of the latitudinal diversity gradient". The American Naturalist 163 (2): 192–211. doi:10.1086/381004. PMID 14970922.
- ^ "Moustakas, A. & I. Karakassis. How diverse is aquatic biodiversity research?, Aquatic Ecology, 39, 367-375" (PDF). http://www.springerlink.com/content/p2q719335u606034/fulltext.pdf.
- ^ Serge Morand; Boris R. Krasnov (1 September 2010). The Biogeography of Host-Parasite Interactions. Oxford University Press. pp. 93–94. ISBN 9780199561353. http://books.google.com/books?id=08keK5vc888C&pg=PA93. Retrieved 28 June 2011.
- ^ Myers N (1988). "Threatened biotas: 'hot spots' in tropical forests". Environmentalist 8 (3): 187–208. doi:10.1007/BF02240252. PMID 12322582.
- ^ Myers N (1990). "The biodiversity challenge: expanded hot-spots analysis". Environmentalist 10 (4): 243–256. doi:10.1007/BF02239720. PMID 12322583.
- ^ Jeffrey K. McKee (December 2004). Sparing Nature: The Conflict Between Human Population Growth and Earth's Biodiversity. Rutgers University Press. p. 108. ISBN 9780813535586. http://books.google.com/books?id=omgIyInG8qEC&pg=PA108. Retrieved 28 June 2011.
- ^ John Francis (1 August 2008). Philosophy Of Mathematics. Global Vision Publishing Ho. pp. 129–. ISBN 9788182202672. http://books.google.com/books?id=6UGGgTXUJCEC&pg=PA129. Retrieved 28 June 2011.
- ^ Normile, Dennis (10 September 2010:). "Saving Forests to Save Biodiversity". Science 329 (5997): 1278–1280. Bibcode 2010Sci...329.1278N. doi:10.1126/science.329.5997.1278. PMID 20829464. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/329/5997/1278.summary?sid=3d8a15d7-279e-4177-a5f0-46743a80212a. Retrieved December, 2010.
- ^ White, The Natural History of Selborne, letter xx 8 October 1768.
- ^ Rosing, M.; Bird, D.; Sleep, N.; Bjerrum, C. (2010). "No climate paradox under the faint early Sun". Nature 464 (7289): 744–747. Bibcode 2010Natur.464..744R. doi:10.1038/nature08955. PMID 20360739.
- ^ Alroy, J; Marshall, CR; Bambach, RK; Bezusko, K; Foote, M; Fursich, FT; Hansen, TA; Holland, SM et al. (2001). "Effects of sampling standardization on estimates of Phanerozoic marine diversification". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 98 (11): 6261–6. Bibcode 2001PNAS...98.6261A. doi:10.1073/pnas.111144698. PMC 33456. PMID 11353852. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=33456.
- ^ a b "Mapping the web of life". Unep.org. http://www.unep.org/ourplanet/imgversn/85/heywood.html. Retrieved 2009-06-21.
- ^ Okasha, S. (2010). "Does diversity always grow?". Nature 466 (7304): 318. Bibcode 2010Natur.466..318O. doi:10.1038/466318a.
- ^ a b Markov, AV; Korotaev, AV (2008). "Hyperbolic growth of marine and continental biodiversity through the phanerozoic and community evolution". Journal of General Biology 69 (3): 175–94. PMID 18677962. http://elementy.ru/genbio/abstracts?artid=177.
- ^ Markov, A; Korotayev, A (2007). "Phanerozoic marine biodiversity follows a hyperbolic trend". Palaeoworld 16 (4): 311–318. doi:10.1016/j.palwor.2007.01.002.
- ^ National Survey Reveals Biodiversity Crisis American Museum of Natural History
- ^ a b Edward O. Wilson (2002). The Future of Life. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0679450785.
- ^ a b Costanza, Robert; D'arge, Ralph; De Groot, Rudolf; Farber, Stephen; Grasso, Monica; Hannon, Bruce; Limburg, Karin; Naeem, Shahid et al. (1997). "The value of the world's ecosystem services and natural capital". Nature 387 (6630): 253–260. Bibcode 1997Natur.387..253C. doi:10.1038/387253a0.
