- Sustainable development
Sustainable development is a pattern of resource use that aims to meet human needs while preserving the environment so that these needs can be met not only in the present, but in the indefinite future. The term was used by the
Brundtland Commissionwhich coined what has become the most often-quoted definition of sustainable development as developmentthat "meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs." [United Nations. 1987. [http://www.un.org/documents/ga/res/42/ares42-187.htm "Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development."] General Assembly Resolution 42/187, 11 December 1987. Retrieved: 2007-04-12]
Sustainable development ties together concern for the
carrying capacityof natural systems with the social challenges facing humanity. As early as the 1970s "sustainability" was employed to describe an economy"in equilibrium with basic ecological support systems" (Stivers, 1976: 187) [Stivers, R. 1976. The Sustainable Society: Ethics and Economic Growth. Philadelphia: Westminster Press.] . Ecologists have pointed to the “limits of growth” (Meadows, Meadows, Randers, & Behrens, 1971) [Meadows, D., Meadows, D. L., Randers, J., & Behrens, W. 1971. The Limits to Growth. New York: Universe Books.] and presented the alternative of a “steady state economy” (Daly, 1973, 1991) [Daly, H. E. 1973. Towards a Steady State Economy. San Francisco: Freeman. Daly, H. E. 1991. Steady-State Economics (2nd ed.). Washington, D.C.: Island Press.] in order to address environmental concerns.
cope and definitions
The concept has included notions of weak
sustainability, strong sustainability and deep ecology.Sustainable development does not focus solely on environmental issues. The United Nations 2005 World SummitOutcome Document refers to the "interdependent and mutually reinforcing pillars" of sustainable development as economic development, social development, and environmental protection. [ [http://www.who.int/hiv/universalaccess2010/worldsummit.pdf 2005 World Summit Outcome Document] , World Health Organization, 15 September2005]
Indigenous people have argued, through various international forums such as the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues and the Convention on Biological Diversity, that there are "four" pillars of sustainable development, the fourth being cultural. "The Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity" (
UNESCO, 2001) further elaborates the concept by stating that "...cultural diversity is as necessary for humankind as biodiversity is for nature”; it becomes “one of the roots of development understood not simply in terms of economic growth, but also as a means to achieve a more satisfactory intellectual, emotional, moral and spiritual existence". In this vision, cultural diversity is the fourth policy area of sustainable development.
Agenda 21clearly identified information, integration, and participation as key building blocks to help countries achieve development that recognises these interdependent pillars. It emphasises that in sustainable development everyone is a user and provider of information. It stresses the need to change from old sector-centred ways of doing business to new approaches that involve cross-sectoral co-ordination and the integration of environmental and social concerns into all development processes. Furthermore, Agenda 21 emphasises that broad public participation in decision making is a fundamental prerequisite for achieving sustainable development. [Will Allen. 2007. [http://learningforsustainability.net/susdev/ "Learning for Sustainability: Sustainable Development."] ]
According to Hasna, sustainability is a process which tells of a development of all aspects of human life affecting sustenance. It means resolving the conflict between the various competing goals, and involves the simultaneous pursuit of economic prosperity, environmental quality and social equity famously known as three dimensions (triple bottom line) with is the resultant vector being technology, hence it is a continually evolving process; the ‘journey’ (the process of achieving sustainability) is of course vitally important, but only as a means of getting to the destination (the desired future state). However,the ‘destination’ of sustainability is not a fixed place in the normal sense that we understand destination. Instead, it is a set of wishful characteristics of a future system. [cite journal |last=Hasna |first=A. M. |authorlink= |coauthors= |year=2007 |month= |title=Dimensions of sustainability |journal=Journal of Engineering for Sustainable Development: Energy, Environment, and Health |volume=2 |issue=1 |pages=47–57 |id= |url= |accessdate= |quote=]
Green developmentis generally differentiated from sustainable development in that Green development prioritizes what its proponents consider to be environmental sustainability over economic and cultural considerations. Proponents of Sustainable Development argue that it provides a context in which to improve overall sustainability where cutting edge Green development is unattainable. For example, a cutting edge treatment plant with extremely high maintenance costs may not be sustainable in regions of the world with fewer financial resources. An environmentally ideal plant that is shut down due to bankruptcy is obviously less sustainable than one that is maintainable by the community, even if it is somewhat less effective from an environmental standpoint.
Some research activities start from this definition to argue that the environment is a combination of nature and culture. The Network of Excellence "Sustainable Development in a Diverse World", [ [http://www.susdiv.org/ SUS.DIV] ] sponsored by the
European Union, integrates multidisciplinary capacities and interprets cultural diversityas a key element of a new strategy for sustainable development.
