City and County of Swansea
Dinas a Sir Abertawe
— Principal area & City —
Coat of arms
Motto: Floreat Swansea
and (inset) within Wales
Sovereign state United Kingdom Constituent country Wales Ceremonial county West Glamorgan Historic county Glamorganshire Admin HQ Swansea Guildhall Town charter 1158–1184 City status 1969 Government - Type Principal area, City - Leader of
Christopher Holley - Welsh Assembly and UK Parliament Consituencies Swansea East,
- European Parliament Wales - MPs Martin Caton (Lab),
Sian James (Lab),
Geraint Davies (Lab)
- AMs Edwina Hart (Lab),
Mike Hedges (Lab),
Julie James (Lab)
Area - Total 145.9 sq mi (378 km2) Population - Total Unitary Authority area: 232,500, Ranked 3rd (2,010 est.)
Urban area within Unitary Authority: 169,880 (2,001)
Wider Urban Area: 270,506 (2,001)
- Density 1,556.6/sq mi (601/km2) - Ethnicity 97.8% White
1.2% S. Asian
Time zone GMT (UTC0) - Summer (DST) BST (UTC+1) Post codes SA1-SA7 Area code(s) 01792 ISO 3166-2 GB-SWA ONS code 00NX OS grid reference SS6593 NUTS 3 UKL18 Police Force South Wales Police Fire Service Mid and West Wales Fire and Rescue Service Ambulance Service Welsh Ambulance Service Website http://www.swansea.gov.uk/
Swansea ( // swonz-ee; Welsh: Abertawe, "mouth of the Tawe") is a coastal city and county in Wales. Swansea is in the historic county boundaries of Glamorgan. Situated on the sandy South West Wales coast, the county area includes the Gower Peninsula and the Lliw uplands. Swansea had a population of 169,880 in 2001 and is the second most populous city in Wales after Cardiff and the third most populous county in Wales after Cardiff and Rhondda Cynon Taf. During its 19th century industrial heyday, Swansea was one of the key centres of the world copper industry, earning the nickname 'Copperopolis'.
Swansea is thought to have originally developed as a Viking trading post. Some think that its name is derived from Sveinn's island (Old Norse: Sveinsey) – the reference to an island may refer to a bank at the mouth of the river Tawe, or perhaps an area of raised ground in marshes. An alternative explanation is that the name derives from the Norse name 'Sweyn' and 'ey', which can mean inlet. The name is pronounced Swans-y /ˈswɒnzi/), not Swan-sea. The Welsh name first appears in Welsh poems at the beginning of the 13th century, as "Aber Tawy".
The earliest known form of the modern name is Sweynesse, which was used in the first charter granted sometime between 1158–1184 by William de Newburgh, 3rd Earl of Warwick. The charter gave Swansea the status of a borough, granting the townsmen, called burgesses certain rights to develop the area. A second charter was granted in 1215 by King John. In this charter, the name appears as Sweyneshe. The town seal which is believed to date from this period names the town as Sweyse.
Following the Norman Conquest, a marcher lordship was created under the title of Gower. It included land around Swansea Bay as far as the River Tawe, the manor of Kilvey beyond the Tawe, and the peninsula itself. Swansea was designated chief town of the lordship and received a borough charter some time between 1158 and 1184 (and a more elaborate one in 1304).
The port of Swansea initially traded in wine, hides, wool, cloth and later in coal. As the Industrial Revolution reached Wales, the combination of port, local coal, and trading links with the West Country, Cornwall and Devon, meant that Swansea was the logical place to site copper smelting works. Smelters were operating by 1720 and proliferated. Following this, more coal mines (everywhere from north-east Gower to Clyne and Llangyfelach) were opened and smelters (mostly along the Tawe valley) were opened and flourished. Over the next century and a half, works were established to process arsenic, zinc and tin and to create tinplate and pottery. The city expanded rapidly in the 18th and 19th centuries, and was termed "Copperopolis".
From the late 17th century to 1801, Swansea's population grew by 500% — the first official census (in 1841) indicated that, with 6,099 inhabitants, Swansea had become significantly larger than Glamorgan's county town, Cardiff, and was the second most populous town in Wales behind Merthyr Tydfil (which had a population of 7,705). However, the census understated Swansea's true size, as much of the built-up area lay outside the contemporary boundaries of the borough; the total population was actually 10,117. Swansea's population was later overtaken by Merthyr in 1821 and by Cardiff in 1881, although in the latter year Swansea once again surpassed Merthyr. Much of Swansea's growth was due to migration from within and beyond Wales — in 1881, more than a third of the borough's population had been born outside Swansea and Glamorgan, and just under a quarter outside Wales.
Through the 20th century, heavy industries in the town declined, leaving the Lower Swansea Valley filled with derelict works and mounds of waste products from them. The Lower Swansea Valley Scheme (which still continues) reclaimed much of the land. The present Enterprise Zone was the result and, of the many original docks, only those outside the city continue to work as docks; North Dock is now Parc Tawe and South Dock became the Marina.
Little city-centre evidence, beyond parts of the road layout, remains from medieval Swansea; its industrial importance made it the target of bombing, known as the Blitz in World War II, and the centre was flattened completely. The city has three Grade One listed buildings, these being the Guildhall, Swansea Castle and the Morriston Tabernacle.
Whilst the city itself has a long history, many of the city centre buildings are post-war as much of the original centre was destroyed by World War II bombing on the 19th, 20th and 21 February 1941 (the 'Three Nights Blitz'). Within the city centre are the ruins of the castle, the Marina, the Glynn Vivian Art Gallery, Swansea Museum, the Dylan Thomas Centre, the Environment Centre, and the Market, which is the largest covered market in Wales. It backs onto the Quadrant Shopping Centre which opened in 1978 and the adjoining St David's Centre opened in 1982. Other notable modern buildings are the BT Tower (formerly the GPO tower) built around 1970, Alexandra House opened in 1976, County Hall opened in July 1982. Swansea Leisure Centre opened in 1977; it has undergone extensive refurbishment which retained elements of the original structure and re-opened in March 2008. Behind it stands the National Waterfront Museum, opened in October 2005.
Swansea was granted city status in 1969, to mark Prince Charles's investiture as the Prince of Wales. The announcement was made by the prince on 3 July 1969, during a tour of Wales. It obtained the further right to have a lord mayor in 1982.
In 1887, Swansea was a township at the mouth of the river Tawe, covering 4,562 acres (1,846 ha) in the county of Glamorgan. There were three major extensions to the boundaries of the borough, first in 1835, when Morriston, St Thomas, Landore, St John-juxta-Swansea, and part of Llansamlet parish were added, and again in 1889 when areas around Cwmbwrla and Trewyddfa were included, and in 1918 when the borough was enlarged to include the whole of the ancient parish of Swansea, the southern part of Llangyfelach parish, all of Llansamlet parish, Oystermouth Urban District and Brynau parish.
In 1889, Swansea attained county borough status, and it was granted city status in 1969, which was inherited by the Swansea district when it was formed by the merger of the borough and Gower Rural District in 1974. In 1996, Swansea became one of 22 unitary authorities with the addition of part of the former Lliw Valley Borough. The new authority received the name 'City and County of Swansea' (Welsh: Dinas a Sir Abertawe).