- ^ a b Hassan, Rashid M.; Robert Scholes, Neville Ash (2006). Ecosystems and human well-being: current state and trends : findings of the Condition and Trends Working Group of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Island Press. p. 105. ISBN 1559632283, 9781559632287. http://books.google.com/?id=UFVmiSAr-okC&pg=PA105&dq=biodiversity+species+extinction+rates+estimated#v=onepage&q=biodiversity%20species%20extinction%20rates%20estimated&f=false.
- ^ a b c "Rice Grassy Stunt Virus". Lumrix.net. http://www.lumrix.net/health/Rice_grassy_stunt_virus.html. Retrieved 2009-06-21.
- ^ Wahl, GM; Robert de Saint Vincent B; Derose, ML (1984). "Effect of chromosomal position on amplification of transfected genes in animal cells". Nature 307 (5951): 516–20. Bibcode 1984Natur.307..516W. doi:10.1038/307516a0. PMID 6694743.
- ^ "Southern Corn Leaf Blight". http://cropdisease.cropsci.illinois.edu/corn/southerncornleafblight.html. Retrieved 2007-11-13.
- ^ Reports of the 1st and 2nd International Conferences on Health and Biodiversity. See also: Website of the UN COHAB Initiative
- ^ a b Chivian E. & Bernstein A. (eds), 2008. Sustaining Life: How Human Health Depends on Biodiversity
- ^ Corvalan C. et al., 2005 Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Health Synthesis. A report of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment
- ^ (2009) "Climate Change and Biological Diversity" Convention on Biological Diversity Retrieved November 5, 2009, From http://www.cbd.int/climate/
- ^ Ramanujan, Krishna (2 December 2010). "Study: Loss of species is bad for your health". Cornell Chronicle. http://www.news.cornell.edu/stories/Dec10/BiodiversityHealth.html. Retrieved 20 July 2011.
- ^ Gaston, Kevin J.; Warren, Philip H.; Devine-Wright, Patrick; Irvine, Katherine N.; Fuller, Richard A. (2007). "Psychological benefits of greenspace increase with biodiversity". Biology Letters 3 (4): 390–394. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2007.0149. PMC 2390667. PMID 17504734. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2390667.
- ^ "COHAB Initiative: Biodiversity and Human Health - the issues". Cohabnet.org. http://www.cohabnet.org/en_issues.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-21.
- ^ "World Wildlife Fund (WWF): "Arguments for Protection" website". Wwf.panda.org. http://wwf.panda.org/what_we_do/how_we_work/protected_areas/arguments_for_protection/publications/. Retrieved 2011-09-24.
- ^ (2006) "Molecular Pharming" GMO Compass Retrieved November 5, 2009, GMOcompass.org
- ^ Harvey L., 2008. Natural products in drug discovery. Drug Discovery Today
- ^ Hawkins E.S., Reich; Reich, MR (1992). "Japanese-originated pharmaceutical products in the United States from 1960 to 1989: an assessment of innovation". Clin Pharmacol Ther 51 (1): 1–11. doi:10.1038/clpt.1992.1. PMID 1732073.
- ^ Roopesh, J. et al. (10 February 2008). "Marine organisms: Potential Source for Drug Discovery" (PDF). Current Science 94 (3): 292. http://www.ias.ac.in/currsci/feb102008/292.pdf.
- ^ Dhillion, SS; Svarstad, H; Amundsen, C; Bugge, HC (2002). "Bioprospecting: Effects on environment and development". Ambio 31 (6): 491–3. JSTOR 4315292. PMID 12436849.
- ^ Cole, A. (2005-07-16). "Looking for new compounds in sea is endangering ecosystem". BMJ 330 (7504): 1350. doi:10.1136/bmj.330.7504.1350-d.
- ^ "COHAB Initiative - on Natural Products and Medicinal Resources". Cohabnet.org. http://www.cohabnet.org/en_issue4.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-21.