Still other researchers view environmental and social challenges as opportunities for development action. This is particularly true in the concept of sustainable enterprise that frames these global needs as opportunities for private enterprise to provide innovative and entrepreneurial solutions. This view is now being taught at many business schools including the
Center for Sustainable Global Enterpriseat Cornell Universityand the Erb Institutefor Global Sustainable Enterprise at the University of Michigan.
United NationsDivision for Sustainable Development lists the following areas as coming within the scope of sustainable development: [United Nations Division for sustainable Development. [http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/documents/docs_sdissues.htm Documents: Sustainable Development Issues] Retrieved: 2007-05-12]
*International Cooperation for Enabling Environment
*National Sustainable Development Strategies
Oceans and Seas
Sustainable development is an eclectic concept, as a wide array of views fall under its umbrella. The concept has included notions of weak sustainability, strong sustainability and
deep ecology. Different conceptions also reveal a strong tension between ecocentrismand anthropocentrism. The concept remains weakly defined and contains a large amount of debate as to its precise definition.
During the last ten years, different organizations have tried to measure and monitor the proximity to what they consider sustainability by implementing what has been called
sustainability metrics and indices.
Sustainable development is said to set limits on the developing world. While current first world countries polluted significantly during their development, the same countries encourage
third world countriesto reduce pollution, which sometimes impedes growth. Some consider that the implementation of sustainable development would mean a reversion to pre-modern lifestyles. [http://www.menominee.edu/sdi/whatis.htm What Is Sustainable Development? ] ]
Others have criticized the overuse of the term:
:" [The] word sustainable has been used in too many situations today, and ecological sustainability is one of those terms that confuse a lot of people. You hear about sustainable development, sustainable growth, sustainable economies, sustainable societies, sustainable agriculture. Everything is sustainable (Temple, 1992)."
Environmental sustainability is the process of making sure current processes of interaction with the environment are pursued with the idea of keeping the environment as pristine as naturally possible based on
An "unsustainable situation" occurs when
natural capital(the sum total of nature's resources) is used up faster than it can be replenished. Sustainabilityrequires that human activity only uses nature's resources at a rate at which they can be replenished naturally. Inherently the concept of sustainable development is intertwined with the concept of carrying capacity. Theoretically, the long-term result of environmental degradation is the inability to sustain human life. Such degradation on a global scale could imply extinctionfor humanity.
The Notion of Capital in Sustainable Development
The sustainable development debate is based on the assumption that societies need to manage three types of capital (economic, social, and natural), which may be non-substitutable and whose consumption might be irreversible. [Dyllick, T. & Hockerts, K. 2002. Beyond the business case for corporate sustainability. Business Strategy and the Environment, 11(2): 130-141] Daily (1991), [Daly, H. E. 1973. Towards a Steady State Economy. San Francisco: Freeman.] for example, points to the fact that natural capital can not necessarily be substituted by economic capital. While it is possible that we can find ways to replace some natural resources, it is much more unlikely that they will ever be able to replace eco-system services, such as the protection provided by the ozone layer, or the climate stabilizing function of the Amazonian forest. In fact natural capital, social capital and economic capital are often complementarities. A further obstacle to substitutability lies also in the multi-functionality of many natural resources. Forests, for example, do not only provide the raw material for paper (which can be substituted quite easily), but they also maintain biodiversity, regulate water flow, and absorb CO2. Another problem of natural and social capital deterioration lies in their partial irreversibility. The loss in biodiversity, for example, is often definite. The same can be true for cultural diversity. For example with globalisation advancing quickly the number of indigenous languages is dropping at alarming rates. Moreover, the depletion of natural and social capital may have non-linear consequences. Consumption of natural and social capital may have no observable impact until a certain threshold is reached. A lake can, for example, absorb nutrients for a long time while actually increasing its productivity. However, once a certain level of algae is reached lack of oxygen causes the lake’s ecosystem to break down all of a sudden.
Market Failure as a Reason
If the degradation of natural and social capital has such important consequence the question arises why action is not taken more systematically to alleviate it. Cohen and Winn (2007) [Cohen, B. & Winn, M. I. 2007. Market imperfections, opportunity and sustainable entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Venturing, 22(1): 29-49.] point to four types of market failure as possible explanations: Firstly, while the benefits of natural or social capital depletion can usually be privatized the costs are often externalized (i.e. they are born not by the party responsible but by society in general). They add that many times natural capital is also undervalued by society since we are not fully aware of the real cost caused by the depletion of natural capital. Information asymmetry is a third reason identified to cause natural and social capital depletion. Often the link between cause and effect is obscured, thus making it difficult for actors to make informed choices. Cohen and Winn close with the realization that contrary to economic theory many firms are not perfect optimizers. They postulate that firms often to do not optimize resource allocation because they are caught in a business as usual mentality.
