—  City  —
La Habana

Coat of arms
Nickname(s): City of Columns
Havana is located in Cuba
Location in Cuba
Coordinates: 23°08′N 082°23′W / 23.133°N 82.383°W / 23.133; -82.383Coordinates: 23°08′N 082°23′W / 23.133°N 82.383°W / 23.133; -82.383
Country Cuba
Province La Habana
Founded 1515(a)
City status 1592
Founder Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar
Municipalities 15
 - Type Mayor-council
 - Mayor Marta Hernández Romero (PCC)
 - Total 728.26 km2 (281.2 sq mi)
Elevation 59 m (194 ft)
Population (2010)Official census[1]
 - Total 2,135,498
 - Density 2,932.3/km2 (7,594.6/sq mi)
Demonym habanero (m), habanera (f)
Time zone EST (UTC-5)
 - Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
Postal code 10xxx–19xxx
Area code(s) (+53) 7
(a) Founded on the present site was founded in 1519.

Havana (Spanish: About this sound La Habana , Spanish pronunciation: [la aˈβana]), is the capital city, major port, and leading commercial centre of Cuba. The city is one of the 15 Cuban provinces. The city/province has 2.1 million inhabitants,[1] the largest city in Cuba and (city proper population) in the Caribbean region.[2] The city extends mostly westward and southward from the bay, which is entered through a narrow inlet and which divides into three main harbours: Marimelena, Guanabacoa, and Atarés. The sluggish Almendares River traverses the city from south to north, entering the Straits of Florida a few miles west of the bay.

Havana was founded by the Spanish in the 16th century and due to its strategic location it served as a springboard for the Spanish conquest of the continent becoming a stopping point for the treasure laden Spanish Galleons on the crossing between the New World and the Old World. King Philip II of Spain granted Havana the title of City in 1592.[3] The Spaniards began building fortifications, and in 1553 they transferred the governor's residence to Havana from Santiago de Cuba on the eastern end of the island, thus making Havana the de facto capital. The importance of harbour fortifications was early recognized as English, French, and Dutch sea marauders attacked the city in the 16th century.[4] The sinking of the U.S. battleship Maine in Havana's harbor in 1898 was the immediate cause of the Spanish-American War.[5]

Contemporary Havana can essentially be described as three cities in one: Old Havana, Vedado, and the newer suburban districts. Present day, the city is the center of the Cuban government, and various ministries and headquarters of businesses are based there.



Havana's harbour docks (c. 1900)

Conquistador Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar founded Havana on August 25, 1515 or 1514, on the southern coast of the island, near the present town of Surgidero de Batabanó, or more likely on the banks of the Mayabeque River close to Playa Mayabeque. All attempts to found a city on Cuba's south coast failed, however an early map of Cuba drawn in 1514 places the town at the mouth of this river.[6][7]

Between 1514 and 1519, the city had at least two different establishments on the north coast, one of them in La Chorrera, today in the neighborhood of Puentes Grandes, next to the Almendares River. The final city's location was adjacent to what was then called Puerto de Carenas (literally, "Careening Bay"), in 1519. The quality of this natural bay, which now hosts Havana's harbor, warranted this change of location.

Havana was the sixth town founded by the Spanish on the island, called San Cristóbal de la Habana by Pánfilo de Narváez: the name combines San Cristóbal, patron saint of Havana, and Habana, of obscure origin, possibly derived from Habaguanex, a native American chief who controlled that area, as mentioned by Diego Velásquez in his report to the king of Spain. Shortly after the founding of Cuba's first cities, the island served as little more than a base for the Conquista of other lands. Hernán Cortés organized his expedition to Mexico from the island.

Havana was originally a trading port, and suffered regular attacks by buccaneers, pirates, and French corsairs. The first attack and resultant burning of the city was by the French corsair Jacques de Sores in 1555. Such attacks convinced the Spanish Crown to fund the construction of the first fortresses in the main cities — not only to counteract the pirates and corsairs, but also to exert more control over commerce with the West Indies, and to limit the extensive contrabando (black market) that had arisen due to the trade restrictions imposed by the Casa de Contratación of Seville (the crown-controlled trading house that held a monopoly on New World trade).

Ships from all over the New World carried products first to Havana, in order to be taken by the fleet to Spain. The thousands of ships gathered in the city's bay also fueled Havana's agriculture and manufacture, since they had to be supplied with food, water, and other products needed to traverse the ocean.

On December 20, 1592, King Philip II of Spain granted Havana the title of City. Later on, the city would be officially designated as "Key to the New World and Rampart of the West Indies" by the Spanish crown. In the meantime, efforts to build or improve the defensive infrastructures of the city continued.

Havana Chamber of Commerce (1920)

Havana expanded greatly in the 17th century. New buildings were constructed from the most abundant materials of the island, mainly wood, combining various Iberian architectural styles, as well as borrowing profusely from Canarian characteristics.

In 1649 a fatal epidemic brought from Cartagena in Colombia, affected a third of the population of Havana. By the middle of the 18th century Havana had more than seventy thousand inhabitants, and was the third-largest city in the Americas, ranking behind Lima and Mexico City but ahead of Boston and New York.[8]

The city was captured by the British during the Seven Years' War. The episode began on June 6, 1762, when at dawn, a British fleet, comprising more than 50 ships and a combined force of over 11,000 men of the Royal Navy and Army, sailed into Cuban waters and made an amphibious landing east of Havana.[9] The British immediately opened up trade with their North American and Caribbean colonies, causing a rapid transformation of Cuban society. Less than a year after Havana was seized, the Peace of Paris was signed by the three warring powers thus ending the Seven Years' War. The treaty gave Britain Florida in exchange for the city of Havana on the recommendation of the French, who advised that declining the offer could result in Spain losing Mexico and much of the South American mainland to the British.[10]

After regaining the city, the Spanish transformed Havana into the most heavily fortified city in the Americas. Construction began on what was to become the Fortress of San Carlos de la Cabaña, the biggest Spanish fortification in the New World. On January 15, 1796, the remains of Christopher Columbus were transported to the island from Santo Domingo. They rested here until 1898, when they were transferred to Seville's Cathedral, after Spain's loss of Cuba.

As trade between Caribbean and North American states increased in the early 19th century, Havana became a flourishing and fashionable city. Havana's theaters featured the most distinguished actors of the age, and prosperity amongst the burgeoning middle-class led to expensive new classical mansions being erected. During this period Havana became known as the Paris of the Antilles.

In 1837, the first railroad was constructed, a 51 km stretch between Havana and Bejucal, which was used for transporting sugar from the valley of Guinness to the harbor. With this, Cuba became the fifth country in the world to have a railroad, and the first Spanish-speaking country. Throughout the century, Havana was enriched by the construction of additional cultural facilities, such as the Tacon Teatre, one of the most luxurious in the world. The fact that slavery was legal in Cuba until 1886 led to Southern American interest, including a plan by the Knights of the Golden Circle to create a 'Golden Circle' with a 1200 mile-radius centered on Havana. After the Confederate States of America were defeated in the American Civil War in 1865, many former slaveholders continued to run plantations by moving to Havana.

In 1863, the city walls were knocked down so that the metropolis could be enlarged. At the end of the 19th century, Havana witnessed the final moments of Spanish colonialism in the Americas.

The Asturian Center in 1920

Republican period and Post-revolution

Museo de la Revolución

The 20th century began with Havana, and therefore Cuba, under occupation by the United States.