- ^ IUCN, WRI, World Business Council for Sustainable Development, Earthwatch Inst. 2007 Business and Ecosystems: Ecosystem Challenges and Business Implications
- ^ Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005 Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Opportunities and Challenges for Business and Industry
- ^ "Business and Biodiversity webpage of the U.N. Convention on Biological Diversity". Cbd.int. http://www.cbd.int/business. Retrieved 2009-06-21.
- ^ WRI Corporate Ecosystem Services Review. See also: Examples of Ecosystem-Service Based Risks, Opportunities and Strategies
- ^ James Lovelock (28 September 2000). The ages of Gaia: a biography of our living Earth. Oxford University Press. pp. 213–216. ISBN 9780192862174. http://books.google.com/books?id=xW_T4jV9mFAC&pg=PA215. Retrieved 27 June 2011.
- ^ "Global taxonomy initiative stating that only 50 of arthropods and 5% of protozoa are already described". Cbd.int. http://www.cbd.int/gti/problem.shtml. Retrieved 2011-09-24.
- ^ "Encyclopedia Smithsonian: Numbers of Insects". Si.edu. http://www.si.edu/Encyclopedia_SI/nmnh/buginfo/bugnos.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-21.
- ^ Le Monde newspaper article (in French)
- ^ Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Census of Marine Life (CoML) News.BBC.co.uk
- ^ Hawksworth, D (2001). "The magnitude of fungal diversity: The 1.5 million species estimate revisited". Mycological Research 105 (12): 1422–1432. doi:10.1017/S0953756201004725.
- ^ "Acari at University of Michigan Museum of Zoology Web Page". Insects.ummz.lsa.umich.edu. 2003-11-10. http://insects.ummz.lsa.umich.edu/ACARI/index.html. Retrieved 2009-06-21.
- ^ "Fact Sheet - Expedition Overview" (PDF). J. Craig Venter Institute. http://www.jcvi.org/cms/fileadmin/site/research/projects/gos/Expedition_Overview.pdf. Retrieved August, 2010.
- ^ Mirsky, Steve (March 21, 2007). "Naturally Speaking: Finding Nature's Treasure Trove with the Global Ocean Sampling Expedition". Scientific American. http://www.scientificamerican.com/podcast/episode.cfm?id=74F46951-E7F2-99DF-37873C5B678DC19D. Retrieved 4 May 2011.
- ^ "Article collections published by the Public Library of Science". PLoS Collections. http://www.ploscollections.org/article/browseIssue.action?issue=info:doi/10.1371/issue.pcol.v06.i02. Retrieved 2011-09-24.
- ^ McKie, Robin (2005-09-25). "Discovery of new species and extermination at high rate". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2005/sep/25/taxonomy.conservationandendangeredspecies.
- ^ Richard E. Leakey; Roger Lewin (4 November 1996). The sixth extinction: biodiversity and its survival. Phoenix. pp. 137–142. ISBN 9781857994735. http://books.google.com/books?id=reogHQAACAAJ. Retrieved 27 June 2011.
- ^ Gabriel, Sigmar (2007-03-09). "30% of all species lost by 2050". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/6432217.stm.
- ^ a b "Reid Reversing loss of Biodiversity". Ag.arizona.edu. http://ag.arizona.edu/OALS/ALN/aln37/reid.html. Retrieved 2009-06-21.
- ^ Pimm, S. L.; Russell, G. J.; Gittleman, J. L.; Brooks, T. M. (1995). "The Future of Biodiversity" (PDF). Science 269 (5222): 347–350. Bibcode 1995Sci...269..347P. doi:10.1126/science.269.5222.347. PMID 17841251. http://cmbc.ucsd.edu/content/1/docs/Pimm_et_al_1995.pdf.
- ^ Sanderson, James; Moulton, Michael (August 18, 1998). Wildlife Issues in a Changing World, Second Edition [Paperback]. CRC Press. ISBN 978-1566703512.
- ^ Jim Chen (2003). "Across the Apocalypse on Horseback: Imperfect Legal Responses to Biodiversity Loss". The Jurisdynamics of Environmental Protection: Change and the Pragmatic. Environmental Law Institute. p. 197. ISBN 1585760714.