The Business Case for Sustainable Development
The most broadly accepted criterion for corporate sustainability constitutes a firm’s efficient use of natural capital. This eco-efficiency is usually calculated as the economic value added by a firm in relation to its aggregated ecological impact. [Schaltegger, S. & Sturm, A. 1998. Eco-Efficiency by Eco-Controlling. Zürich: vdf.] This idea has been popularised by the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) under the following definition: “Eco-efficiency is achieved by the delivery of competitively-priced goods and services that satisfy human needs and bring quality of life, while progressively reducing ecological impacts and resource intensity throughout the life-cycle to a level at least in line with the earth’s carrying capacity.” (DeSimone and Popoff, 1997: 47) [DeSimone, L. & Popoff, F. 1997. Eco-efficiency: The business link to sustainable development. Cambridge: MIT Press.]
Similar to the eco-efficiency concept but so far less explored is the second criterion for corporate sustainability. Socio-efficiency [Dyllick, T. & Hockerts, K. 2002. Beyond the business case for corporate sustainability. Business Strategy and the Environment, 11(2): 130-141.] describes the relation between a firm’s value added and its social impact. Whereas, it can be assumed that most corporate impacts on the environment are negative (apart from rare exceptions such as the planting of trees) this is not true for social impacts. These can be either positive (e.g. corporate giving, creation of employment) or negative (e.g. work accidents, mobbing of employees, human rights abuses). Depending on the type of impact socio-efficiency thus either tries to minimize negative social impacts (i.e. accidents per value added) or maximise positive social impacts (i.e. donations per value added) in relation to the value added.
Both eco-efficiency and socio-efficiency are concerned primarily with increasing economic sustainability. In this process they instrumentalize both natural and social capital aiming to benefit from win-win situations. However, as Dyllick and Hockerts [Dyllick, T. & Hockerts, K. 2002. Beyond the business case for corporate sustainability. Business Strategy and the Environment, 11(2): 130-141.] point out the business case alone will not be sufficient to realise sustainable development. They point towards eco-effectiveness, socio-effectiveness, sufficiency, and eco-equity as four criteria that need to be met if sustianable development is to be reached.
Decade of Education for Sustainable Development
The United Nations has declared a Decade of Education for Sustainable Development starting in January 2005. A non-partisan multi-sector response to the decade has formed within the U.S. via the U.S. Partnership for the Decade of Education for Sustainable Development. [ [http://www.uspartnership.org US Partnership for the Decade of Education for Sustainable Development] . Retrieved on: 2007-07-16] Active sectors teams have formed for youth, higher education, business, religion, the arts, and more. Organizations and individuals can join in sharing resources and success stories, and creating a sustainable future. Sustainable development is not just about business perspective but should be understood in such way to benefit the world as a whole.
Critique of the Concept of Sustainable Development
The concept of “ Sustainable Development ” raises several critiques at different levels.
Critique regarding consequences
John Baden[chairman of the Foundation for Research on Economics and the Environment(FREE) ] reckons that the notion of sustainable development is dangerous because the consequences are proceedings with unknown effects or potentially dangerous. He writes: "In economy like in ecology, the interdependence rules applies. Isolated actions are impossible. A policy which is not enough carefully thought will carry along various perverse and adverse effects for the ecology as much as for the economy. Many suggestions to save our environment and to promote a model of 'sustainable development' risk indeed leading to reverse effects." [ [http://www.euro92.com/acrob/baden.pdf] L'économie politique du développement durable, John Baden, document de l'ICREI ] Moreover, he evokes the bounds of the public action which are underlined by the public choice theory: quest by the politics of their own interests, lobby pressure, partial disclosure etc.He develops his critic by notifying the vagueness of the expression, which can hide anything : citation|”The expression “sustainable development” is a magic formula, which are linked to the emotions but without any concrete contents nor exact definition. And precisely thanks to that, it carries a broad consensus. Its attractive power lays in the impressions and the emotions linked to it, and not in the concrete contributions from a deep analysis." It is a gateway to interventionist proceedings which can be again the principle of freedom and without a proved efficacy.Against this notion, he is a proponent of the private propertyto impel the producers and the consumers to save the natural resources. According to Baden, “the improvement of environment quality depends on the market economyand the existence of legitimate and protected propertyrights.” They enable the effective practice of his personal responsibility and the development of mechanisms to protect the environment. The State can in this context “create conditions who encourage the people to save the environment.” [« [http://www.euro92.com/acrob/baden.pdf L'économie politique du développement durable] », John Baden, document de l'ICREI]
Critique regarding vagueness of the term
The term of “sustainable development” is criticized because of its vagueness. For example,
Jean-Marc Jancovici[ [http://www.manicore.com/documentation/dd.html « À quoi sert le développement durable ? »] ] or the philosopher Luc Ferry[« Protéger l'espèce humaine contre elle-même », entretien avec Luc Ferrydans la "Revue des Deux Mondes", octobre-novembre 2007, pp.75-79] express this view. The latter writes about sustainaible development: "I know that this term is obligatory, but I find it also absurd, or rather so vague that it says nothing." Luc Ferry adds that the term is trivial by a proof by contradiction: "who would like to be a proponent of an “untenable development! Of course no one! [..] The term is more charming than meaningful. [..] Everything must be done so that it does not turn into a Russian-type administrative planning with ill effects."