During the Republican Period, from 1902 to 1959, the city saw a new era of development. Cuba recovered from the devastation of war to become a well-off country, with the third largest middle class in the hemisphere, and Havana, the Capital of the country, became known as the "Paris of the Caribbean". Apartment buildings to accommodate the new middle class, as well as mansions for the Cuban tycoons, were built at a fast pace. Numerous luxury hotels, casinos and nightclubs were constructed during the 1930s to serve Havana's burgeoning tourist industry. In the thirties, organized crime characters were not unaware of Havana's nightclub and casino life, and they made their inroads in the city. Santo Trafficante, Jr. took the roulette wheel at the Sans Souci Casino, Meyer Lansky directed the Hotel Habana Riviera, with Lucky Luciano at the Hotel Nacional Casino. At the time, Havana became an exotic capital of appeal and numerous activities ranging from marinas, grand prix car racing, musical shows and parks.

Havana achieved the title of being the Latin American city with the biggest middle class population per-capita, simultaneously accompanied by gambling and corruption where gangsters and stars were known to mix socially. During this era, Havana was generally producing more revenue than Las Vegas, Nevada. In 1958, about 300,000 American tourists visited the city.

After the revolution of 1959, the new regime promised to improve social services, public housing, and official buildings; nevertheless, shortages that affected Cuba after Castro's abrupt expropriation of all private property and industry under a strong communist model backed by the Soviet Union followed by the U.S. embargo, hit Havana especially hard. By 1966-68, the Cuban government had nationalized all privately owned business entities in Cuba, down to "certain kinds of small retail forms of commerce" (law No. 1076[11]).

There was a severe economic downturn after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. With it, subsidies ended, losing billions of dollars which the Soviet Union gave the Cuban government, with many believing Havana's soviet-backed regime would soon vanish, as happened to the Soviet satellite states of Eastern Europe. However, contrary to the soviet satellite states of Eastern Europe, Havana's communist regime prevailed during the 1990s.

After many years of prohibition, the communist government increasingly turned to tourism for new financial revenue, and has allowed foreign investors to build new hotels and develop hospitality industry. In Old Havana, effort has also gone into rebuilding for tourist purposes, and a number of streets and squares have been rehabilitated.[12] But Old Havana is a large city, and the restoration efforts concentrate in all but less than 10% of its area.


Havana harbour entrance
Map of Havana, showing narrow entrance to bay & 3 harbour areas: Marimelena, Guanabacoa, and Atarés (right-click map to enlarge).

Havana lies on the northern coast of Cuba, south of the Florida Keys, where the Gulf of Mexico joins the Caribbean (map at right). The city extends mostly westward and southward from the bay, which is entered through a narrow inlet and which divides into three main harbours: Marimelena, Guanabacoa, and Atarés. The sluggish Almendares River traverses the city from south to north, entering the Straits of Florida a few miles west of the bay.

The low hills on which the city lies rise gently from the deep blue waters of the straits. A noteworthy elevation is the 200-foot-high (60-metre) limestone ridge that slopes up from the east and culminates in the heights of La Cabaña and El Morro, the sites of colonial fortifications overlooking the eastern bay. Another notable rise is the hill to the west that is occupied by the University of Havana and the Prince's Castle. Outside the city, higher hills rise on the west and east.


Havana, like much of Cuba, enjoys a pleasant year-round tropical climate that is tempered by the island's position in the belt of the trade winds and by the warm offshore currents. Under the Köppen climate classification, Havana has a tropical savanna climate. Average temperatures range from 72 °F (22 °C) in January and February to 82 °F (28 °C) in August. The temperature seldom drops below 50 °F (10 °C). The lowest temperature was 33 °F (1 °C) in Santiago de Las Vegas, Boyeros. The lowest recorded temperature in Cuba was 32 °F (0 °C) in Bainoa, Havana province. Rainfall is heaviest in June and October and lightest from December through April, averaging 46 inches (1,200 mm) annually. Hurricanes occasionally strike the island, but they ordinarily hit the south coast, and damage in Havana has been less than elsewhere in the country.

The table below lists temperature averages throughout the year:

Climate data for Havana
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 25.8
Average low °C (°F) 18.6
Rainfall mm (inches) 64.4
humidity 75 74 73 72 75 77 78 78 79 80 77 75 76.1
Avg. rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm) 5 5 3 3 6 10 7 9 10 11 6 5 80
Source: World Meteorological Organisation (UN),[13] Climate-Charts.com[14]


Centro Habana is the most densely populated borough

Contemporary Havana can essentially be described as three cities in one: Old Havana, Vedado, and the newer suburban districts. Old Havana, with its narrow streets and overhanging balconies, is the traditional centre of part of Havana's commerce, industry, and entertainment, as well as being a residential area.

To the north and west a newer section, centred on the uptown area known as Vedado, has become the rival of Old Havana for commercial activity and nightlife. Centro Habana, sometimes described as part of Vedado, is mainly a shopping district that lies between Vedado and Old Havana. The Capitolio Nacional building marks the beginning of Centro Habana, a working class neighborhood.[15] Chinatown and the Real Fabrica de Tabacos Partagás, one of Cuba's oldest cigar factories is located in the area.[16]

A third Havana is that of the more affluent residential and industrial districts that spread out mostly to the west. Among these is Marianao, one of the newer parts of the city, dating mainly from the 1920s. Some of the suburban exclusivity was lost after the revolution, many of the suburban homes having been nationalized by the Cuban government to serve as schools, hospitals, and government offices. Several private country clubs were converted to public recreational centres. Miramar, located west of Vedado along the coast, remains Havana's exclusive area; mansions, foreign embassies, diplomatic residences, upscale shops, and facilities for wealthy foreigners are common in the area.[17] The International School of Havana is located in the Miramar neighborhood.

In the 1980s many parts of Old Havana, including the Plaza de Armas, became part of a projected 35-year multimillion-dollar restoration project, for Cubans to appreciate their past and boost tourism. In the past ten years, with the assistance of foreign aid and under the support of local city historian Eusebio Leal Spengler, large parts of Habana Vieja have been renovated. The city is moving forward with their renovations, with most of the major plazas (Plaza Vieja, Plaza de la Catedral, Plaza de San Francisco and Plaza de Armas) and major tourist streets (Obispo and Mercaderes) near completion.


Neo-classical architecture
Historic Hotel Plaza
Neo-baroque apartment building
Payret Cinema
Church of the Sacred Heart of Jesus

Due to Havana's more than five hundred year existence, the city boasts some of the most diverse styles of architecture in the world. From castles built in the late 16th century to modernist present-day high-rises.


Neoclassism was introduced into the city in the 1840s, at the time including Gas public lighting in 1848 and the railroad in 1837. In the second half of the 18th century, sugar and coffee production increased rapidly, which became essential in the development of Havana's most prominent architectural style. Many wealthy Habaneros took their inspiration from the French; this can be seen within the interiors of upper class houses such as the Aldama Palace built in 1844. This is considered the most important neoclassical residential building in Cuba and typifies the design of many houses of this period with portales of neoclassical columns facing open spaces or courtyards.