- ^ "Hippo dilemma". Windows on the Wild: Science and Sustainabiliy. New Africa Books. 2005. ISBN 1869283805.
- ^ "IUCN's Classification of Direct Threats". Conservationmeasures.org. http://www.conservationmeasures.org/initiatives/threats-actions-taxonomies/threats-taxonomy. Retrieved 2011-09-24.
- ^ Paul Ehrlich and Anne Ehrlich, Extinction, Random House, New York (1981) ISBN 0-394-51312-6
- ^ C.Michael Hogan. 2010. Deforestation Encyclopedia of Earth. ed. C.Cleveland. NCSE. Washington DC
- ^ Drakare, Stina; Lennon, Jack J.; Hillebrand, Helmut (2006). "The imprint of the geographical, evolutionary and ecological context on species-area relationships". Ecology Letters 9 (2): 215–227. doi:10.1111/j.1461-0248.2005.00848.x. PMID 16958886.
- ^ "Study: Loss Of Genetic Diversity Threatens Species Diversity". Enn.com. 2007-09-26. http://www.enn.com/wildlife/article/23391. Retrieved 2009-06-21.
- ^ Science Connection 22 (July 2008)
- ^ Koh L. P., Dunn R. R., Sodhi N. S., Colwell R. K., Proctor H. C., Smith V. S. (2004). "Species Coextinctions and the Biodiversity Crisis" (PDF). Science 305 (5690): 1632–4. Bibcode 2004Sci...305.1632K. doi:10.1126/science.1101101. PMID 15361627. Archived from the original on 2009-03-26. http://web.archive.org/web/20090326052836/http://www4.ncsu.edu/~rrdunn/KohDunnetal.pdf.
- ^ Mooney, H. A.; Cleland, EE (2001). "The evolutionary impact of invasive species". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 98 (10): 5446–5451. Bibcode 2001PNAS...98.5446M. doi:10.1073/pnas.091093398. PMC 33232. PMID 11344292. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=33232.
- ^ "Glossary: definitions from the following publication: Aubry, C., R. Shoal and V. Erickson. 2005. Grass cultivars: their origins, development, and use on national forests and grasslands in the Pacific Northwest. USDA Forest Service. 44 pages, plus appendices.; Native Seed Network (NSN), Institute for Applied Ecology, 563 SW Jefferson Ave, Corvallis, OR 97333, USA". Nativeseednetwork.org. http://www.nativeseednetwork.org/article_view?id=13. Retrieved 2009-06-21.
- ^ Rhymer, Judith M.; Simberloff, Daniel (1996). "Extinction by Hybridization and Introgression". Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 27: 83–109. doi:10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.27.1.83. JSTOR 2097230.
- ^ RIRDC.gov.au, Genetic Pollution from Farm Forestry using!! eucalypt species and hybrids; A report for the RIRDC/L&WA/FWPRDC; Joint Venture Agroforestry Program; by Brad M. Potts, Robert C. Barbour, Andrew B. Hingston; September 2001; RIRDC Publication No 01/114; RIRDC Project No CPF - 3A; ISBN 0-642-58336-6; ISSN 1440-6845; Australian Government, Rural Industrial Research and Development Corporation[dead link]
- ^ "Restaurants Selling Exotic Meats[dead link]" The New York Times. September 3, 2010
- ^ "Will traditional Chinese medicine mean the end of the wild tiger?". San Francisco Chronicle. November 11, 2007.
- ^ Grafton, R. Q.; Kompas, T.; Hilborn, R. W. (2007). "Economics of Overexploitation Revisited". Science 318 (5856): 1601–1601. Bibcode 2007Sci...318.1601G. doi:10.1126/science.1146017.
- ^ Burney, D. A.; Flannery, T. F. (July 2005). "Fifty millennia of catastrophic extinctions after human contact". Trends in Ecology & Evolution (Elsevier) 20 (7): 395–401. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2005.04.022. PMID 16701402. http://www.anthropology.hawaii.edu/Fieldschools/Kauai/Publications/Publication%204.pdf. Retrieved 2009-06-12.