Critique regarding the basis
Sylvie Brunel, French geographer and specialist of the Third World, develops in "A qui profite le développement durable" (who take advantage of the sustainable development) (2008) a critic of the basis of the sustainable development, with its binary vision of the world, can be compared to the Christian vision of Good and Evil, a idealized nature where the human being is an animal like the others or even an alien. The nature – as Rousseauthought – is better than the human being. It is a parasite, harmful for the nature. But the human is the one who protects the biodiversity, where normally only the strong survive« Les enjeux internationaux », entretien avec Sylvie Brunel sur France Culture, 11 juin 2008] .
Moreover, she thinks that the ideas of sustainable development can hide a will of
protectionismfrom the developed country to impede the development of the other countries. For Sylvie Brunel, the sustainable development serves as a pretext for the protectionism and “I have the feeling about sustainable development that it is perfectly helping out the capitalism”.
Critique regarding "de-growth"
The proponents of the
de-growthreckons that the term of sustainable development is an oxymoron. According to them, on a planet where 20% of the population consumes 80% of the natural resources, a sustainable development cannot be possible for this 20% : “According to the origin of the concept of sustainable development , a development which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs, the right term for the developed countries should be a sustainable de-growth” [Bruno Clémentin et Vincent Cheynet," [http://www.decroissance.org/index.php?chemin=textes/dev_en_question.htm Contre le développement durable] "]
Critique from anti-Western Culture perspective
Historically, the concept is from the western world.
Bright green environmentalism
Clean tech law
Dashboard of Sustainability
*Development simulator (sustainable or not):
Ecologically sustainable development
Institute for Trade, Standards and Sustainable Development(ITSSD)
International Institute for Environment and Development
International Institute for Sustainable Development
International Organization for Sustainable Development
Living Planet Index
Passive solar building design
Strategic Sustainable Development
Sustainable forest management
Sustainable Tourism CRC
The Earth Institute
World energy resources and consumption
* [http://www.ideas4development.org Ideas for Development - blog of heads of International Development Agencies]
* [http://www.erb.umich.edu Erb Institute for Global Sustainable Enterprise at the University of Michigan]
* [http://www.worldcreativeyouthforum.net World Creative Youth Forum (WCYF) 2009] - Upcoming international youth forum on Education for Sustainable Development in May 2009 in the Philippines
* [http://www.ulb.ac.be/ceese/meta/sustvl.html WWW-Virtual Library Sustainable development] - Links to sustainable development sources
* [http://nariphaltan.virtualave.net/nature.pdf Nature conservation+spirituality = sustainable development]
* [http://www.wbcsd.org/ World Business Council for Sustainable Development]
* [http://learningforsustainability.net/susdev/index.php Sustainable development] - Highlights the need for a people-centred approach to sustainable development and provides links to related sources
* [http://www.sd-network.eu/ European Sustainable Development Network - ESDN] - Sustainable development policies and strategies in Europe
* [http://www.bicyclecity.com Bicycle City] - Sustainable community development
* [http://www.johnson.cornell.edu/sge/ The Center for Sustainable Global Enterprise] at Cornell University views environmental and social needs as business opportunities.
* [http://www.sd-commission.org.uk/ U.K. Sustainable Development Commission]
* [http://www.forward-scotland.org.uk Forward Scotland] Independent organization
* [http://www.appropedia.org Appropedia] - a Wiki focused on sustainable international development and poverty reduction
* [http://www.iied.org International Institute for Environment and Development]
* [http://www.iisd.org International Institute for Sustainable Development]
* [http://www.iosd.org International Organization for Sustainable Development]
* [http://www.gapminder.org/video/talks/ted-2006---debunking-myth-about-the-third-world.html Debunking-myth-about-the-third-world] UN databases presented with interactive data-mining tools and shows.
* [http://go.worldbank.org/7IS3KBWK20 World Bank] website on sustainable development.
* [http://www.citnet.org/ Citizens Network for Sustainable Development]
* [http://www.wcl.american.edu/org/sustainabledevelopment Sustainable Development Law & Policy]
* [http://www.itssd.org Institute for Trade Standards and Sustainable Development]
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