In 1925 Jean-Claude Nicolas Forestier, the head of urban planning in Paris moved to Havana for five years to collaborate with architects and landscape designers. In the master planning of the city his aim was to create a harmonic balance between the classical built form and the tropical landscape. He embraced and connected the city's road networks while accentuating prominent landmarks. His influence has left a huge mark on Havana although many of his ideas were cut short by the great depression in 1929. During the first decades of the 20th century Havana expanded more rapidly than at any time during its history. Great wealth prompted architectural styles to be influenced from abroad. The peak of Neoclassicism came with the construction of the Vedado district (begun in 1859). This whole neighbourhood is littered with set back well-proportioned buildings.

Colonial and Baroque

Riches were brought from the colonialists into and through Havana as it was a key transshipment point between the new world and old world. As a result Havana was the most heavily fortified city in the Americas. Most examples of early architecture can be seen in military fortifications such as La Fortaleza de San Carlos de la Cabana (1558–1577) designed by Battista Antonelli and the Castillo del Morro (1589–1630). This sits at the entrance of Havana Bay and provides an insight into the supremacy and wealth at that time.

Old Havana was also protected by a defensive wall begun in 1674 but had already overgrown its boundaries when it was completed in 1767, becoming the new neighbourhood of Centro Habana. The influence from different styles and cultures can be seen in Havana's colonial architecture, with a diverse range of Moorish architecture, Spanish, Italian, Greek and Roman. The San Carlos and San Ambrosio Seminary (18th century) is a good example of early Spanish influenced architecture. The Havana cathedral (1748–1777) dominating the Plaza de la Catedral (1749) is the best example of Cuban Baroque. Surrounding it are the former palaces of the Count de Casa-Bayona (1720–1746) Marquis de Arcos (1746) and the Marquis de Aguas Claras (1751–1775).

Art Deco and Eclectic

The first echoes of the Art Deco movement in Havana started in 1927, in the residential area of Miramar.[18] The Edificio Bacardi (1930) is thought to be the best example of Art-deco architecture in the city and first tall Art Deco building as well,[18] followed by the Hotel Nacional de Cuba (1930) and The Lopez Serrano building built in 1932 by Ricardo Mira inspired by the Rockefeller Center in New York. The year 1928 marked the beginning of the reaction against the Spanish Renaissance style architecture, Art Deco started in the lush and wealthy suburbs of Miramar, Marianao, and Vedado.[18]

The city's eclectic architectural sights begins in Centro Habana.[19] The Central Railway Terminal (1912), and the Museum of the Revolution (1920) are example of Eclectic architecture.


Many high-rise office buildings, and apartment complexes, along with some hotels built in the 1950s dramatically altered the skyline. Modernism, therefore, transformed much of the city and should be noted for its individual buildings of high quality rather than its larger key buildings. Examples of the latter are Habana Libre (1958), which before the revolution was the Havana Hilton Hotel and La Rampa movie theater (1955).

Famous architects such as Walter Gropius, Richard Neutra and Oscar Niemeyer all passed through the city,[20] while strong influences can be seen in Havana at this time from Le Corbusier and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe.[21] The Edificio Focsa (1956) represents Havana's economic dominance at the time. This 35-story complex was conceived and based on Corbusian ideas of a self-contained city within a city. It contained 400 apartments, garages, a school, a supermarket, and restaurant on the top floor. This was the tallest concrete structure in the world at the time (using no steel frame) and the ultimate symbol of luxury and excess. The Havana Riviera Hotel (1957) designed by Irving Feldman, a twenty-one-story edifice, when it opened, the Riviera was the largest purpose-built casino-hotel in Cuba or anywhere in the world, outside Las Vegas (the Havana Hilton (1958) surpassed its size a year later).


  • Fortaleza San Carlos de la Cabaña, a fortress located on the east side of the Havana bay, La Cabaña is the most impressive fortress from colonial times, particularly its walls constructed at the end of the 18th century.
  • El Capitolio Nacional, built in 1929 as the Senate and House of Representatives, this colossal building is recognizable by its dome which dominates the city's skyline. Inside stands the third largest indoor statue in the world, La Estatua de la República. Nowadays, the Cuban Academy of Sciences headquarters and the Museo Nacional de Historia Natural (the National Museum of Natural History) has its venue within the building and contains the largest natural history collection in the country.
  • Castillo de los Tres Reyes Magos del Morro is a picturesque fortress guarding the entrance to Havana bay; Morro Castle was built because of the threat to the harbor from pirates.
  • Castillo San Salvador de la Punta, a small fortress built in the 16th century, at the western entry point to the Havana harbour, it played a crucial role in the defence of Havana during the initial centuries of colonisation. It houses some twenty old guns and military antiques.
  • Cristo de La Habana, Havana's 20-meter (66 ft) marble statue of Christ (1958) blesses the city from the east hillside of the bay, much like the famous Cristo Redentor in Rio de Janeiro.
  • The Great Theatre of Havana, famous particularly for the acclaimed National Ballet of Cuba, it sometimes hosts performances by the National Opera. The theater is also known as concert hall, García Lorca, the biggest in Cuba.
  • Hotel Nacional de Cuba, an Art Deco National Hotel.
  • El Malecón Habanero, the avenue that runs beside the seawall along the north shore of Havana, from Habana Vieja to the Almendares River, it forms the northern boundary of Old Havana, Centro Habana and Vedado.
  • Museo de la Revolución, located in the former Presidential Palace, with the yacht Granma on display behind the museum.
  • Necrópolis Cristóbal Colón, a cemetery and open air museum,[22] it is one of the most famous cemeteries in Latin America, known for its beauty and magnificence. The cemetery was built in 1876 and has nearly one million tombs. Some gravestones are decorated with sculpture by Ramos Blancos, among others.

Coat of arms


Old Havana residential street
Old Havana and its Fortifications *
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Country Cuba
Type Cultural
Criteria iv, v
Reference 204
Region ** Latin America and the Caribbean
Inscription history
Inscription 1982 (6th Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List
** Region as classified by UNESCO

Havana, by far the leading cultural centre of the country, offers a wide variety of features that range from museums, palaces, public squares, avenues, churches, fortresses (including the largest fortified complex in the Americas dating from the 16th through 18th centuries), ballet and from art and musical festivals to exhibitions of technology. The restoration of Old Havana offered a number of new attractions, including a museum to house relics of the Cuban revolution. The government placed special emphasis on cultural activities, many of which are free or involve only a minimal charge.

Old Havana

Old Havana, (La Habana Vieja in Spanish), contains the core if the original city of Havana, with more than 2,000 hectares it exhibits almost all the Western architectural styles seen in the New World. La Habana Vieja was founded by the Spanish in 1519 in the natural harbor of the Bay of Havana. It became a stopping point for the treasure laden Spanish Galleons on the crossing between the New World and the Old World. In the 17th century it was one of the main shipbuilding centers. The city was built in baroque and neoclassic style.

Many buildings have fallen in ruin but a number are being restored. The narrow streets of old Havana contain many buildings, accounting for perhaps as many as one-third of the approximately 3,000 buildings found in Old Havana.[23]

Old Havana is the ancient city formed from the port, the official center and the Plaza de Armas. Alejo Carpentier called Old Havana the place "de las columnas" (of the columns). The Cuban government is taking many steps to preserve and to restore Old Havana, through the Office of the city historian, directed by Eusebio Leal.[24] Old Havana and its fortifications were added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1982.[25]


the city's Chinatown (Barrio Chino), once Latin America's largest and most vibrant Chinatown[26][27][28] incorporated into the city by the early part of the 20th century when hundreds of thousands of Chinese workers were brought in by Spanish settlers from from Guangdong, Fujian, Hong Kong, and Macau via Manila, Philippines[29] starting in the mid-19th century and the following decades to replace and / or work alongside African slaves.[30] After completing 8-year contracts, many Chinese immigrants settled permanently in Havana.