- ^ a b "Genetic Pollution: The Great Genetic Scandal";
- ^ Pollan, Michael (2001-12-09). "The year in ideas: A TO Z.; Genetic Pollution; By Michael Pollan, The New York Times, December 9, 2001". New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C01E6DE143CF93AA35751C1A9679C8B63. Retrieved 2009-06-21.
- ^ Ellstrand, Norman C. (2003). Dangerous Liaisons? When Cultivated Plants Mate with Their Wild Relatives. The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-7405-X. http://www.nature.com/nbt/journal/v22/n1/full/nbt0104-29.html. Reviewed in Strauss, Steven H; DiFazio, Stephen P (2004-01-01). "Hybrids abounding". Nature Biotechnology (Nature.com) 22 (1): 29–30. doi:10.1038/nbt0104-29.
- ^ Zaid, A. (1999). Genetic pollution: Uncontrolled spread of genetic information (frequently referring to transgenes) into the genomes of organisms in which such genes are not present in nature.. Fao.org. ISBN 92-5-104369-8. http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/003/X3910E/X3910E00.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-21.
- ^ "Genetic pollution: Uncontrolled escape of genetic information (frequently referring to products of genetic engineering) into the genomes of organisms in the environment where those genes never existed before." Searchable Biotechnology Dictionary[dead link], University of Minnesota, Boku.ac.at
- ^ <Please add first missing authors to populate metadata.>. "The many facets of pollution". Scienzagiovane.unibo.it (Bologna University). http://www.scienzagiovane.unibo.it/English/pollution/2-facets.html. Retrieved 2009-06-21.
- ^ "Coral reefs to be destroyed in 20-40 years". Mnn.com. 2008-12-10. http://www.mnn.com/earth-matters/wilderness-resources/stories/15-of-coral-reefs-already-lost-much-more-feared. Retrieved 2009-06-21. [dead link]
- ^ Brown, Paul (2004-01-08). "An unnatural disaster". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2004/jan/08/biodiversity.sciencenews. Retrieved 2009-06-21.
- ^ "World Population Growth, 1950–2050". Population Reference Bureau.
- ^ "Citizens arrest". The Guardian. July 11, 2007.
- ^ "Population Bomb Author's Fix For Next Extinction: Educate Women". Scientific American. August 12, 2008.
- ^ a b Wake D. B., Vredenburg V. T. (2008). "Are we in the midst of the sixth mass extinction? A view from the world of amphibians". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105: 11466–11473. Bibcode 2008PNAS..10511466W. doi:10.1073/pnas.0801921105. PMC 2556420. PMID 18695221. http://www.pnas.org/content/105/suppl.1/11466.full.pdf+html.
- ^ Koh, LP; Dunn, RR; Sodhi, NS; Colwell, RK; Proctor, HC; Smith, VS (2004). "Species coextinctions and the biodiversity crisis". Science 305 (5690): 1632–4. Bibcode 2004Sci...305.1632K. doi:10.1126/science.1101101. PMID 15361627. http://www4.ncsu.edu/~rrdunn/KohDunnetal.pdfNCSU.edu. [dead link]
- ^ McCallum M. L. (2007). "Amphibian Decline or Extinction? Current Declines Dwarf Background Extinction Rate" (PDF). Journal of Herpetology 41 (3): 483–491. doi:10.1670/0022-1511(2007)41[483:ADOECD]2.0.CO;2. ISSN 0022-1511. https://www.herpconbio.org/~herpconb/McCallum/amphibian%20extinctions.pdf.
- ^ Jackson, J. B. C. (2008). "Colloquium Paper: Ecological extinction and evolution in the brave new ocean". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105: 11458–11465. Bibcode 2008PNAS..10511458J. doi:10.1073/pnas.0802812105. PMC 2556419. PMID 18695220. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2556419.
