Industrial Revolution

Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, and transportation had a profound effect on the socioeconomic and cultural conditions in Britain. The changes subsequently spread throughout Europe, North America, and eventually the world. A process that continues as industrialisation. The onset of the Industrial Revolution marked a major turning point in human society; almost every aspect of daily life was eventually influenced in some way. In the later part of the 1700s there occurred a transition in parts of Great Britain's previously manual-labour-based economy towards machine-based manufacturing. It started with the mechanisation of the textile industries, the development of iron-making techniques and the increased use of refined coal. Trade expansion was enabled by the introduction of canals, improved roads and railways. The introduction of steam power (fuelled primarily by coal) and powered machinery (mainly in textile manufacturing) underpinned the dramatic increases in production capacity. [Business and Economics. "Leading Issues in Economic Development", Oxford University Press US. ISBN 0-19-511589-9 [ Read it] ] The development of all-metal machine tools in the first two decades of the 19th century facilitated the manufacture of more production machines for manufacturing in other industries. The effects spread throughout Western Europe and North America during the 19th century, eventually affecting most of the world. The impact of this change on society was enormous. [Russell Brown, Lester. "Eco-Economy", James & James / Earthscan. ISBN 1-85383-904-3 [ Read it] ]

The First Industrial Revolution, which began in the eighteenth century, merged into the Second Industrial Revolution around 1850, when technological and economic progress gained momentum with the development of steam-powered ships, railways, and later in the nineteenth century with the internal combustion engine and electrical power generation.

The period of time covered by the Industrial Revolution varies with different historians. Eric Hobsbawm held that it 'broke out' in the 1780s and was not fully felt until the 1830s or 1840s, [Eric Hobsbawm, "The Age of Revolution: Europe 1789–1848", Weidenfeld & Nicolson Ltd. ISBN 0-349-10484-0] while T. S. Ashton held that it occurred roughly between 1760 and 1830. [Joseph E Inikori. "Africans and the Industrial Revolution in England", Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-01079-9 [ Read it] ] Some twentieth century historians such as John Clapham and Nicholas Crafts have argued that the process of economic and social change took place gradually and the term "revolution" is not a true description of what took place. This is still a subject of debate amongst historians. [ [ Rehabilitating the Industrial Revolution] Maxine Berg, Pat Hudson, Economic History Review, New Series, Vol. 45, No. 1 (Feb., 1992), pp. 24-50 doi:10.2307/2598327] [ [ Rehabilitating the Industrial Revolution] by Julie Lorenzen, Central Michigan University. Accessed November 2006]

GDP per capita was broadly stable before the Industrial Revolution and the emergence of the modern capitalist economy. [); and by Lindsay Publications, Inc., Bradley, IL, USA (ISBN 978-0-917914-73-7). Also [ available online] via Google Book Search.

* Vaclav Smil; "Energy in World History." Westview Press, 1994 [ online edition]
* Szostak; Rick. "The Role of Transportation in the Industrial Revolution: A Comparison of England and France" McGill-Queens University Press, 1991 [ online edition]

External links

* [ Internet Modern History Sourcebook: Industrial Revolution]
* [ "The Day the World Took Off" Six part video series from the University of Cambridge tracing the question "Why did the Industrial Revolution begin when and where it did."]
* [ BBC History Home Page: Industrial Revolution]
* [ National Museum of Science and Industry website: machines and personalities]
* [ "Industrial Revolution and the Standard of Living"] by Clark Nardinelli - the debate over whether standards of living rose or fell.
* [ Factory Workers in the Industrial Revolution]
* [ Revolutionary Players website]
* [ First and second industrial revolution]

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