Pembrokeshire Geography Area
- % Water
Admin HQ Haverfordwest ISO 3166-2 GB-PEM ONS code 00NS Demographics Population:
- (2010 est.)
74 / km²
Ethnicity 99.2% White Welsh language
- Any skills
Control Independent MPs AMs MEPs Wales
Pembrokeshire ( //, //, or //; Welsh: Sir Benfro) is a county in the south west of Wales. It borders Carmarthenshire to the east and Ceredigion to the north east. The county town is Haverfordwest where Pembrokeshire County Council is headquartered.
The county is home to Pembrokeshire Coast National Park, the only coastal national park of its kind in the United Kingdom and one of three national parks in Wales, the others being Snowdonia and Brecon Beacons national parks.
Much of Pembrokeshire, especially the south, has been English in language and culture for many centuries. The boundary between the English and Welsh speakers is known as the Landsker Line. South Pembrokeshire is known as Little England Beyond Wales.
- 1 Geography
- 2 History
- 3 Media
- 4 Transport
- 5 Industry
- 6 Flag
- 7 On television and film
- 8 Local government
- 9 Places of interest
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 External links
- 13 Further reading
Pembrokeshire is a maritime county, bordered by the sea on three sides, by Ceredigion to the north east and by Carmarthenshire to the east. The local economy relies heavily on tourism but agriculture is still important. Since the 1950s, Petrochemical and liquid natural gas industries have developed along the Milford Haven Waterway.
According to statistics from the 2001 UK Census, the population was 114,131.
The administrative headquarters, historic county town and largest town is Haverfordwest. Other settlements include Pembroke itself, Pembroke Dock, Milford Haven, Fishguard, Tenby, Saundersfoot, Narberth, Neyland and Newport. St David's, in the North west of the county, is the United Kingdom's smallest city with a population of around just 2,000.
The highest point of the county is at Foel Cwmcerwyn (1759 ft/536 m) in the Preseli Hills.
The county's coastline comprises internationally important seabird breeding sites and numerous bays and sandy beaches. Pembrokeshire contains a predominantly coastal park, Pembrokeshire Coast National Park, which includes a 186-mile walking trail, the Pembrokeshire Coast Path. A large estuary and natural harbour at Milford Haven cuts deeply into the coast, formed by the confluence of the Western Cleddau (which goes through Haverfordwest), the Eastern Cleddau and rivers Cresswell and Carew. The estuary is bridged by the large Cleddau Bridge (toll bridge) which bears the A477 between Neyland and Pembroke Dock; upstream bridges are found crossing the Cleddau at Haverfordwest and Canaston.
Large bays are Newport Bay, Fishguard Bay, St Bride's Bay and a portion of Carmarthen Bay. There are several small islands off the Pembrokeshire coast, the largest of which are Ramsey Island, Grassholm Island, Skomer Island and Caldey Island.
In the north of the county are the Preseli Hills (Mynydd Preseli), a wide stretch of high moorland with many prehistoric monuments and the source of the bluestones used in the construction of the inner circle of Stonehenge in England.
Elsewhere the county is relatively flat, most of the land being used for lowland farming of dairy cows, arable crops, oil seed rape, and the well-known Pembrokeshire Potato.
See the list of places in Pembrokeshire for villages, towns and the city of St. David's in Pembrokeshire.
Human habitation of the region of Pembrokeshire extends back to 125,000 and 70,000 BCE. By the late Roman Empire period, an Irish tribe known as the Déisi settled in the region between AD 350 and 400, with their realm known as Demetae.
In the post Roman period, the Irish Déisi merged with the local Welsh, with the name of the region evolving into Dyfed, which existed as an independent petty kingdom until its heiress, Elen, married Hywel the Good in AD 904.
Hwyel merged Dyfed with his own maternal inheritance of Seisyllwg, forming the new realm of Deheubarth. The region suffered from devastating and relentless Viking raids during the Viking Age, with the Vikings establishing settlements and trading posts at Haverfordwest, Fishguard and Caldey Island.