- ^ Dunn R. R. (2005). "Modern Insect Extinctions, the Neglected Majority" (PDF). Conservation Biology 19 (4): 1030–1036. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2005.00078.x. http://www4.ncsu.edu/~rrdunn/InsectExtinctionPDF.pdf. [dead link]
- ^ Costanza, R.; d'Arge, R.; de Groot, R.; Farberk, S.; Grasso, M.; Hannon, B.; et al., Karin; Naeem, Shahid et al. (1997). "The value of the world's ecosystem services and natural capital". Nature 387 (6630): 253–260. Bibcode 1997Natur.387..253C. doi:10.1038/387253a0. http://www.uvm.edu/giee/publications/Nature_Paper.pdf.
- ^ Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005). Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Biodiversity Synthesis. World Resources Institute, Washington, DC. [dead link]
- ^ a b c Soule M. E.; Soule, Michael E. (1986). "What is conservation biology?"". BioScience 35 (11): 727–734. doi:10.2307/1310054. JSTOR 1310054.
- ^ P. Davis (1996). Museums and the Natural Environment. Leicester University Press.
- ^ a b F. van Dyke (2008). Conservation Biology: Foundations, Concepts, Applications, 2nd ed. Springer Verlag. pp. 478. ISBN 978-1-4020-6890-4 (hc).
- ^ Hunter, M. L. (1996). Fundamentals of Conservation Biology. Blackwell Science Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts. ISBN 0-86542-371-7.
- ^ B. W. Bowen (1999). "Preserving genes, species, or ecosystems? Healing the fractured foundations of conservation policy". Molecular Ecology, 8:S5-S10.
- ^ M. E. Soule (ed.) (1986). Conservation Biology: The science of scarcity and diversity. Sinauer Associates Inc.
- ^ Margules C. R., Pressey R. L. (2000). "Systematic conservation planning" (PDF). Nature 405 (6783): 243–253. doi:10.1038/35012251. PMID 10821285. http://www.geography.ryerson.ca/jmaurer/411SystConservPlan.pdf.
- ^ Example: Gascon, C., Collins, J. P., Moore, R. D., Church, D. R., McKay, J. E. and Mendelson, J. R. III (eds) (2007). Amphibian Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. 64pp. Amphibians.org[dead link], see also Milleniumassesment.org, Europa.eu
- ^ Luck, Gary W.; Daily, Gretchen C.; Ehrlich, Paul R. (2003). "Population diversity and ecosystem services" (PDF). Trends in Ecology & Evolution 18 (7): 331–336. doi:10.1016/S0169-5347(03)00100-9. http://www.ese.u-psud.fr/epc/conservation/PDFs/luck.pdf. [dead link]
- ^ Millenniumassessment.org[dead link]
- ^ "Barcode of Life". Barcoding.si.edu. 2010-05-26. http://www.barcoding.si.edu/. Retrieved 2011-09-24.
- ^ Eradication of exotic animals (camels) in Australia[dead link]
- ^ "Belgium creating 45 "seed gardens"; gene banks with intent to reintroduction". Hbvl.be. 2011-09-08. http://www.hbvl.be/Archief/guid/vlaanderen-heeft-45-zaadtuinen-voor-autochtone-bomen-en-struiken.aspx?artikel=0935212d-8b19-45a4-9cda-167ff68d347c. Retrieved 2011-09-24.
- ^ "Economics of biodiversity". Sciencedirect.com. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B7GJ6-4WSWYJV-1&_user=10&_coverDate=12%2F31%2F2009&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=gateway&_origin=gateway&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=cbb65f7275ea31c73b8e6e7f50e19e49&searchtype=a. Retrieved 2011-09-24.
- ^ "Gene Patenting". Ornl.gov. http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/patents.shtml. Retrieved 2009-06-21.
- ^ "Fred Bosselman, A Dozen Biodiversity Puzzles, 12 N.Y.U. Environmental Law Journal 364 (2004)" (PDF). http://www1.law.nyu.edu/journals/envtllaw/issues/vol12/bosselman-for%20web.pdf. Retrieved 2011-09-24.
- ^ Wilson Edward O (2000). "On the Future of Conservation Biology". Conservation Biology 14 (1): 1–3. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1739.2000.00000-e1.x.