The first 206 Chinese-born to arrived in Havana was on June 3, 1847.[31] The Chinatown neighborhood was booming with Chinese restaurants, laundries, banks, pharmacies, theaters and several Chinese-language newspapers, the neighborhood comprised 44 square blocks during its prime.[26][30] The heart of Havana's Chinatown is on el Cuchillo de Zanja (or The Zanja Canal). The strip is a pedestrian-only street adorned with many red lanterns, dancing red paper dragons and other Chinese cultural designs, there is a great number of restaurants that serve a full spectrum of Chinese dishes – unfortunately that 'spectrum' is said by many not to be related to real Chinese cuisine.

The Chinatown district has two paifang, a large one located on Calle Dragones, the People's Republic of China donated the materials in the late 1990s,[32] it has a well defined written welcoming sign in Chinese and Spanish. The smaller arch is located on Zanja strip. The Cuban's Chinese boom ended when Fidel Castro's 1959 revolution seized private businesses, sending tens of thousands of business-minded Chinese fleeing, mainly to the United States. Descendants are now making efforts to preserve and revive the culture.[27]

Visual arts

La Puerta del Sol en Madrid at the Museum of Fine Arts, by Luis Paret y Alcázar (1773)
National Museum of Fine Arts, The Asturian Center

The National Museum of Fine Arts (Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes) is a Fine Arts museum that exhibits Cuban and International art collections. The museum houses one of the largest collections of paintings and sculpture from Latin America and is the largest in the Caribbean region.[33] Under the Cuban Ministry of Culture, it occupies two locations in the vicinity of Havana's Paseo del Prado, these are the Palace of Fine Arts, devoted to Cuban art and the Palace of the Asturian Center, dedicated to universal art.[34] Its artistic heritage is made ​​up of over 45,000 pieces.[35]

The Museum of the Revolution (Museo de la Revolución), designed in Havana by Cuban architect Carlos Maruri, and the Belgian Paul Belau, who came up with an eclectic design, harmoniously combines Spanish, French and German architectural elements. The museum was the Presidential Palace in the capital; today, its displays and documents outline Cuba's history from the beginning of the neo-colonial period.

The neo-classical mansion of the Countess of Revilla de Camargo, today it is the Museum of Decorative Arts (Museo de Artes Decorativas), known as the "small French Palace of Havana" built between 1924 and 1927, it was designed in Paris inspired in French Renaissance.[36] The museum has been exhibiting more than 33,000 works dating from the reigns of Louis XV, Louis XVI, and Napoleon III; as well as 16th to 20th century Oriental pieces, among many other treasures.[37] The Museum has ten permanent exhibit halls. Among them are prominent porcelain articles from the factories in Sèvres and Chantilly, France; Meissen, Germany; and Wedgwood, England, as well as Chinese from the Qianlong Emperor period and Japanese from the Imari. The furniture comes from Stéphane Boudin, Jean Henri Riesener and several others.

Several museums in Old Havana houses furniture, silverware, pottery, glass and other items from the colonial period. One of these is the Palace of the General Captains, where Spanish governors once lived. The Casa de Africa presents another aspect of Cuba's history, it houses a large collection of Afro-Cuban religious artifacts.

Other museums in the icty includes Casa de los Árabes (House of Arabs) and the Casa de Asia (House of Asia) with Middle and Far Eastern collections. Havana's Museo del Automobil has an impressive collection of vehicles dating back to a 1905 Cadillac.

While most museums of Havana are situated in Old Havana, few of them can also be found in Vedado. In total, Havana has around 50 museums, including the National Museum of Music; the Museum of Dance and Rum; the Cigar Museum; the Napoleonic, Colonial and Oricha Museums; the Museum of Anthropology; the Ernest Hemingway Museum; the José Martí Monument; the Aircraft Museum (Museo del Aire).

There are also museums of Natural Sciences, the City, Archeology, Gold-and-Silverwork, Perfume, Pharmaceuticals, Sports, Numismatics, and Weapons.

Performing arts

Facing Havana's Central Park is the baroque Great Theatre of Havana, a prominent theatre built in 1837.[38] It is now home of the National Ballet of Cuba and the International Ballet Festival of Havana, one of the oldest in the New World. The façade of the building is adorned with a stone and marble statue. There are also sculptural pieces by Giuseppe Moretti,[39] representing allegories depicting benevolence, education, music and theatre. The principal theatre is the García Lorca Auditorium, with seats for 1,500 and balconies. Glories of its rich history; the Italian tenor Enrico Caruso sang, the Russian ballerina Anna Pavlova danced, and the French Sarah Bernhardt acted.

Other important theatres in the city includes the National Theater of Cuba, housed in a huge modern building located in Plaza de la Revolucion, decorated with works by Cuban artists. The National Theater includes two main theatre stages, the Avellaneda Auditorium and the Covarrubias Auditorium, as well as a smaller theatre workshop space on the ninth floor.

The Karl Marx Theater with its large auditorium have a seating capacity of 5,500 spectators, is generally used for concerts and other events, it is also one of the venues for the annual Havana Film Festival.

Great Theatre of Havana grand staircase
The Great Theatre of Havana interior




A freighter in the port

Havana has a diversified economy, with traditional sectors, such as manufacturing, construction, transportation and communications, and new or revived ones such as biotechnology and tourism.

The city's economy first developed on the basis of its location, which made it one of the early great trade centres in the New World. Sugar and a flourishing slave trade first brought riches to the city, and later, after independence, it became a renowned resort. Despite efforts by Fidel Castro's government to spread Cuba's industrial activity to all parts of the island, Havana remains the centre of much of the nation's industry.

The traditional sugar industry, upon which the island's economy has been based for three centuries, is centred elsewhere on the island and controls some three-fourths of the export economy. But light manufacturing facilities, meat-packing plants, and chemical and pharmaceutical operations are concentrated in Havana. Other food-processing industries are also important, along with shipbuilding, vehicle manufacturing, production of alcoholic beverages (particularly rum), textiles, and tobacco products, particularly the world-famous Habanos cigars.[40] Although the harbours of Cienfuegos and Matanzas, in particular, have been developed under the revolutionary government, Havana remains Cuba's primary port facility; 50% of Cuban imports and exports pass through Havana. The port also supports a considerable fishing industry.

In 2000, nearly 89% of the city's officially recorded labour force worked for government-run agencies, institutions or enterprises. Havana, on average, has the country's highest incomes and human development indicators. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Cuba re-emphasized tourism as a major industry leading to its recovery. Tourism is now Havana and Cuba's primary economic source.[41]


The Meliá Cohiba high-rise in Vedado
The Chamber of Commerce (Lonja del Comercio)
The Floridita historic restaurant and cocktail bar

The city has long been a popular attraction for tourists. Between 1915 and 1930, Havana hosted more tourists than any other location in the Caribbean.[42] The influx was due in large part to Cuba's proximity to the United States, where restrictive prohibition on alcohol and other pastimes stood in stark contrast to the island's traditionally relaxed attitude to leisure pursuits.