Dyfed, the region of Pembrokeshire, remained an integral province of Deheubarth but this was contested by invading Normans and Flemings who arrived between 1067 and 1111. The region became known as Pembroke, after the Norman castle built in the Penfro cantref. But Norman/Flemish presence was precarious given the hostility of the native Welsh Princes. In 1136 Prince Owain Gwynedd to avenge the execution of his sister the Princess Gwenllian of Deheubarth and her children, with Gwenllian's husband the Prince Rhys swept down from Gwynedd with a formidable army and at Crug Mawr near Cardigan. There they met and destroyed the 3000 strong Norman/Flemish army. The remnants of the Normans fled across the bridge at Cardigan which collapsed and the Teifi river was choked with drowned Men at Arms and horses.
The Norman Marcher Lord Gilbert de Clare was also killed. Owains brother Cadwallader took de Clares daughter Alice as his wife. Owain incorporated Deheubarth into Gwynedd re-establishing control of the region. Mortally weakened Norman/Flemish influence never fully recovered in West Wales. Princess Gwenllian of Deheubarth is one of the best remembered victims. In 1138 the county of Pembrokeshire was named as a county palatine
The county has long been divided between an English-speaking south (known as "Little England beyond Wales") and a historically more Welsh-speaking north, along an imaginary line called the Landsker.
The Lord Rhys, Prince of Deheubarth, Princess Gwenllian's son, reestablished Welsh control over much of the region and threatened to retake all of Pembrokeshire, but died in 1197. After Deheubarth was split by a dynastic feud, Llywelyn the Great almost managed to retake the region of Pembroke between 1216 and his death in 1240.
In 1457 Henry Tudor was born at Pembroke Castle and, 28 years later, landing an army not far from his birthplace, he rallied support, marched through Wales to Bosworth field in Leicestershire and defeated the larger army of Richard III. As Henry VII he founded the Tudor dynasty which successfully ruled England until 1603.
The Act of Union of 1536 divided the county into hundreds, which followed with some modifications the lines of the ancient division into cantrefs, which went back to before the Norman conquest. The 1536 hundreds were (clockwise from the north-east): Cilgerran or Kilgerran, Cemais or Kemes, Dewisland or Dewsland, Roose, Castlemartin, Narbeth and Dungleddy or Daugleddau. The Genuki web pages on Pembrokeshire include a list of the parishes within each hundred.
A new voluntary media organisation called Cleddau Community Media began in Pembroke Dock in 2004. Since then the company has broadcast three community radio pilot broadcasts from custom built studios in Llanreath under the name.
There are five local newspapers based in Pembrokeshire. The most widely read is the Western Telegraph (part of the Newsquest group).
The main towns in the county are well served with bus and train services, but those living in more rural parts have little or no access to public transportation.
There are no motorways in Pembrokeshire. There are currently demands for the A40 from St. Clears to Haverfordwest to be made fully dual carriageway. The road is used heavily by traffic from the ferry port in Fishguard which then follows the A40 south to Haverfordwest and then meets the dual carriageway at St. Clears.
The A477 which runs from St. Clears to the port of Pembroke Dock is 24 miles (39 km) long, of which only 2 miles (3.2 km) are part-dual carriageway. This road is heavily used by businesses and tourists visiting Pembrokeshire and improvements to the road have been made in recent years.
There are three branch railway lines, terminating at Fishguard, Pembroke Dock and Milford Haven. The latter two have 2-hourly services but the Fishguard branch has only 2 services each day, timed to meet the ferries to Ireland
Haverfordwest (Withybush) airport provides general aviation services.
Oil and gas
The banks of the Milford Haven Waterway are dominated by the oil and gas industry with two oil refineries, two large liquified natural gas (LNG) terminals and a new 2000 MW gas-fired Pembroke Power Station is currently under construction on the site of a previous oil-fired power station which closed in 1997 and demolished in 2000.
The two oil refineries in Pembrokeshire are:
- Chevron (formerly Texaco): 214,000 bpd (barrels per day) and
- Murco (formerly Amoco/Elf): 108,000 bbl/d (17,200 m3/d)
At the peak, there were a total of five refineries served from around the Haven.
- The Esso refinery operated from 1960–1983 and was demolished in the late 1980s. The site has been converted into the South Hook LNG terminal
- The Gulf Refinery operated from 1968–1997 and the site now incorporates the Dragon LNG terminal
- BP had an oil terminal at Angle Bay which served its refinery at Llandarcy and operated between 1961–1985
The LNG terminals on the north side of the river, just outside Milford Haven are now complete, and opened in 2008. A completed but controversial pipeline runs through many rural farms and country sides connecting Milford Haven to Tilbury in Gloucestershire.