Swansea was once a staunch stronghold of the Labour Party which, until 2004, had overall control of the council for 24 years. The Liberal Democrats are the largest group in the administration that took control of Swansea Council in the 2004 local elections. For 2009/2010, the Lord Mayor of Swansea was Councillor Alan Lloyd, and in 2010/2011 Richard Lewis was the Lord Mayor. The Lord Mayor changes in May each year.
Position Current Representatives Members of Parliament Geraint Davies, Labour, elected 2010 · Martin Caton, Labour, elected 1997 · Sian James, Labour, elected 2005 National Assembly of Wales Members Julie James, Labour, elected 2011 · Edwina Hart, Labour, elected 1999 · Mike Hedges, Labour, elected 2011 City & County Council Members Viv Abbott, Liberal Democrats · Veronyca Bates Hughes, Independent · Peter Black, Liberal Democrats · Nicholas Bradley, Labour · June Burtonshaw, Labour · Mark Child, Labour · Audrey Clement, Independent · Anthony Colburn, Conservative · John Davies, Labour · Mike Day, Liberal Democrats · Ryland Doyle, Labour · June Evans, Independent · William Evans, Labour · Wendy Fitzgerald, Independent · Robert Francis-Davies, Labour · Mair Gibbs, Labour · John Hague, Independent · Mike Hedges, Labour · Chris Holley, Liberal Democrats · Nichola Holley, Liberal Democrats · Paxton Hood-Williams, Conservative · David Hopkins, Labour · Dai Howells, Independent · Barbara Hynes, Labour · Dennis James, Labour · Billy Jones, Labour · David I.E. Jones, Labour · Jeffrey Jones, Liberal Democrats · Mary Jones, Liberal Democrats · Mervyn Jones, Independent · Susan Jones, Independent · Alan Jopling, Independent · Jim Kelleher, Liberal Democrats · René Kinzett, Conservative · Erika Kirchner, Labour · Richard Lewis, Liberal Democrats · Alan Lloyd, Labour · Bob Lloyd, Labour · Keith Marsh, Independent · Penny Matthews, Labour · Peter May, Liberal Democrats · Paul Meara, Liberal Democrats · John Miles, Labour · Keith Morgan, Liberal Democrats · Hazel Morris, Labour · John Newbury, Liberal Democrats · Byron Owen, Labour · David Phillips, Labour · Cheryl Philpott, Liberal Democrats · Darren Price, Plaid · Huw T Rees, Liberal Democrats · Stuart Rice, Liberal Democrats · Ioan Richard, People's Representative · Christine Richards, Labour · Alan Robinson, Independent · Gyln Seabourne, Labour · Margaret Smith, Conservative · Paulette Smith, Labour · Roger Ll. Smith, Labour · Rob Speht, Liberal Democrats · June Stanton, Liberal Democrats · Rob Stewart, Labour · Gareth Sullivan, Independent · Ceinwen Thomas, Labour · Des Thomas, Labour · Graham Thomas, Liberal Democrats · Janet Thomas, Liberal Democrats · Nick Tregoning, Liberal Democrats · Paul Tucker, Independent · Sue Waller Thomas, Liberal Democrats · Jayne Woodman, Liberal Democrats
The National Assembly constituencies are:
- Gower, current AM is Edwina Hart, Labour since 1999
- Swansea East, current AM is Mike Hedges, Labour since 2011
- Swansea West, current AM is Julie James, Labour since 2011
The UK parliamentary constituencies in Swansea are:
- Gower, current MP is Martin Caton, Labour since 1997
- Swansea East, current MP is Sian James, Labour since 2005
- Swansea West, current MP is Geraint Davies, Labour since 2010
Friendship link with:
The "City and County of Swansea" local authority area is bordered by unitary authorities of Carmarthenshire to the north, and Neath Port Talbot to the east. Swansea is bounded by Swansea Bay and the Bristol Channel to the south.
The local government area is 378 square kilometres (146 sq mi)) in size, about 2% of the area of Wales. It includes a large amount of open countryside and a central urban and suburban belt.
Swansea can be roughly divided into four physical areas. To the north are the Lliw uplands which are mainly open moorland, reaching the foothills of the Black Mountain. To the west is the Gower Peninsula with its rural landscape dotted with small villages. To the east is the coastal strip around Swansea Bay. Cutting though the middle from the south-east to the north-west is the urban and suburban zone stretching from the Swansea city centre to the towns of Gorseinon and Pontarddulais.
The most populated areas of Swansea are Morriston, Sketty and the city centre. The chief urbanised area radiates from the city centre towards the north, south and west; along the coast of Swansea Bay to Mumbles; up the Swansea Valley past Landore and Morriston to Clydach; over Townhill to Cwmbwrla, Penlan, Treboeth and Fforestfach; through Uplands, Sketty, Killay to Dunvant; and east of the river from St. Thomas to Bonymaen, Llansamlet and Birchgrove. A second urbanised area is focused on a triangle defined by Gowerton, Gorseinon and Loughor along with the satellite communities of Penllergaer and Pontarddulais.
About three quarters of Swansea is bordered by the sea—the Loughor Estuary, Swansea Bay and the Bristol Channel. The two largest rivers in the region are the Tawe which passes the city centre and the Loughor which flows on the northern border with Carmarthenshire.
In the local authority area, the geology is complex, providing diverse scenery. The Gower Peninsula was the first area in the United Kingdom to be designated as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB). Excluding the urbanised area in the south-eastern corner of the county, the whole of the Gower Peninsula is part of an AONB. Swansea has numerous urban and country parklands. The region has featured regularly in the Wales in Bloom awards.
The geology of the Gower Peninsula ranges from carboniferous limestone cliffs along its southern edge from Mumbles to Worm's Head and the salt-marshes and dune systems of the Loughor estuary to the north. The eastern, southern and western coasts of the peninsula are lined with numerous sandy beaches both wide and small, separated by steep cliffs. The South Wales Coalfield reaches the coast in the Swansea area. This had a great bearing on the development of the city of Swansea and other towns in the county like Morriston. The inland area is covered by large swathes of grassland common overlooked by sandstone heath ridges including the prominent Cefn Bryn. The traditional agricultural landscape consists in a patchwork of fields characterised by walls, stone-faced banks and hedgerows. Valleys cut through the peninsula and contain rich deciduous woodland.
Much of the county is hilly with the main area of upland being located in the council ward of Mawr. Areas of high land up to 185 metres (607 ft) range across the central section of the county and form the hills of Kilvey, Townhill and Llwynmawr, separating the centre of Swansea from its northern suburbs. Cefn Bryn, a ridge of high land, forms the backbone of the Gower Peninsula. Rhossili Down, Hardings Down and Llanmadoc Hill form land features up to 193 metres (633 ft) high. The highest point of the county is located at Penlle'r Castell at 374 metres (1,227 ft) on the northern border with Carmarthenshire.