It was tourism's association to the world of gambling and prostitution during the Republic Period which made the revolutionary government established in 1959 approach the entire sector as a social evil to be eradicated. Many bars and gambling venues were closed down following the revolution and a government body, the National Institute of the Tourism Industry, took over many facilities (traditionally available to wealthy) to make them accessible to the general public.

With the deterioration of Cuba – United States relations and the imposition of the trade embargo on the island in 1961, tourism dropped drastically and did not return to anything close to its pre-revolution levels until 1989. The revolutionary government in general, and Fidel Castro in particular, initially opposed any considerable development of the tourism industry, linking the sphere to the debauchery and criminal activities of times past. In the late 1970s, however, Castro changed his stance and, in 1982, the Cuban government passed a foreign investment code which opened a number of sectors, tourism included, to foreign capital.

Through the creation of firms open to such foreign investment (such as Cubanacan), Cuba began to attract capital for hotel development, managing to increase the number of tourists from 130,000 (in 1980) to 326,000 (by the end of that decade).

Havana has also been a popular health tourism destination for more than 20 years. Foreign patients travel to Cuba, Havana in particular, for a wide range of treatments including eye-surgery, neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis and Parkinsons disease, and orthopaedics. Many patients are from Latin America, although medical treatment for retinitis pigmentosa, often known as night blindness, has attracted many patients from Europe and North America.[43][44]

Commerce and finance

After the Revolution, Cuba's traditional capitalist free-enterprise system was replaced by a heavily socialized economic system. In Havana, Cuban-owned businesses and U.S.-owned businesses were nationalized and today most businesses operate solely under state control.

In Old Havana and throughout Vedado there are several small private businesses, such as shoe-repair shops or dressmaking facilities. Banking as well is also under state control, and the National Bank of Cuba, headquartered in Havana, is the control center of the Cuban economy. Its branches in some cases occupy buildings that were in pre-revolutionary times the offices of Cuban or foreign banks.

In the late 1990s Vedado, located along the Caribbean waterfront, started to represent the principal commercial area. It was developed extensively between 1930 and 1960, when Havana developed as a major destination for U.S. tourists; high-rise hotels, casinos, restaurants, and upscale commercial establishments, many reflecting the art deco style.[45]

Vedado is today Havana's financial district, the main banks, airline companies offices, shops, most businesses headquarters, numerous high-rise apartments and hotels, are located in the area.[46] The University of Havana is located in Vedado.



During the Republic Period, the city was renowned for an excellent network of public transportation by bus, trams and taxi. A subway system modeled after that of New York City was proposed in 1921.[47][48]

In the 1980s there were also plans for a Metro system in Havana similar to Moscow's, as a result of the Soviet Union influence in Cuba at the time. The studies of geology and finance made ​​by Cuban and Soviet specialists were already well advanced in the 1980s.[49] The Cuban press showed the construction project, and even the course route, linking municipalities and neighborhoods in the capital.[49] In the late 1980s the project had already began, each mile of track was worth a million dollars at the time, but with the fall of the Soviet Union the project was later dropped.[49]

Havana is served by José Martí International Airport. The Airport lies about 11 kilometres (7 mi) south of the city center, and is the main hub of Cubana de Aviación, the airport is Cuba's main international and domestic getaway. Havana is also served by Playa Baracoa Airport which is small airport to the west of city used for some domestic flights, primarily Aerogaviota.

Havana has a network of suburban, interurban and long-distance rail lines, the only one in the Caribbean region.[50] The railways are nationalised and run by the UFC (Union de Ferrocarriles de Cuba – Union for Railways of Cuba).

Rail service connects Havana from the Central Rail Station, La Coubre Rail Station and Casablanca Station to various Cuban provinces. In 2004 the annual passenger volume was some 11 million,[51] but demand is estimated at two-and-a-half to three times this value, with the busiest route being between Havana and Santiago de Cuba, some 836 kilometres (519 mi) apart by rail. In 2000 the Union de Ferrocarriles de Cuba bought French first class airconditioned coaches.

The city's public buses are carried out by two divisions, Omnibus Metropolitanos (OM) and Metrobus.[52]

The Metrobus serves the inner-city urban area, with a maximum distance of 20 km (12 mi).[51] Its fleet have been modernized, but formerly in 2006 were known as "camellos" (camels). The camellos operated on the busiest routes and were trailers transformed into buses known as camels, so called for their two humps. The Metrobus consists of 17 main lines, identified with the letter "P" with long-distance routes. The stops are usually 800–1,000 metres (2,600–3,300 ft), with frequent buses in peak hours, about every 10 minutes. It uses large modern articulated buses, such as the Chinese-made Yutong brand, Russian-made Liaz, or MAZ of Belarus.

The Omnibus Metropolitanos (OM), known as the Metrobus feeder line, connects the adjacent towns and cities in the metropolitan area with the city center, with a maximum distance of 40 km (25 mi).[51] This division has one of the most used and largest urban bus fleets in the country, its fleet is made up of mostly new Chinese Yutong buses,[53] but as well older Busscar buses. In 2008 the Cuban government invested millions of dollars for the acquisition of 1,500 new Yutong urban buses.


Ministry of Informatics and Communications
Cuban President Raúl Castro and Russian Dmitry Medvedev at Plaza de la Revolución


Havana is administered by a city-provincial council, with a mayor as chief administrative officer. Thus, Havana functions as both a city and a province, the city has little autonomy and dependent upon the national government, particularly, for much of its budgetary and overall political direction.

The national government is headquartered in Havana and plays an extremely visible role in the city's life. Moreover, the all-embracing authority of many national institutions has led to a declining role for the city government, which, nevertheless, still provides much of the essential services and has competences in education, health care, city public transport, garbage collection, small industry, agriculture, etc.

Voters elect delegates to Municipal Assemblies in competitive elections. There is only one political party, the Communist Party, but since there must be a minimum of two candidates, members of the Communist Party often run against each other. Candidates are not required to be members of the party. They are nominated directly by citizens in open meetings within each election district. Municipal Assembly delegates in turn elect members of the Provincial Assembly, which in Havana serves roughly as the City Council; its president functions as the Mayor. There are direct elections for deputies to the National Assembly based on slates, and a portion of the candidates is nominated at the local level. The People's Councils (Consejos Populares) consist of local municipal delegates who elect a full-time representative to preside over the body. In addition, there is participation from "mass organisations" and representatives of local government agencies, industries and services. The 105 People's Councils in Havana cover an average of 20,000 residents.

Havana city borders are contiguous with the Mayabeque Province on the south and east and to Artemisa Province on the west, since former La Habana Province (rural) was abolished in 2010.

Havana is divided into 15 constituent municipalities. Before 1963, current city territory was divided into six independent municipalities, being Havana one of them. Between 1963 and 1976, the Metropolitan Havana "Regional" was established, with six subdivisions; but in 1976 the city's borders were expanded to include the entire metropolitan area, 15 municipalities were created and the city received the province status.

The city is divided into 15 municipios – municipalities or boroughs. (Numbers refer to map).