- ^ Nee S (2004). "More than meets the eye". Nature 429 (6994): 804–805. Bibcode 2004Natur.429..804N. doi:10.1038/429804a. PMID 15215837.
- ^ Stork, Nigel E. (2007). "Biodiversity: World of insects". Nature 448 (7154): 657–658. Bibcode 2007Natur.448..657S. doi:10.1038/448657a. PMID 17687315.
- ^ Thomas J. A., Telfer M. G., Roy D. B., Preston C. D., Greenwood J. J. D., Asher J., Fox R., Clarke R. T. et al. (2004). "Comparative Losses of British Butterflies, Birds, and Plants and the Global Extinction Crisis". Science 303 (5665): 1879–1881. Bibcode 2004Sci...303.1879T. doi:10.1126/science.1095046. PMID 15031508. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/303/5665/1879.abstract.
- ^ Dunn, Robert R. (2005). "Modern Insect Extinctions, the Neglected Majority". Conservation Biology 19 (4): 1030–1036. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2005.00078.x.
- Leveque, C. & J. Mounolou (2003) Biodiversity. New York: John Wiley. ISBN 0-470-84957-6
- Margulis, L., Dolan, Delisle, K., Lyons, C. Diversity of Life: The Illustrated Guide to the Five Kingdoms. Sudbury: Jones & Bartlett Publishers. ISBN 0-7637-0862-3
- Alexander V. Markov, and Andrey V. Korotayev (2007) "Phanerozoic marine biodiversity follows a hyperbolic trend" Palaeoworld 16(4): pp. 311–318.
- Moustakas, A. & I. Karakassis (in press). A geographic analysis of the published aquatic biodiversity research in relation to the ecological footprint of the country where the work was done. Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment, Doi: 10.1007/s00477-008-0254-2.
- Novacek, M. J. (ed.) (2001) The Biodiversity Crisis: Losing What Counts. New York: American Museum of Natural History Books. ISBN 1-56584-570-6
- D+C-Interview with Achim Steiner, UNEP: "Our generation's responsibility
- A collection of articles from the David Suzuki Foundation on Protecting Biodiversity
- How many species on Earth?
- ECNC-European Centre for Nature Conservation
- The WILD Foundation and CEMEX Collaborate on International Wilderness and Biodiversity Conservation in Mexico
- COHAB Initiative: The importance of biodiversity to human health and well-being
- NatureServe: This site serves as a portal for accessing several types of publicly available biodiversity data
- Internet sources about biodiversity (presented for the International Year of Biodiversity 2010 by vifabio)
- The Canine Diversity Project
- Biodiversity research in agriculture, Swiss Agricultural Research Station Agroscope
- LiveDiverse project
- About Biodiversity, Human Well-being & Botanic Gardens Botanic Gardens Conservation International]
- Study: Loss of species is bad for your health
- Biodiversity Synthesis Report (PDF) by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA, 2005)
- Convention on Biological Diversity Text of the Convention
- Conservation International hotspot map
- Waylen, K. 2006. Botanic Gardens: Using biodiversity to improve human well-being Botanic Gardens Conservation International (BGCI)
- GLOBIO, an ongoing programme to map the past, current and future impacts of human activities on biodiversity
- World Map of Biodiversity an interactive map from the United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre
- Scheldeman, X. & van Zonneveld, M. (2010). Training Manual on Spatial Analysis of Plant Diversity and Distribution. Bioversity International. http://www.bioversityinternational.org/training/training_materials/gis_manual.html.
- Automatic acoustic Monitoring and Inventorying of BIOdiversity
- Biodiversity Heritage Library - Open access digital library of taxonomic literature.
- Biodiversity of Altai-Sayan Ecoregion.
- Biodiversity at the Open Directory Project
- Encyclopedia of Life - Documenting all species of life on earth.
- Tree of Life - Relationships & characteristics of all life on earth.
- National Biodiversity Network - NBN Gateway.
- Microdocs, Diversity.
- Economics of Species protection & Management NOAA Economics
Zoos, aquariums, and aviaries Types of zoos Conservation Lists Animals Other topics
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.