Climate data for Swansea - Public Extremes 1989 - 2011 Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °C (°F) 12.1
Average high °C (°F) 6.1
21.0 Average low °C (°F) 0.8
Record low °C (°F) −17.1
 Climate data for Swansea Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Average high °C (°F) 6
Average low °C (°F) 4
Rainfall mm (inches) 71
Source no. 1:  Source no. 2:  Swansea Climate chart (explanation) J F M A M J J A S O N D7164526445974911836151242171451191650181655161381131171987186 Average max. and min. temperatures in °C Precipitation totals in mm Source: uk.weather.com & MSN Imperial conversion J F M A M J J A S O N D2.84339243391.848451.952461.459541.7635726661264612.261553.255522.848462.84643 Average max. and min. temperatures in °F Precipitation totals in inches
Typical of the west of Britain, Swansea has a temperate climate. As part of a coastal region, it experiences a milder climate than the mountains and valleys inland. This same location, though, leaves Swansea exposed to rain-bearing winds from the Atlantic: figures from the Met Office make Swansea the wettest city in Britain. In midsummer, Swansea's temperatures can reach into the high twenties Celsius.
Population of Swansea Year Population %± 1804 19,794 1811 21,338 7.8 1821 25,426 19.16 1831 32,064 26.11 1841 38,962 21.51 1851 47,260 21.30 1861 68,743 45.46 1871 90,226 31.25 1881 111,709 23.81 1891 132,956 19.02 1901 153,577 15.51 1911 177,411 15.52 1921 191,417 7.89 1931 206,558 7.91 1941 205,194 -0.66 1951 203,854 -0.65 1961 214,834 5.39 1971 226,406 5.39 1981 223,260 -1.39 1991 233,145 4.43 2001 223,293 -4.23 2006 227,100* 1.7 2009 231,300* 1.8 source: Vision of Britain except * ,
which is estimated by the
Office for National Statistics
Historical populations are calculated
with the modern boundaries
According to Census 2001 data, the population in the unitary authority was 225,000, and Swansea was the 34th largest settlement in the United Kingdom, while the wider urban area was the 25th largest. Around 82% of the population were born in Wales and 13% born in England; 13.4% were Welsh speakers.
From 1804 until the 1920s, Swansea experienced continuous population growth. The 1930s and 1940s was a period of slight decline. In the 1950s and 1960s the population grew and then fell in the 1970s. The population grew again in the 1980s only to fall again in the 1990s. In the 2000s, so far, Swansea is experiencing a small amount of population growth; the local authority area had an estimated population of 228,100 in 2007.
The population of the Swansea urban area within the unitary authority boundaries in 2001 was about 169,880, and the council population was 223,301. The other urban area within the unitary authority, centred on Gorseinon, had a population of 19,273 in 2001. However, the wider urban area including most of Swansea Bay has a total population of 270,506 (making it the 25th largest urban area in England and Wales). Over 218,000 individuals are white; 1,106 are of mixed race; 2,215 are Asian – mainly Bangladeshi (1,015); 300 are black; and 1,195 belong to other ethnic groups.
The Royal Institution of South Wales was founded in 1835 as the Swansea Literary and Philosophical Society.
The Grand Theatre in the centre of the city is a Victorian theatre which celebrated its centenary in 1997 and which has a capacity of a little over a thousand people. It was opened by the celebrated opera singer Adelina Patti and was refurbished from 1983–1987. The annual programme ranges from pantomime and drama to opera and ballet.
Fluellen Theatre Company is a professional theatre company based in Swansea performing regularly at the Grand Theatre. The company also presents Lunchtime Theatre on the last Saturday of every month. The Taliesin building on the university campus has a theatre, opened in 1984. Other theatres include the Dylan Thomas Theatre (formerly the Little Theatre) near the marina, and one in Penyrheol Leisure Centre near Gorseinon. In the summer, outdoor Shakespeare performances are a regular feature at Oystermouth Castle, and Singleton Park is the venue for a number of parties and concerts, from dance music to outdoor Proms. Outside the city, Pontardawe hosts an annual folk festival. Another folk festival is held on Gower. Standing near Victoria Park on the coast road is the Patti Pavilion; this was the Winter Garden from Adelina Patti's Craig-y-Nos estate in the upper Swansea valley, which she donated to the town in 1918. It is used as a venue for music shows and fairs. The Brangwyn Hall is a multi-use venue with events such as the graduation ceremonies for Swansea University. Every autumn, Swansea hosts a Festival of Music and the Arts, when international orchestras and soloists visit the Brangwyn Hall. The Brangwyn Hall is praised for its acoustics for recitals, orchestral pieces and chamber music alike.
Swansea hosted the National Eisteddfod in 1863, 1891, 1907, 1926, 1964, 1982 and 2006. The 2006 event occupied the site of the former Felindre tinplate works to the north of the city and featured a strikingly pink main tent. The international BeyondTv film festival has been hosted in Swansea since 2000 by Swansea based media charity Undercurrents. In 2009 Swansea Council launched Wales only week long St David's Week festival in venues throughout the city.
There are many Welsh-language chapels and churches in the area. Welsh-medium education is a popular and growing choice for both English- and Welsh-speaking parents, leading to claims in the local press in autumn 2004 that, to accommodate demand, the council planned to close an English-medium school in favour of opening a new Welsh-medium school. The Welsh-medium school is named Bryn Tawe, and is located in the buildings of the former Penlan boys' school, which itself was merged with the girls' school at Mynyddbach on that site to become Daniel James Community School. This arrangement was a subject of considerable controversy in the period leading up to Bryn Tawe's inauguration.
45% of the rural council ward Mawr speak Welsh, as do 38% of the ward of Pontarddulais. Clydach, Kingsbridge and Upper Loughor all have levels of more than 20%. By contrast, the urban St. Thomas has one of the lowest figures in Wales, at 6.4%, a figure only barely lower than Penderry and Townhill wards.
Local produce includes cockles and laverbread which are sourced from the Loughor estuary. Local Gower salt marsh lamb is produced from sheep which are raised in the salt marshes of the Loughor estuary.
- See also Category:People from Swansea
Swansea's most famous daughter is Hollywood actress Catherine Zeta-Jones who still owns a home in Mumbles.
On the literary stage, the poet Dylan Thomas is perhaps the best-known. He was born in the town and grew up at 5 Cwmdonkin Drive, Uplands. There is a memorial to him in the nearby Cwmdonkin Park; his take on Swansea was that it was an "ugly lovely town". In the 1930s Thomas was a member of a group of local artists, writers and musicians known as The Kardomah Gang.
Bands from Swansea
Swansea City A.F.C. moved from the Vetch Field to the new Liberty Stadium at the start of the 2005–2006 season, winning promotion to League One in their final year at their old stadium. The team presently play in the Premier League, after being promoted during the 2010/11 season.
In 2003, Swansea RFC merged with Neath RFC to form the Neath-Swansea Ospreys rugby club. Swansea RFC remained at St Helen's in semi-professional form, but the Ospreys moved into the Liberty Stadium in Landore for the start of the 2005–2006 season. Neath-Swansea rugby games used to be hotly-contested matches, such that there was some debate about whether a team incorporating both areas was possible. The team came fifth in the Celtic League in their first year of existence and topping that league in their second year.