Municipality Population (2009) Area
Location Remarks
Arroyo Naranjo &10000000000210632000000210,632 82.18 2,563.1 23°00′52″N 082°18′11″W / 23.01444°N 82.30306°W / 23.01444; -82.30306 (Arroyo Naranjo) (10)
Boyeros &10000000000184331000000184,331 130.22 1,415.5 22°58′41″N 082°23′23″W / 22.97806°N 82.38972°W / 22.97806; -82.38972 (Boyeros) (1)
Centro Habana &10000000000152395000000152,395 3.42 44,559.9 23°08′09″N 082°22′56″W / 23.13583°N 82.38222°W / 23.13583; -82.38222 (Centro Habana) (6)
Cerro &10000000000129080000000129,080 10.19 12,667.3 23°06′49″N 082°21′48″W / 23.11361°N 82.36333°W / 23.11361; -82.36333 (Cerro) (8)
Cotorro &1000000000007447600000074,476 65.90 1,130.1 23°00′17″N 082°12′49″W / 23.00472°N 82.21361°W / 23.00472; -82.21361 (Cotorro) (12
Diez de Octubre &10000000000213583000000213,583 12.28 17,392.8 23°05′49″N 082°20′24″W / 23.09694°N 82.34°W / 23.09694; -82.34 (Diez de Octubre) (9)
Guanabacoa &10000000000113434000000113,434 129.48 876.1 23°05′55″N 082°14′59″W / 23.09861°N 82.24972°W / 23.09861; -82.24972 (Guanabacoa) (13)
La Habana del Este &10000000000173149000000173,149 141.49 1,223.8 23°09′44″N 082°14′58″W / 23.16222°N 82.24944°W / 23.16222; -82.24944 (La Habana del Este) (15)
La Habana Vieja &1000000000009122700000091,227 4.37 20,875.7 23°08′14″N 082°21′57″W / 23.13722°N 82.36583°W / 23.13722; -82.36583 (La Habana Vieja) (7)
La Lisa &10000000000133255000000133,255 36.63 3,637.9 23°01′57″N 082°28′42″W / 23.0325°N 82.47833°W / 23.0325; -82.47833 (La Lisa) (2)
Marianao &10000000000133336000000133,336 21.70 6,114.5 23°04′45″N 082°24′00″W / 23.07917°N 82.4°W / 23.07917; -82.4 (Marianao) (4)
Playa &10000000000177773000000177,773 35.02 5,076.3 23°05′39″N 082°26′56″W / 23.09417°N 82.44889°W / 23.09417; -82.44889 (Playa) (3)
Plaza de la Revolución &10000000000153858000000153,858 12.36 12,448.1 23°08′00″N 082°23′15″W / 23.1333333°N 82.3875°W / 23.1333333; -82.3875 (Plaza de la Revolución) (5)
Regla &1000000000004293900000042,939 10.22 4,201.5 23°08′11″N 082°18′05″W / 23.13639°N 82.30139°W / 23.13639; -82.30139 (Regla) (14)
San Miguel del Padrón &10000000000158525000000158,525 25.55 6,204.5 23°03′19″N 082°16′55″W / 23.05528°N 82.28194°W / 23.05528; -82.28194 (San Miguel del Padrón) (11)
Havana 2,141,993 721.1 2,970.8 - -
Source: Population from Official 2009 Census.[54] Area from 1976 municipal re-distribution.[55]


By the end of 2009, 19.1% of the population of Cuba lived in Havana.[1] According to the census of 2009, the population was 2,141,993[1] (6,139 less from the previous year),[1] including 1,032,687 men and 1,109,306 women. The city has an average life expectancy of 76.81 years at birth.[1] In 2009, there were 1,924 people living with HIV/AIDS in the city, 78.9% of these are men, and 21.1% being women.[56]

According to the 1981 Havana's official race census [57] (the Cuban census and similar studies use the term "skin colour" instead of "race"),

There are few mestizos contrary to many other Latin American countries, because the Native Indian population was virtually wiped out in colonial times.

Population growth of Havana city agglomeration

The development and opportunity offered by Cuba in the 1920s-1950s, and Havana in particular, made the capital a magnet for immigration during the Republic period, mostly from various regions of Spain. Havana agglomeration grew rapidly during the first half of the XX century reaching 1 million inhabitants in the 1943 census. The con-urbanization expanded over the Havana municipality borders into neighbor municipalities of Marianao, Regla and Guanabacoa. Starting from the 80's, the city's population is growing slowly as a result of balanced development policies, low birth rate, its relatively high rate of emigration abroad, and controlled domestic migration. Because of the city and country's low birth rate and high life expectancy,[59][60] its age structure is similar to a developed country, with Havana having an even higher proportion of elderly than the country as a whole.[1]

The Cuban government controls the movement of people into Havana on the grounds that the Havana metropolitan area (home to nearly 20% of the country's population) is overstretched in terms of land use, water, electricity, transportation, and other elements of the urban infrastructure. There is a population of internal migrants to Havana nicknamed "palestinos" (Palestinians),[61] sometimes considered a racist term,[62] these mostly hail from the eastern region of Oriente.[63]

The city's significant minority of Chinese, mostly Cantonese ancestors, were brought in the mid-19th century by Spanish settlers via the Philippines with work contracts and after completing 8-year contracts many Chinese immigrants settled permanently in Havana.[58] Before the revolution the Chinese population counted to over 200,000,[64] today, Chinese ancestors could count up to 100,000.[65] Chinese born/ native Chinese (mostly Cantonese as well) are around 400 presently.[66] There are some 3,000 Russians living in the city, as reported by the Russian Embassy in Havana, they're mostly women that married Cubans who had gone to the Soviet Union to study.[67] Havana also shelters other non-Cuban population of an unknown size. There is a population of several thousand North African teen and pre-teen refugees.[68]

Roman Catholics form the largest religious group in Havana. The Jewish community in Havana has reduced after the Revolution from once having embraced more than 15,000 Jews,[69] many of whom had fled Nazi persecution and subsequently left Cuba to Miami or returned to Israel after Castro took to power in 1959. The city once had five synagogues, but only three remain (one Orthodox, one Conservative and one Sephardic), Beth Shalom Grand Synagogue is one of them. In February 2007 the New York Times estimated that there were about 1,500 known Jews living in Havana.[70]

Poverty and slums

Housing Units and Population of Havana Slums[71][72]
Housing type Year Units Population % of Total Pop.
cuartería(a) 2001 60,754 206,564 9.4
slums/ ghetto 2001 21,552 72,986 3.3
shelters 1997 2,758 9,178 0.4
(a)A cuartería (or ciudadela, solar) is a large inner-city old mansion or hotel or
boarding house subdivided into rooms, sometimes with over 60 families.[73]

The national government does not have an official definition of poverty.[74] The government researchers argue that "poverty" in most commonly accepted meanings does not really exist in Cuba, but rather that there is a sector of the population that can be described as "at risk" or "vulnerable" using internationally accepted measures.[74] Indeed, it does not publicly report household income figures in the Census or in its Statistical Yearbook. Soon after the revolution the government lowered prices on goods and services; assure equal access to low-cost essential food and consumer goods through rationing; and extend the social security system to the entire population.