Pembrokeshire's mild climate means that crops such as its famous new potatoes often arrive in British shops earlier in the year than produce from other parts of the UK. As well as arable crops such as potatoes, the other main agricultural activities are dairy farming of cattle for milk and cheese, sheep farming, beef production and some other arable crops, such as rapeseed.
Falling farm incomes have led to diversification into other novel farming and tourism related activities. From 1,700 km² of land, about 1,260 (74%) are used by agriculture. The majority of this land (60%) is down to permanent grassland and 26% is arable. Farm revenues are less than the UK average, but agriculture still provides 7,000 jobs.
The flag of Pembrokeshire consists of a yellow cross on a blue field. In the centre of the cross is a green pentagon bearing a red and white Tudor rose. The rose is divided quarterly and counterchanged: the inner and outer roses have alternating red and white quarters.
On television and film
Pembrokeshire's diverse landscape of rugged coastline, unspoilt beaches, woodland, lakes, hills and quaint little villages have proved popular with film makers as a filming location for film and television. The following is a list of some of the productions that have utilised Pembrokeshire's landscape as a backdrop for their work:
Year Title Location Production Type 1940 The Thief of Bagdad Whitesands Beach Film 1956 Moby Dick (film) Pembrokeshire Coast Film 1968 The Lion In Winter Pembroke Castle, Marloes Sands, Milford Haven Film 1971 The Onedin Line Milford Haven TV Drama (BBC) 1972 Under Milk Wood Fishguard Film 1977 Jabberwocky Pembroke Castle & Bosherston Film 1985 Treasure Hunt (UK game show) Stack Rocks, Pembroke Castle, St. Florence & Tenby TV Gameshow 1988 Chronicles of Narnia Manorbier Castle TV Drama (BBC) 1994 Dragonworld Manorbier Film 1998 Vanity Fair Tenby TV Drama (BBC) 1998 Basil Tenby, Manorbier, Bosherston Film 2000 Delerium – 'Silence' (ft. Sarah McLachlan) Newgale Beach Music video 2003 Pobl Porthgain Porthgain TV Documentary (S4C) 2003 Baltic Storm Fishguard Film 2003 I Capture The Castle Manorbier Castle Film 2003 I'll Sleep When I'm Dead Haverfordwest & Fishguard Film 2004 Magic Harbours & Magic Islands Throughout Pembrokeshire TV Documentary (BBC) 2008 The Edge of Love Tenby & Laugharne Film 2010 Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows Freshwater West (Shell cottage) Film 2010 Robin Hood Freshwater West (Beach battle scenes) Film 2011 Third Star Barafundle and the Stackpole Estate Film
Dusk at Freshwater West
Under the Local Government Act 1888, an elected county council was set up to take over the functions of the Pembrokeshire Quarter Sessions. This, and the administrative county of Pembrokeshire were abolished under the Local Government Act 1972, with Pembrokeshire forming two districts of the new county of Dyfed: South Pembrokeshire and Preseli – the split being made at the request of local authorities in the area. In 1996, under the Local Government (Wales) Act 1994, the county of Dyfed was broken up into its constituent parts, and Pembrokeshire has been a unitary authority.
Places of interest
- Caldey Island
- Grassholm Island
- Pembrokeshire Coast Path, a long distance footpath
- Preseli Hills
- Ramsey Island
- Skomer Island
- Skokholm Island
- Bosherston & St. Govans
- Whitesands Bay
- Broad Haven
- Little Haven
- Freshwater East
- Freshwater West
- Broad Haven South
- Barafundle Bay
- North Beach Tenby
- South Beach Tenby
- Poppit Sands (Ceredigion – Pembrokeshire Border)
- Traeth Mawr, Newport
- The Parrog, Newport
- ^ Pembrokeshire Coast Path at. Nationaltrail.co.uk. Retrieved on 9 October 2011.
- ^ a b c d e f g Davies, John, A History of Wales, Penguin, 1994, foundations of pgs 17,19, 43, Migration of the Desi into Demetia, page 52 Demetia 17, 30, 34, ruling house of 52, 72, 85, 87, and the Vikings pages 85, relations with Alfred of Wessex, page 85, and the Vikings/Northmen page 98, and the Normans 106, 112, 114
- ^ Warner, Philip, Famous Welsh Battles, pg 79, 1997, Barnes and Noble, INC.