St Helens Rugby and Cricket Ground is the home of Swansea RFC and Glamorgan County Cricket Club have previously played matches there. In this ground, Sir Garfield Sobers hit six sixes in one over; the first time this was achieved in a game of first-class cricket. The final ball landed on the ground past the Cricketers' pub just outside the ground. It is also the home of the tallest floodlight stand in Europe.
The Swansea Bowls Stadium opened in early 2008. The stadium hosted the World Indoor Singles and Mixed Pairs Championship in April 2008 and the Gravelles Welsh International Open Bowls Championships in 2009.
In 2001, 158,457 people in the local authority area (71 per cent) stated their religion as Christian, 44,286 (20 per cent) no religion, 16,800 (7.5 per cent) did not state a religion and 2,167 were Muslim. There are small communities of other religions, each making up less than 1 per cent of the total population.
Swansea is part of the Anglican Diocese of Swansea and Brecon and the Roman Catholic Diocese of Menevia. The Catholic see is based in Swansea at St. Joseph's Cathedral in the Greenhill area. The city is home to 10 per cent of the total Welsh Muslim population; Swansea's Muslim community is raising money to open a new central mosque and community centre in the former St Andrews United Reform Church. This would be replace the existing central Mosque on St Helens Road and in addition to the other three existing mosques (Swansea University Mosque, Hafod Mosque, Imam Khoei Mosque). Dharmavajra Kadampa Buddhist Centre, Swansea Synagogue and Jehovah's Witness Kingdom Hall are all located in the Uplands area.
Swansea, like Wales in general, has seen many non-conformist religious revivals. In 1904, Evan Roberts, a miner from Loughor (Llwchwr), just outside Swansea, was the leader of what has been called one of the world's greatest Protestant religious revivals. Within a few months about 100,000 people were converted. This revival in particular had a profound effect on Welsh society.
Swansea City Centre is undergoing a £1 billion transformation scheme. A large area of the city is earmarked for redevelopment. A new city-centre retail precinct is planned involving demolition of the dilapidated St. David's Shopping Centre which has three or four traders, about 13% of the retail space in the centre and the Quadrant Shopping Centre. Including relocation of the Tesco Superstore near to the city's Sainsbury's store in Parc Tawe, the new retail precinct will be almost four times the size of the Quadrant Centre. The city centre is also being brightened up with street art and new walkways, along with the first phase of the David Evans – Castle Street development. New green spaces will be provided in conjunction with the proposed Quadrant Square and Grand Theatre Square. Redevelopment of the Oxford Street car park and Lower Oxford Street arcades are also planned.
At the sea front, The Tower, Meridian Quay is now Wales's tallest building at a height of over 80 metres (260 ft); upon completion in 2009 it was planned to be 107 metres (351 ft) in height with a restaurant on the top (29th) floor. However, it was under construction adjacent Swansea Marina until 2010. The height of the building and the facilities of the restaurant had to be scaled down to save costs, because the building was being constructed during an economic recession.
Swansea originally developed as centre for metals and mining, especially the copper industry, from the beginning of the 18th century. The industry reached its apogee in the 1880s, when 60% of the copper ores imported to Britain were smelted in the Lower Swansea valley. However, by the end of the Second World War these heavy industries were in decline, and over the post-war decades Swansea shared in the general trend towards a post-industrial, service sector economy.
Of the 105,900 people estimated to work within the City and County of Swansea, over 90% are employed in the service sectors, with relatively high shares (compared to the Welsh and UK averages) in public administration, education & health and banking, finance & insurance, and correspondingly high proportions of employment in occupations associated with the service sector, including professional, administrative/secretarial and sales/customer service occupations. The local authority believes this pattern reflects Swansea's role as a service centre for South West Wales.
Economic activity and employment rates in Swansea were slightly above the Welsh average in October 2008, but lower than the UK average. In 2005, GVA per head in Swansea was £14,302 – nearly 4% above the Welsh average but 20% below the UK average. Median full-time earnings in Swansea were £21,577 in 2007, almost identical to the Welsh average.
Swansea University has a campus in Singleton Park overlooking Swansea Bay. Its engineering department is recognised as a centre of excellence with pioneering work on computational techniques for solving engineering design problems. The Department of Physics is renowned for its research achievements at the frontiers of Theoretical Physics, particularly in the areas of Elementary Particle Physics and String Theory. And many other departments such as History, Computer Science and German were awarded an "Excellent" in the last inspection. The university was awarded the Times Higher Education Supplement Award for the UK's "best student experience" in 2005. Other establishments for further and higher education in the city include Swansea Metropolitan University and Gower College Swansea. Swansea Metropolitan University (formerly Swansea Institute of Higher Education) is particularly well known for its Architectural Glass department; stained glass being a long time speciality.
In the local authority area, there is one nursery school; six infant schools and five junior schools. There are 77 primary schools, nine of which are Welsh-Medium, and six of which are voluntary aided. There are 15 comprehensive schools under the remit of the local education authority, of which two are Welsh-medium. In addition, there are six special schools.
The oldest school in Swansea is Bishop Gore School. The largest comprehensive school in Swansea is the Olchfa School. There is one Roman Catholic comprehensive school in the county – Bishop Vaughan Catholic Comprehensive School. The Welsh medium schools are Ysgol Gyfun Gymraeg Gŵyr and Ysgol Gyfun Gymraeg Bryn Tawe. Other schools in Swansea include, Cefn Hengoed Community School, Dylan Thomas School, Daniel James Community School, Pentrehafod Comprehensive School, Morriston Comprehensive School and Gowerton School.
Independent schools in Swansea include Ffynone House School, Oakleigh House School and Craig-y-Nos School.
The local newspaper is the Swansea edition of the South Wales Evening Post. The Swansea Herald of Wales is a free newspaper which is distributed every week to residential addresses. The Cardiff edition of the free daily paper Metro is distributed throughout the city. The Council also produces a free monthly newspaper called the Swansea Leader. Swansea Life is a monthly lifestyle magazine published and distributed in Swansea.
Swansea is served by three local radio stations, The Wave on 96.4 FM and DAB, Swansea Sound on 1170 AM and DAB and lastly Bay Radio on 102.1 FM. The city also has a community radio station, Radio Tircoed. The patients and staff at Singleton Hospital can listen to the hospital radio station, Radio City 1386AM and Swansea University also runs its own radio station, Xtreme Radio, on 1431 AM. Providing the DAB service, the local multiplex called Swansea SW Wales is broadcast from Kilvey Hill. This transmitter also provides digital terrestrial television in the Swansea area. As well as Kilvey Hill the city is in the catchment areas of the Wenvoe transmitter (in the Vale of Glamorgan) and the Carmel transmitter in Carmarthenshire.
Since 1924, the BBC has maintained a studio in the city; Dylan Thomas worked here in the interwar years, when the studio was used for the BBC Regional Programme. Currently it has facilities to broadcast live radio and television and is listed as a BBC regional studio.