The generic term "slum" is seldom used in Cuba, substandard housing is described: housing type, housing conditions, building materials, and settlement type. The National Housing Institute considers units in solares (a large inner-city mansion or older hotel or boarding house subdivided into rooms, sometimes with over 60 families)[73] and shanty towns to be the "precarious housing stock" and tracks their number. Most slum units are concentrated in the inner-city municipalities of Old Havana and Centro Habana, as well as such neighbourhoods as Atarés in Regla.[72] People living in slums have access to the same education, health care, job opportunities and social security as those who live in formerly privileged neighbourhoods. Shanty towns are scattered throughout the city except for in a few central areas.[72]

Over 9% of Havana's population live in cuartería (solares, ciudadela), 3.3% in shanty towns, and 0.3% in refugee shelters.[71][72] This does not include an estimate of the number of people living in housing in "fair" or "poor" condition because in many cases these units do not necessarily constitute slum housing but rather are basically sound dwellings needing repairs. According to Instituto Nacional de Vivienda (National Housing Institute) official figures, in 2001, 64% of Havana's 586,768 units were considered in "good" condition, up from 50% in 1990. Some 20% were in "fair" condition and 16% in "poor" condition.[72] Partial or total building collapses are not uncommon, although the number had been cut in half by the end of the 1990s as the worst units disappeared and others were repaired. Buildings in Old Havana and Centro Habana are especially exposed to the elements: high humidity, the corrosive effects of salt spray from proximity to the coast, and occasional flooding.


San Gerónimo College


The national government assumes all responsibility for education, and there are adequate primary, secondary, and vocational training schools throughout Havana. The schools are of varying quality and education is free and compulsory at all levels except higher learning, which is also free.

The University of Havana, located in the Vedado section of Havana, was established in 1728 and was regarded as a leading institution of higher learning in the Western Hemisphere. Soon after the Revolution, the university, as well as all other educational institutions, were nationalized. Since then several other universities have opened, like the Polytechnic José Antonio Echeverría where the vast majority of today's Cuban engineers are formed.

The Cuban National Ballet School with 4,350 students is the biggest ballet school in the world and the most prestigious ballet school in Cuba.[75]


All Havana residents have free access to health care in hospitals,[76] local polyclinics, and neighbourhood family doctors who serve on average 170 families each,[77] which is one of the highest doctor-to-patient ratio in the world.[78] However, the health system has suffered from shortages of supplies, equipment and medications caused by ending of the Soviet Union subsidies in the early 1990s and the US embargo.[79] Nevertheless, Havana's infant mortality rate in 2009 was 4.9 per 1,000 live births,[1] 5.12 in the country as a whole, which is lower than many developed nations,[80][81] and the lowest in the developing world.[80][81][82] Administration of the health care system for the nation is centred largely in Havana. Hospitals in Havana are run by the national government, and citizens are assigned hospitals and clinics to which they may go for attention.


Utility services are under the control of several nationalized state enterprises that have developed since the Cuban revolution. Water, electricity, and sewage service are administered in this fashion. Electricity is supplied by generators that are fueled with oil. Much of the original power plant installations, which operated before the Revolutionary government assumed control, have become somewhat outdated. Electrical blackouts occurred, prompting the national government in 1986 to allocate the equivalent of $25,000,000 to modernize the electrical system.

Faculty of Math and Computer Science, University of Havana
Hermanos Ameijeiras Surgical Hospital


Wrestling Match in the National Stadium

Many Cubans are avid sports fans who particularly favour baseball. Havana's teams in the Cuban National Series are Industriales and Metropolitanos. The city has several large sports stadiums, the largest one is the Estadio Latinoamericano. Admission to sporting events is generally free, and impromptu games are played in neighborhoods throughout the city. Social clubs at the beaches provide facilities for water sports and include restaurants and dance halls.

Notable people born in Havana

See also Category:People from Havana (category)


International relations

Twin towns — sister cities

Havana is twinned with:

See also


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  2. ^ (English) Latin America Population – Havana city population.
  3. ^ (English) Capital city – capital of Spanish Cuba in 1552
  4. ^ (English) Old Havana
  5. ^ (English) Spanish-American War, Effects of the Press on Spanish-American Relations in 1898
  6. ^ (Spanish) Fundación de La Habana a orillas del Río Onicajinal o Mayabeque
  7. ^ San Cristobal de La Habana en el Sur
  8. ^ Thomas, Hugh: Cuba, A pursuit of freedom, 2nd Edition, p.1.
  9. ^ Pocock, Tom: Battle for Empire: The very first world war 1756-63. Chapter Six.
  10. ^ Thomas, Hugh: Cuba: The Pursuit of Freedom 2nd edition. Chapter One
  11. ^ Nigel Hunt. "Cuba Nationalization Laws". cuba heritage .org. http://www.cubaheritage.org/articles.asp?lID=1&artID=236. Retrieved 2009-07-08. 
  12. ^ Old Havana restoration – Success on the restoration program of Havana
  13. ^ "World Weather Information Service – Havana". Cuban Institute of Meteorology. June 2011. http://worldweather.wmo.int/131/c00280.htm. Retrieved 2010-06-26. 
  14. ^ "Casa Blanca, Habana, Cuba: Climate, Global Warming, and Daylight Charts and Data". http://www.climate-charts.com/Locations/c/CU78325.php. Retrieved 2010-06-26. 
  15. ^ Centro Habana- Centro Habana guia turistica, Cuba
  16. ^ CubaJunky.com. "Centro Habana". Cuba-junky.com. http://www.cuba-junky.com/havana/havana-casas-particular-viejaycentro.html. Retrieved 2010-04-17. 
  17. ^ "Havana Miramar School". Cactuslanguage.com. http://www.cactuslanguage.com/en/book/course.php?course_id=1045. Retrieved 2010-04-17. 
  18. ^ a b c Alonso, Alejandro (2003). Havana Deco. New York: W.W. Norton and Company. pp. 3–7. ISBN 978-0-393-73232-0. 
  19. ^ Sainsbury, Brendan (2007). Havana. Lonely planet. pp. 101, 102. ISBN 978-1-74104-069-2. 
  20. ^ Juliet, Barclay (1993). Havana, Portrait of a City. London: Casell. p. 92. ISBN 978-1-84403-127-6. 
  21. ^ Rodriguez, Eduardo-Luis. "Introduction". The Havana guide: modern architecture. New York City: Princeton Architectural Press. pp. 1–8. ISBN 978-1-56898-210-6. 
  22. ^ "Havana's magnificent necropolis tells a story of wealth and freedom". Carilat.de. Archived from the original on 2010-02-01. http://www.carilat.de/stories/cubas_necropolis.htm. Retrieved 2010-04-17. 
  23. ^ Travel Photos of Galen R Frysinger, Sheboygan, Wisconsin 3,000 buildings found in Old Havana
  24. ^ Hartford Web Publishing Cuban Restoration Project Pins New Hopes on Old Havana
  25. ^ Habana Vieja – UNESCO World Heritage List
  26. ^ a b Havana's Chinatown – The once largest Chinatown in Latin America
  27. ^ a b China Today Chinese in Cuba
  28. ^ Embassy of Cuba in Beijing, History of Chinese in Cuba Surgido en la segunda mitad del siglo XIX, el Barrio Chino de La Habana experimentó un rápido desarrollo y llegó a convertirse, en la siguiente centuria, en el más importante de América Latina.
  29. ^ Rafael Lam "Chinese from Manila in Cuba"
  30. ^ a b Embassy of Cuba in Beijing-Immigration in Cuba
  31. ^ Cuba Culture "Aportes de los chinos en Cuba"
  32. ^ El Barrio Chino de la Habana – Havana's Chinatown (Spanish)
  33. ^ "Historia del Museo Nacional" (in Spanish). Museonacional.cult.cu. http://www.museonacional.cult.cu/historia.php. Retrieved 11 July 2011. 
  34. ^ "Centro Asturiano". MuseoNacional.cult.cu. Archived from the original on 2008-02-12. http://web.archive.org/web/20080212132521/http://www.museonacional.cult.cu/asturiano/historia.php?&id=2. Retrieved 11 July 2011. 
  35. ^ "(ES) El Alma de la nación no se vende". Cubaweb.cu. http://www.lajiribilla.cubaweb.cu/2001/n12_julio/334_12.html. Retrieved 11 July 2011. 
  36. ^ Museo de Artes Decorativos- José Gómez Mena, one of Cuba's wealthiest aristocrats, built this house in 1927 to hold his staggering collection of antique furniture, rugs, paintings and vases.
  37. ^ (Spanish) Paseos por La Habana-El museo guarda en su interior mobiliario antiguo, porcelana y ceramica, cristalerias, espejos, bronces y objetos ornamentales.
  38. ^ 170 Aniversario Gran Teatro
  39. ^ (Spanish) Radio Havana-Cuba- Existen también piezas escultóricas en las cuatro cúpulas del techo realizadas por Giuseppe Moretti.
  40. ^ "The economy of Havana". Macalester.edu. http://www.macalester.edu/courses/geog61/jtahtinen/economy.html. Retrieved 2010-04-17. 
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  42. ^ International Tourism and the Formation of Productive Clusters in the Cuban Economy Miguel Alejandro Figueras[dead link]
  43. ^ A Novel Tourism Concept Caribbean News Net[dead link]
  44. ^ Cuba sells its medical expertise BBC News
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  46. ^ "Britanica". Britanica.com. http://www.britannica.com/eb/topic-624418/Vedado. Retrieved 11 July 2011. 
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  48. ^ Google.com. Books.google.com. 2007-12-18. http://books.google.com/books?id=MiATAAAAYAAJ&pg=RA5-PA21&lpg=RA5-PA21&dq=havana+subway&source=bl&ots=LY-5pkT9PV&sig=rHozJRiQMtMs_KsMvGNswIvsVAk&hl=en&ei=scpwSujNNaKltge3ibWbDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6. Retrieved 2010-04-17. 
  49. ^ a b c Havana Metro Hace unos años parecía que la capital cubana tendría metro, cuando en la década de 1980 los estudios de geología y finanzas realizados por especialistas cubanos y soviéticos iban muy adelantados.
  50. ^ Railways of the World
  51. ^ a b c http://www.one.cu/aec2009/datos/13TRANSPORTE.pdf National Stadistics Census of Cuba - Transportation (Page 6)
  52. ^ http://www.one.cu/aec2009/datos/13TRANSPORTE.pdf National Stadistics Office - Transportation
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  55. ^ http://www.statoids.com/ycu.html Municipios of Cuba
  56. ^ http://www.one.cu/publicaciones/cepde/EncuestaSida/Informe%20resumen%20de%20la%20Encuesta%20a%20PVs%202009.pdf Official Census, people living with HIV/AIDS in Havana
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  58. ^ a b c Embassy of Cuba in Beijing - History of Immigration in Cuba "The first (immigrants) came from various regions of Spain, mostly peasants from the Canaries and Galicia, which like those from China, were subjected to conditions of living and working conditions similar to those of slaves."
  59. ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/cu.html Archived 9 May 2009 at WebCite
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  61. ^ Cuba's Unwanted Refugees Squatters in Havana's Shantytowns
  62. ^ AlJazeera A Palestinian filmmaker finds much in common with a homeless Cuban musician.
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  66. ^ In Havana there are now about 400 native Chinese, but their presence is being felt like a million ("En La Habana quedan hoy unos 400 chinos oriundos, pero su presencia se está haciendo sentir como si fueran un millón".)
  67. ^ (Spanish) Russians in Cuba Los rusos que se quedaron en la isla -unos 3.000 actualmente- son en su mayoría mujeres como Marina o Natalia que se casaron con cubanos que habían ido a la URSS a estudiar, indicó la embajada rusa en La Habana.
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  • King, Charles Spencer (2009) Havana My Kind of Town. USA: CreateSpace. ISBN 978-1-4404-3269-9.
  • Havana: History and Architecture of a Romantic City. Alicia García Santana. Monacelli, October 2000. ISBN 978-1-58093-052-9.
  • Angela, Ferriol Maruaga; et al.: Cuba crisis, ajuste y situación social (1990–1996), Editorial de Ciencias Sociales, 1998. ISBN 978-959-06-0348-8
  • The Rough Guide to Cuba (3rd ed.). Rough Guides, May 2005. ISBN 978-1-84353-409-9.
  • Wonderful Havana (1st ed.). Eddie Lennon and Julie Napier. Waterloo Press, July 2011. ISBN 978-1-4659-6365-9
  • Barclay, Juliet (1993). Havana: Portrait of a City. London: Cassell. ISBN 978-1-84403-127-6 (2003 paperback edition). — A comprehensive account of the history of Havana from the early 16th century to the end of the 19th century.
  • Carpentier, Alejo. La ciudad de las columnas (The city of columns). — A historical review of the city from one of the major authors in the iberoamerican literature, a native of this city.
  • Cluster, Dick, & Rafael Hernández, History of Havana. New York: Palgrave-MacMillan, 2006. ISBN 978-1-4039-7107-4. A social history of the city from 1519 to the present, co-authored by a Cuban writer and editor resident in Havana and an American novelist and writer of popular history.
  • Eguren, Gustavo. La fidelísima Habana (The very faithful Havana). — A fundamental illustrated book for those who wants to know the history of La Habana, includes chronicles, articles from natives and non natives, archives documents, and more.
  • United Railways of Havana. Cuba: A Winter Paradise. 1908–1909, 1912–1913, 1914–1915 and 1915–1916 editions. New York, 1908, 1912, 1914 and 1915. Maps, photos and descriptions of suburban and interurban electric lines.
  • Electric Traction in Cuba. Tramway & Railway World (London), April 1, 1909, pp. 243–244. Map, photos and description of Havana Central Railroad.
  • The Havana Central Railroad. Electrical World (New York), April 15, 1909, pp. 911–912. Text, 4 photos.
  • Three-Car Storage Battery Train. Electric Railway Journal (New York), September 28, 1912, p. 501. Photo and description of Cuban battery cars.
  • Berta Alfonso Gallol. Los Transportes Habaneros. Estudios Históricos. La Habana, 1991. The definitive survey (but no pictures or maps).
  • Six Days in Havana by James A. Michener and John Kings. University of Texas Press; 1ST edition (1989). ISBN 978-0-292-77629-6. Interviews with close to 200 Cubans of widely assorted backgrounds and positions, and concerns how the country has progressed after 90 years of independence from Spain and under the 30-year leadership of Castro.
  • One more interesting note about that edition of the New York Times: On page 5, there is a short blurb mentioning, "The plan for holding a Pan-American exhibition at Buffalo has been shelved for the present owing to the unsettled condition of the public mind consequent upon the Spanish-Cuban complications." President William McKinley was assassinated at the Pan-American Exhibition when it was finally held in 1901.
  • "Havana Revisited: An Architectural Heritage" by Cathryn Griffith. W. W. Norton 2010. ISBN 978-0-393-73284-9 www.havanarevisited.com.

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