- ^ Media titles owned by Town & Country Broadcasting. Media UK. Retrieved on 9 October 2011.
- ^ AM calls for A40 funds Western Telegraph – 9 November 2006
- ^ [dead link]
- ^ UK Flag Registry. Flaginstitute.org (6 July 2010). Retrieved on 9 October 2011.
- ^ CRWFlags.com. CRWFlags.com (27 May 2011). Retrieved on 9 October 2011.
- ^ Wood, Bruce. The Process of Local Government Reform: 1966–1974. 1976.
- Pembrokeshire at the Open Directory Project
- Pembrokeshire county council
- Visit Pembrokeshire (official council tourism website)
- Pembrokeshire Coast National Park
- James, J. Ivor, Molleston Baptist Church-Reflections on the Founders' Tercentenary, V.G. Lodwick & Sons Ltd., Carmarthen, copyright 1968.
- Dillon, Myles, The Irish settlements in Wales, Celtica 12, 1977, pp. 1–11
Pembrokeshire Principal settlements Towns and villagesAmbleston • Amroth • Angle • Boncath • Brawdy • Burton • Camrose • Carew • Castlemartin • Clydau • Clynderwen • Cosheston • Crymych • Cwm Gwaun • Dale • Dinas Cross • East Williamston • Eglwyswrw • Fishguard • Freystrop • Haverfordwest • Hayscastle • Herbrandston • Hook • Hundleton • Jeffreyston • Johnston • Kilgetty/Begelly • Lampeter Velfrey • Lamphey • Letterston • Llanddewi Velfrey • Llandissilio West • Llangwm • Llanrhian • Llanstadwell • Llawhaden • Lydstep Haven • Maenclochog • Manorbier • Manordeifi • Marloes and St. Brides • Martletwy • Mathry • Merlin's Bridge • Milford Haven • Mynachlog-ddu • Narberth • Nevern • New Moat • Neyland • Nolton and Roch • Pembroke • Pembroke Dock • Penally • Porthgain • Puncheston • Rosemarket • Rudbaxton • Saundersfoot • Scleddau • Slebech • Solva • Spittal • St Davids and the Cathedral Close • St. Dogmaels • St. Florence • St. Ishmael's • St. Mary Out Liberty • Stackpole • Stepaside • Strumble Head • Tenby • The Havens • Tiers Cross • Trecwn • Trefasser • Uzmaston and Boulston • Walwyn's Castle • Wisemans Bridge • Wiston • Wolfscastle Castles Islands Rivers Communities of Pembrokeshire
Ambleston · Amroth · Angle · Boncath · Brawdy · Burton · Camrose · Carew · Castlemartin · Cilgerran · Clydau · Clynderwen · Cosheston · Crymych · Cwm Gwaun · Dale · Dinas Cross · East Williamston · Eglwyswrw · Fishguard & Goodwick · Freystrop · Haverfordwest · Hayscastle · Herbrandston · Hook · Hubberston Hundleton · Jeffreyston · Johnston · Kilgetty/Begelly · Lampeter Velfrey · Lamphey · Letterston · Llanddewi Velfrey · Llandissilio West · Llangwm · Llanrhian · Llanstadwell · Llawhaden · Maenclochog · Manorbier · Manordeifi · Marloes and St Brides · Martletwy · Mathry · Merlin's Bridge · Milford Haven · Mynachlog-ddu · Narberth · Nevern · New Moat · Newport/Trefdraeth · Neyland · Nolton and Roch · Pembroke · Pembroke Dock · Penally · Pencaer · Puncheston · Rosemarket · Rudbaxton · Saundersfoot · Scleddau · Slebech · Solva · Spittal · St Davids · St Dogmaels · St Florence · St. Ishmael's · St Mary Out Liberty · Stackpole · Templeton · Tenby · The Havens · Tiers Cross · Trecwn · Uzmaston and Boulston · Walwyn's Castle · Wiston · Wolfscastle
Transport in Pembrokeshire Road National Cycle NetworkCeltic Trail · NCR 4 · NCR 47 Railway lines Railway stations Air Sea Principal areas of Wales
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.