In mid 2008, the BBC included Swansea in its "Big Screen" project, and a large live permanent television screen has been sited in Castle Square.
Independent filmmakers Undercurrents and Studio8 are based in Swansea, and the city plays host to the BeyondTV Film Festival. BeyondTV is annual event organised by Undercurrents to showcase the best of activism filmmakers. Swansea has also hosted the annual Swansea Bay Film Festival, where past-winning directors have included Gareth Evans, Anthony James, Alun D Pughe and Andrew Jones. In 2010 Swansea Telly, an internet based video channel for Swansea, launched to showcase videos made by local people.
Representation in the media
Swansea was the first city in Wales to feature in its own version of the board game Monopoly. The Swansea edition of Monopoly features 33 local landmarks, including the Mumbles Pier and the National Waterfront Museum; the game has been produced in both English and Welsh.
Swansea was also featured in a documentary titled Swansea Love Story as part of the Rule Britannia series on VBS.tv. The film is of a rather graphic nature and features heroin users as well as community members affected by the epidemic while trying to provide some explanation for the increase in use.
Ambulance services are provided by the Wales Ambulance Service, and fire services by the Mid and West Wales Fire and Rescue Service. Swansea Airport is one of the country's three Wales Air Ambulance bases, the others being Welshpool and Caernarfon.
Local public healthcare services are operated by Abertawe Bro Morgannwg University Health Board, who operate two hospitals in Swansea with Accident and Emergency services: Singleton Hospital and Morriston Hospital.
Welsh Water provides drinking water supply and wastewater services to Swansea. There is a water treatment works at Crymlyn Burrows. Reservoirs which supply Swansea include the Cray reservoir and the Lliw Reservoirs, which are operated by Welsh Water.
The Local Gas Distribution company is Wales and West Utilities.
There was a high rate of car crime during the 1990s. The BBC has described Swansea as a "black spot for car crime", for example. However, over the past few years, there seems to have been a decline in car crime.. Car crime is a central theme in the film Twin Town, which was set in and around Swansea and Port Talbot.
The football violence that Swansea experienced during the 1970s–1990s has considerably reduced, the only major clashes occurring between Swansea City supporters and Cardiff City supporters. Many matches between these sides have ended in violence in both Swansea and Cardiff. These two clubs have a long history of intense rivalry, being described in the media as tribal.
The M4 motorway crosses though Swansea (junctions 44 to 47 inclusive). The A48, formerly a trunk road, passes through the north of the city centre, through Llansamlet and past Morriston. The A48 and the M4 connect Swansea with other towns and cities including Port Talbot, Bridgend, Cardiff, Bristol and London to the east and Llanelli and Cross Hands to the west. The A483 passes though the city centre, providing a link to the Heads of Valleys Road to the west. On departing to the north, the A483 continues through mid Wales via towns like Ammanford, Builth Wells and Newtown and terminates at Chester. The A4067 (Swansea Valley Road) links Swansea with settlements in the Swansea Valley and continues towards Brecon. Park and Ride services are operated from car parks at Landore, Fabian Way and Fforestfach. During busy periods of the year, additional Park and Ride services are operated from the Brynmill recreation ground.
Bus routes within Swansea are operated predominately by First Cymru and Veolia Transport Cymru, originating from Swansea bus station. First operates the Swansea Metro, a road-based FTR bus rapid transit route, introduced between Morriston Hospital and Singleton Hospital in 2009, and a shuttle bus (Service 100) to Cardiff Central bus station calling at Bridgend Designer Outlet. Veolia operates the rural services around the Gower Peninsula and the Lliw Valley branded Gower Explorer and Lliw Link respectively. Swansea is on the X40 Cardiff to Aberystwyth TrawsCambria bus route connecting the west and south of Wales. National Express serves Swansea operating eastbound to Heathrow Airport, Gatwick Airport, London, Birmingham, Cardiff and Bristol, and westbound to Llanelli, Carmarthen and Haverfordwest.
There are four dedicated cycle routes in the county area:
- Swansea Bay: The Maritime Quarter to the Knab Rock near the Mumbles Pier.
- Clyne Valley Country Park: Blackpill to Gowerton forming part of National Cycle Network, Route 4.
- Along the east bank of the River Tawe forming the start of National Cycle Network, Route 43, which continues northwards to Builth Wells.
- Adjacent to the Fabian Way: Forming part of National Cycle Network, Route 4 and extending as the Celtic Trail to Chepstow and (eventually) London.
In November 2007 a new bridge was completed over the Fabian Way which provides a one way park and ride bus lane and a shared-use pedestrian and NCN route 4 cycle way. The leaf-shaped bridge was shortlisted for the 2008 Structural Steel Design Awards.
Swansea railway station is located 10 minutes from Swansea bus station by foot. Services calling at Swansea operate to Llanelli, Carmarthen, Milford Haven and Haverfordwest to the west, Shrewsbury to the north, and Cardiff Central (for connections to England and beyond), Newport and London Paddington to the east. There are also suburban stations in Gowerton, Llansamlet and in Pontarddulais which are served by Arriva Trains Wales.
Swansea Airport is a minor aerodrome situated in the Gower providing recreational flights only. Further development of the airport is strongly resisted by the local communities and environmental groups. Swansea is served by Cardiff Airport, 44 miles (71 km) east, in the Vale of Glamorgan, which provides scheduled domestic and international flights. It is approximately 40 minutes away by road or 70 minutes by rail. Pembrey Airport, 17 miles (27 km) to the west offers charter flights to a few European destinations.
Swansea Marina to the south of the city centre has berths for 410 leisure boats. An addition 200 berths for leisure boats are located near the mouth of the River Tawe. Further leisure boating berths are being constructed at the Prince of Wales Dock in the Swansea Docks complex. The Swansea Docks complex is owned and operated by Associated British Ports and is used to handle a range of cargo ranging from agribulks and coal to timber and steel. Swansea Docks consists of three floating docks and a ferry terminal.
Fastnet Line operate the Swansea Cork Ferry roll-on/roll-off service. There is three services in each direction from September to June and four services in each direction from July to August. A new catamaran-based passenger ferry service from Ilfracombe to Swansea was scheduled to begin in Easter 2010 with two return trips a day taking around 50 minutes each way, it would also have had facilities to carry cycles.
Mumbles railway and tram
The Swansea and Mumbles Railway was built in 1804 to move limestone from the quarries of Mumbles to Swansea and to the markets beyond. It carried the world's first fare-paying rail passengers on the day the British Parliament abolished the transportation of slaves from Africa. It later moved from horse power to steam locomotion, and finally converting to electric trams, before closing in January 1960, in favour of motor buses.  At the time of the railway's decommissioning, it had been the world's longest serving railway and it still holds the record for the highest number of forms of traction of any railway in the world – horse-drawn, sail power, steam power, electric power, diesel and petrol.
Leisure and tourism
A number of beaches around Swansea Bay are promoted to visitors. Surfing is possible at Langland Bay, Caswell Bay and Llangennith, with the latter winning accolades from two national newspapers for the quality of its waves. The five-mile promenade from the Marina to Mumbles offers views across Swansea Bay. The seaside village of Mumbles has a Victorian pier, small, independent shops and boutiques, restaurants and cafes. The south coast of Gower is the chief magnet for walkers, with a path stretching from Mumbles Head across the cliff tops, beaches and coastal woodland to Rhossili.
On the Waterfront, Swansea Bay has a five mile (8 km) sweep of coastline which features a beach, promenade, children's lido, leisure pool, marina and maritime quarter featuring the newest and oldest museums in Wales – the National Waterfront Museum and Swansea Museum. Also situated in the maritime quarter is the Dylan Thomas Centre which celebrates the life and work of the author with its permanent exhibition 'Dylan Thomas – Man and Myth' and Mission Gallery a unique art gallery also in the heart of the Maritime Quarter, the gallery hosts a range of exhibitions from various art disciplines, it also host a craft space, with ranging works from local and international artists. The centre is also the focal point for the annual Dylan Thomas Festival (27 October – 9 November). The SA1 Waterfront area is the latest development for living, dining and leisure. Swansea Bay, Mumbles and Gower are home to various parks and gardens and almost 20 nature reserves. Clyne Gardens is home to a collection of plants set in parkland and host to 'Clyne in Bloom' in May. Singleton Park has acres of parkland, a botanical garden, a boating lake with pedal boats, and crazy golf. Plantasia is a tropical hothouse pyramid featuring three climatic zones, housing a variety of unusual plants, including several species which are extinct in the wild, and monkeys, reptiles, fish and a butterfly house. Other parks include Cwmdonkin Park, where Dylan Thomas played as a child, and Victoria Park which is close to the promenade on the seafront.
Swansea has a range of activities including sailing, water skiing, surfing, and other watersports, walking and cycling. Part of the Celtic Trail and the National Cycle Network, Swansea Bay provides a range of traffic-free cycle routes including along the seafront and through Clyne Valley Country Park. The Cycling Touring Club CTC has a local group in the area. Swansea Bay, Mumbles and Gower have a selection of golf courses.
Prior to closure in 2003, Swansea Leisure Centre was one of the top ten visitor attractions in the UK; it has been redeveloped as an indoor waterpark, rebranded the 'LC', and was officially opened by Queen Elizabeth II on 7 March 2008. The Wales National Pool is based in Swansea.
Swansea has a range of public houses, bars, clubs, restaurants and two casinos. The majority of city centre bars are situated on Wind Street, with various chains represented including Revolution, Varsity, Yates's and Walkabout. Most clubs, including Oceana, are located on the Kingsway. Some venues feature live music. The Mumbles Mile, described by the BBC as "one of Wales' best-known pub crawls" has declined in recent years with a number of local pubs being converted into flats or restaurants.
Oxwich Bay on the Gower Peninsula was named the most beautiful beach in Britain by travel writers who visited more than 1,000 around the world in search of the perfect sands (2007). The Travel Magazine praised Oxwich for "magnificent and unspoilt" scenery and as a "great place for adults and children to explore". It boasts over three miles (5 km) of soft, golden sands, making it the ideal family getaway. Not surprisingly, The Guardian named it one of Britain's blue-riband top 10 category beaches (2007). The Independent newspaper hailed Rhossili Bay as "the British supermodel of beaches" (2006) and the best beach in Britain for breathtaking cliffs (2007), whilst The Sunday Times listed it as one of the 25 best beaches in the world (2006). Thanks to its clear air and lovely golden sand, this romantic stretch of sand was voted the best place in the UK to watch the sun set (Country Living magazine 2005) and one the top romantic spots in the country (The Guardian 2007). Nearby Llangennith Beach, with its soft sands, consistent beach break and great facilities, was listed as the best place to learn how to surf in Britain by The Observer (2006) and one of the 10 'classic surfing beaches by The Guardian (2007) . Gower also claims Britain's Best Beach, Three Cliffs Bay. The Gower landmark topped the BBC Holiday Hit Squad nationwide competition (2006) and was voted Britain's best camping beach by The Independent thanks to its superb setting and quiet location (2007). Three Cliffs Bay also made the final of the ITV series Britain's Favourite View – the only nomination in Wales and backed by singer Katherine Jenkins. Nearby Brandy Cove came sixth in an online poll to find the UK's top beach for the baby boomer generation (2006). Beaches which won 2006 Blue Flag Beach Awards are: Bracelet Bay, Caswell Bay, Langland Bay, Port Eynon Bay and Swansea Marina (one of the few Blue Flag Marinas in Wales). All of these beaches also won a Seaside Award 2006. Limeslade was awarded the Rural Seaside Award and the Green Coast Award. Other Green Coast Awards went to Pwll Du, Rhossili Bay and Tor Bay.
- ^ Swansea (Wales, United Kingdom) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia
- ^ Hughes, S. (2000) Copperopolis: landscapes of the early industrial period in Swansea (Royal Commission on Ancient and Historical Monuments in Wales
- ^ Wyn Owen, H. and Morgan, R. (2008) Dictionary of the Place-names of Wales. Llandysul: Gomer.
- ^ Alban, JR (1984). Swansea 1184–1984. Swansea City Council.
- ^ Glanmor Williams, ed (2007-07-26). Swansea, An Illustrated History. Christopher Davies. ISBN 0-7154-0714-7.
- ^ a b "Swansea". Classic Encyclopedia. 2007. http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Swansea. Retrieved 2007-07-29.
- ^ "Swansea Timeline". Genuki. 2007. http://www.genuki.org.uk/big/wal/GLA/Swansea/Timeline.html. Retrieved 2007-07-29.
- ^ a b c d e The Welsh Academy Encyclopedia of Wales. Cardiff: University of Wales Press 2008.
- ^ Rosser, C. and Harris, C.C. (1998) The Family and Social Change: A Study of Family and Kinship in a South Wales Town. Routledge
- ^ City and County of Swansea – Listed building index
- ^ "Swansea's Three Nights Blitz". BBC. 2005-09-03. http://www.bbc.co.uk/wales/southwest/sites/local_history/pages/swansea_blitz.shtml. Retrieved 2008-05-24.
- ^ "Tourism joins shopping at market". BBC News. 2003-09-29. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/wales/south_west/3148686.stm. Retrieved 2007-07-27.
- ^ London Gazette, issue no. 44986, 12 December 1969
- ^ Prince announces city status for Swansea,The Times 4 July 1969.
- ^ London Gazette, issue no. 48932, 25 March 1982
- ^ Swansea Glamorgan through time | Local history overview for the place
- ^ West Glamorgan Archive Service Borough/County Borough/City of Swansea records
- ^ Swansea CB Glamorgan through time | Boundaries of Local Government District
- ^ The Welsh Academy Encyclopedia of Wales. Cardiff: University of Wales Press 2008
- ^ City and County of Swansea – History of the Mayoralty
- ^ see Swansea City and County and National Council on Archives: Rules for the construction of place names
- ^ "Council leader resigns after defeat". BBC News. 2004-06-15. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/wales/3806811.stm. Retrieved 2007-07-29.
- ^ City & County of Swansea Economic Development Division, Tourism Student Information Pack
- ^ Local Government Association: Twin Town search
- ^ a b c d e "Physical Description". City and County of Swansea. 2006-08-21. http://www.swansea.gov.uk/index.cfm?articleid=139. Retrieved 2007-07-26.
- ^ a b "Student information – Swansea geography" (PDF). City and County of Swansea. 2007. http://www.visitswanseabay.com/media/pdf/o/j/student_info_geography_1.pdf. Retrieved 2007-07-26.
- ^ "Swansea – Tourist Information". iknow-uk. http://www.iknow-wales.co.uk/tourist_information/cardiff_south_wales/swansea/swansea_tourist_information.htm. Retrieved 2008-06-23.
- ^ "Wales In Bloom". Wales In Bloom. http://www.walesinbloom.org.uk/home-e.html. Retrieved 2008-06-23.
- ^ http://uk.weather.com/weather/climatology/UKXX0146
- ^ http://weather.uk.msn.com/local.aspx?wealocations=wc:UKXX0146
- ^ "Soggiest city in Britain pays high price for rain". icWales. 2007. http://icwales.icnetwork.co.uk/0100news/0200wales/tm_objectid=14140027&method=full&siteid=50082&headline=soggiest-city-in-britain-pays-high-price-for-rain-name_page.html. Retrieved 2007-07-26.
- ^ http://www.weather.com/weather/wxclimatology/monthly/graph/USSC0335?par=usatoday&site=www.usatoday.com&promo=0&cm_ven=USAToday&cm_cat=www.usatoday.com&cm_pla=WxPage&cm_ite=CityPage weather.com
- ^ "Census 2001: Key Statistics for urban areas in England and Wales" (PDF). ONS. 2004. http://www.statistics.gov.uk/downloads/census2001/ks_ua_ew_part1.pdf. Retrieved 2008-05-24.
- ^ Graham Pointer. "The UK’s major urban areas: Chapter 3" (PDF). ONS. http://www.statistics.gov.uk/downloads/theme_compendia/fom2005/03_FOPM_UrbanAreas.pdf. Retrieved 2008-05-24.
- ^ 2001 Census Socio Economic Profile
- ^ Swansea City and County: Population "2004 Mid Year Estimates, Population Estimates Unit, ONS. Crown Copyright.". City and County of Swansea. 2007. http://www.swansea.gov.uk/index.cfm?articleid=140&articleaction=print Swansea City and County: Population. Retrieved 2007-07-26.
- ^ Wales’s Population A Demographic Overview 2009
- ^ "News Release: Urban Areas in Wales" (PDF). National Statistics Office. 2007. http://www.statistics.gov.uk/pdfdir/urbwales0704.pdf. Retrieved 2007-07-26.
- ^ Population and Migration – Ethnic groups (Swansea) Office for National Statistics. Retrieved on 2009-06-15.
- ^ "The Living Tradition Festival Listing, 2007". The Living Tradition. 2007. http://www.folkmusic.net/htmfiles/festivals_000.htm. Retrieved 2007-07-26.
- ^ "Brangwyn Hall & The Empire Panels". BBC. 2006. http://www.bbc.co.uk/wales/southwest/sites/swansea/pages/brangwyn.shtml. Retrieved 2007-07-27.
- ^ South Wales Evening Post, 8 September 2004, and subsequent issues.
- ^ "Results of the 2001 Census of Population on the Language in Electoral Wards". Welsh Language Board. 2007. http://www.bwrdd-yr-iaith.org.uk/download.php?id=2082.6. Retrieved 2007-07-26. [dead link]
- ^ Food detective: Salt marsh lamb- Times Online
- ^ Swansea Jack – Swansea History Web
- ^ Tourism Swansea Bay – FAQ
- ^ Dylan Thomas and the Kardomah Set – Features, Books – The Independent 11 February 2006
- ^ "Glamorgan First-Class Matches played on St Helen's, Swansea". Cricket Archive. http://www.cricketarchive.com/Glamorgan/Grounds/780_f.html. Retrieved 2006-06-27.
- ^ "Two pieces of Welsh sporting history auctioned". icWales.co.uk. 2006. http://icwales.icnetwork.co.uk/homes/antiques/tm_headline=two-pieces-of-welsh-sporting-history-auctioned&method=full&objectid=18102661&siteid=50082-name_page.html. Retrieved 2007-07-27.
- ^ Cricket archive
- ^ a b 2001 Census Key Statistics: Table KS07: Religion
- ^ A Social Audit of the Muslim Community in Wales
- ^ BBC NEWS | Wales | South West Wales | New mosque 'would benefit all'
- ^ "City Centre Strategic Framework". City and County of Swansea. 2007. http://www.swansea.gov.uk/index.cfm?articleid=13786. Retrieved 2007-07-27.
- ^ "Work Begins On Wales Tallest". Skyscrapernews.com. 2006-06-26. http://www.skyscrapernews.net/news.php?ref=641. Retrieved 2008-05-24.
- ^ Jenkins, P (1992) A History of Modern Wales 1536–1990. Harlow: Longman.
- ^ a b c d e Swansea Economic Profile October 2008
- ^ "Academic Expertise". WDA. 2007. http://www.wda.co.uk/index.cfm/technium_sustainable_technologies/academic_expertise/en6579. Retrieved 2007-07-27. ; "Knowledge Transfer from the Civil and Computational Engineering Centre and Future Interaction Technologies". Swansea University. 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-09-30. http://web.archive.org/web/20070930231911/http://www.swan.ac.uk/engineering/Research/CivilandComputationalEngineeringCentre/KnowledgeTransfer/. Retrieved 2007-07-27.
- ^ "Award winners announced!". The Times Higher Education Supplement. 2005. http://www.thes.co.uk/Awards/2005/. Retrieved 2007-07-27.
- ^ "List of Schools 2006/2007" (PDF). City and County of Swansea. 2006. http://www.swansea.gov.uk/media/pdf/4/d/School_List_2006-2007.pdf. Retrieved 2007-07-27.
- ^ The NS and AdWeb Ltd – Swansea Herald of Wales
- ^ Morgan, K. (2002) Rebirth of a Nation: A History of Modern Wales. Oxford: Oxford University Press, p.251.
- ^ "Royal Television Society Archive". http://www.rts.org.uk/doclib/tvgeogaddresses.pdf.
- ^ BBC: Swansea Big Screen
- ^ Only Two Can Play (1962)
- ^ Robin Turner (2004-09-22). "Ex-Doctor 'may return as villain'". icWales.co.uk. http://icwales.icnetwork.co.uk/news/wales-news/tm_objectid=14669189&method=full&siteid=50082&headline=ex-doctor-who-baker--may-return-as-villain--name_page.html. Retrieved 2008-05-24.
- ^ BBC News: City Launch for Swansea Monopoly
- ^ CNN: Swansea Love Story by Andy Capper
- ^ "Introduction to the Air Ambulances in Wales". Wales Air Ambulance. http://www.walesairambulance.com/index.php?p=information&sp=introduction. Retrieved 2008-06-27.
- ^ "Police 'not soft' on car crime". BBC News. 2002-09-16. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/low/in_depth/uk/2002/cracking_crime/2262344.stm. Retrieved 2007-07-26.
- ^ "British Hooligan Scene". view from the terrace. 1997. Archived from the original on 2007-07-04. http://web.archive.org/web/20070704103034/http://website.lineone.net/~view_from_the_terrace/britsce.html. Retrieved 2007-07-27.
- ^ "Park and Ride". City and County of Swansea council. 2008-04-02. http://www.swansea.gov.uk/index.cfm?articleid=22673. Retrieved 2008-06-27.
- ^ Swansea Metro service kicks off – City and County of Swansea. Retrieved 27/09/09.
- ^ City and County of Swansea – Minutes of the Licensing Committee, Friday 19 September 2008. Retrieved 27/09/09.
- ^ Swansea BID | Projects. Retrieved 27/09/09/
- ^ Worldarchitecturenews.com – Fabian Way Bridge is shortlisted for Structural Steel Design Awards. Thursday 17 April 2008. Retrieved 27/09/09.
- ^ "Swansea Airport No Expansion". WildlifeWebSite.com. http://www.wildlifewebsite.com/sane/. Retrieved 2008-07-03.
- ^ "Marina expansion plans get underway". City and County of Swansea. http://www.swansea.gov.uk/index.cfm?articleid=11399. Retrieved 2008-06-27.
- ^ "Swansea Marina: Development Projects". City and County of Swansea. http://www.swanseamarina.org.uk/index.cfm?Articleid=9516. Retrieved 2008-06-27.
- ^ "Port of Swansea". Associated British Ports. http://www.abports.co.uk/custinfo/ports/swansea.htm. Retrieved 2008-06-27.
- ^ BBC News – Swansea-Cork ferry setting sail
- ^ Fastnet Line Ireland
- ^ BBC News – Spring launch for new fast ferry
- ^ "Swansea Bay Beach Guide". City and County of Swansea. http://visitswanseabay.com/media/pdfwithtranslation/8/6/Beaches_Guide_English.pdf. Retrieved 27 August 2010.
- ^ "Swansea Bay Sports and Activities – Watersports". Swansea Bay Futures. http://www.abayoflife.com/en/visitingsports-and-activities/#water. Retrieved 27 August 2010.
- ^ "Swansea Prom". City and County of Swansea. http://www.swansea.gov.uk/media/pdfwithtranslation/3/j/Swansea_Prom_Brochure.pdf. Retrieved 27 August 2010.
- ^ "Mumbles". City and County of Swansea. http://visitswanseabay.com/mumbles. Retrieved 27 August 2010.
- ^ Conduit, Brian (1998). Pembrokeshire and Gower Walks. Jarrold / Ordnance Survey. pp. 12–13. ISBN 0711706115.
- ^ "Swansea Bay". Explore Gower. http://www.explore-gower.co.uk/Content/pa=showpage/pid=57. Retrieved 2008-06-27. [dead link]
- ^ Visit Swansea Bay – Watersports
- ^ Visit Swansea Bay – Walking
- ^ Visit Swansea Bay – Cycling and Mountain Biking
- ^ Swansea Cycling Map
- ^ "CTC- (Cyclist Touring Club) Swansea and West Wales Member Group". beehive. http://beehive.thisissouthwales.co.uk/default.asp?WCI=SiteHome&ID=11628. Retrieved 2008-06-27.
- ^ Visit Swansea Bay – Golf
- ^ "Swansea Leisure Centre to shut". BBC News. 2003-11-13. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/wales/south_west/3265851.stm. Retrieved 2007-07-26.
- ^ "Swansea's New Leisure Centre". City and County of Swansea. 2007. http://www.swansea.gov.uk/index.cfm?articleid=10883. Retrieved 2007-12-06.
- ^ "National Pool 'not just for elite'". BBC News. 2004-07-21. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/wales/south_west/3913383.stm. Retrieved 2007-07-27.
- ^ Aspers Swansea Casino
- ^ 
- ^ Swansea – Oceana – Ur Music Network
- ^ Visit Swansea Bay – Nightlife
- ^ BBC News | Wales | Closures shrink famous pub crawl
- ^ "And the most beautiful beach in Britain is...". The Travel Magazine. 2007-02-27. http://www.thetravelmagazine.net/i-941--and-the-most-beautiful-beach.html. Retrieved 2008-06-27.
- ^ McCracken, Matthew (2007-07-13). "10 sandy beaches". London h: The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/travel/2007/jul/14/beach.uk. Retrieved 2008-06-27.
- ^ "The 50 Best: UK beaches (26–50)". London: The Independent. 2006-06-26. http://www.independent.co.uk/travel/the-50-best-uk-beaches-2650-480373.html. Retrieved 2008-06-27.
- ^ a b "Hillend Camping Park". Hillend Camping. Archived from the original on 2008-05-13. http://web.archive.org/web/20080513103100/http://www.hillendcamping.co.uk/camping.html. Retrieved 2008-06-27.
- ^ "10 Romantic Settings". London: The Guardian. 2007-07-14. http://www.guardian.co.uk/travel/2007/jul/14/beach.cornwall. Retrieved 2008-06-27.
- ^ Taylor, Demi; Nelson, Chris (2006-08-13). "Learning to surf". London: The Observer. http://www.guardian.co.uk/travel/2006/aug/13/surfing.watersports.unitedkingdom. Retrieved 2008-06-27.
- ^ Alderson, Alf (2007-10-11). "Top 10 UK surf spots". London: The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/travel/2007/oct/11/surfing.top10. Retrieved 2008-06-27.
- ^ Turner, Robin (2006-09-26). "We love... Three Cliffs Bay". WalesOnline. http://www.walesonline.co.uk/news/wales-news/tm_objectid=17818375&method=full&siteid=50082&headline=three-cliffs-bay-name_page.html. Retrieved 2008-06-27.
- ^ "The 50 Best: Camping sites". London: The Independent. 2006-06-26. http://www.independent.co.uk/travel/the-50-best-camping-sites-125-480374.html. Retrieved 2008-06-27.
- ^ "Gower Peninsula". ITV. 2007-08-06. http://www.itv.com/Entertainment/reality/BritainFavouriteView/Weekone/TheGowerPeninsula/default.html. Retrieved 2008-06-27.
- ^ "Welsh beaches a mecca for the over-50s". WalesOnline. 2006-08-17. http://www.walesonline.co.uk/news/wales-news/tm_objectid=17575780&method=full&siteid=50082&headline=dynamic-baby-boomers-vote-four-wales-beaches-into-the-uk-s-top-six-leaving--elderly--bournemouth-behind---name_page.html. Retrieved 2008-06-27.
City and County of Swansea:
- Swansea at the Open Directory Project
- City and County of Swansea Council
- Swansea City Centre (website run by council)
- Official tourist website for Swansea
- Swansea travel guide from Wikitravel
- Swansea.com information guide to the city
List of venues Museums and galleries Recreation Entertainment Shopping Economy of Swansea Main commercial employers
(excluding national retailers)
Main public sector employers Companies with a local headquarters Retail Regeneration and Development Tourism Industrial history
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.