- British Virgin Islands
conventional_long_name = British Virgin Islands
common_name = British Virgin Islands
national_motto = "Vigilate"spaces|2(
Latin) "Be Watchful"
national_anthem = "
God Save the Queen"
official_languages = English
ethnic_groups = 83.36% Black African, 7.28% British, Portuguese, 5.38%
Multiracial, 3.14% East Indian, 0.84% Others
British Overseas Territory
leader_title1 = Head of State
leader_name1 = Queen Elizabeth II
leader_title2 = Governor
leader_title3 = Premier
Ralph T. O'Neal
British Overseas Territory
established_event1 = Separate
established_date1 = 1960
established_event2 = Autonomous territory
established_date2 = 1967
area_rank = 216th
area_magnitude = 1 E8
area_km2 = 153
area_sq_mi = 59
percent_water = 1.6
population_census = 22,016
population_census_year = 2005
population_density_km2 = 260
population_density_sq_mi = 673
population_density_rank = 68th
GDP_PPP_per_capita = $43,366
currency = U.S. dollar
currency_code = USD
time_zone = Q
utc_offset = -4
time_zone_DST = not observed
utc_offset_DST = -4
calling_code = 1 284
The British Virgin Islands (BVI) is a
British overseas territory, located in the Caribbeanto the east of Puerto Rico. The islands make up part of the Virgin Islands archipelago, the remaining islands constituting the U.S. Virgin Islands. Technically the name of the Territory is simply the "Virgin Islands", but in practice since 1917 they have been almost universally referred to as the "British Virgin Islands" to distinguish the islands from the American Territory. [British Virgin Islands government publications had traditionally continued to commence with "The Territory of the Virgin Islands", but recently, more and more legislation now simply refers to the Territory as the British Virgin Islands. The Interpretation Act (Cap 136) (1985) defines the "Territory" as simply the "Virgin Islands"; but the Insolvency Act, 2003 defines a "foreign company" as 'a body corporate that is incorporated, registered or formed outside the "British Virgin Islands".'] To add to the regional confusion, the Puerto Rican islands of Culebra, Vieques and surrounding islands began referring to themselves as the " Spanish Virgin Islands" as part of a tourism drive in the early 2000s.
The British Virgin Islands consist of the main islands of
Tortola, Virgin Gorda, Anegadaand Jost Van Dyke, along with over fifty other smaller islands and cays. Approximately fifteen of the islands are inhabited. The largest island, Tortola, is approximately 20 km (approx. 12 mi) long and 5 km (approx. 3 mi) wide. The islands have a total population of about 22,000, of whom approximately 18,000 live on Tortola. Road Town, the capital, is situated on Tortola.
The Virgin Islands were first settled by the
Arawakfrom South Americaaround 100 BC (though there is some evidence of Amerindianpresence on the islands as far back as 1500 BC). [Wilson, Samuel M. ed. "The Indigenous People of the Caribbean". Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1997. ISBN 0813016924] The Arawaks inhabited the islands until the fifteenth century when they were displaced by the more aggressive Caribs, a tribe from the Lesser Antillesislands, after whom the Caribbean Seais named.
The first European sighting of the Virgin Islands was by
Christopher Columbusin 1493 on his second voyage to the Americas. Columbus gave them the fanciful name "Santa Ursula y las Once Mil Vírgenes" (Saint Ursula and her 11,000 Virgins), shortened to "Las Vírgenes" (The Virgins), after the legend of Saint Ursula.
Spanish Empireclaimed the islands by discovery in the early sixteenth century, but never settled them, and subsequent years saw the English, Dutch, French, Spanish and Danish all jostling for control of the region, which became a notorious haunt for pirates. There is no record of any native Amerindian population in the British Virgin Islands during this period, although the native population on nearby St. Croix was decimated.
The Dutch established a permanent settlement on the island of
Tortolaby 1648. In 1672, the English captured Tortola from the Dutch, and the British annexation of Anegadaand Virgin Gordafollowed in 1680. Meanwhile, over the period 1672–1733, the Danish gained control of the nearby islands of St. Thomas, St. John and St. Croix.
The British islands were considered principally a strategic possession, but were planted when economic conditions were particularly favourable. The British introduced
sugar canewhich was to become the main crop and source of foreign trade, and slaves were brought from Africato work on the sugar cane plantations. The islands prospered economically until the middle of the 1800s, when a combination of the abolition of slavery in the Territory, a series of disastrous hurricanes, and the growth in the sugar beetcrop in Europe and the United States[In the United Kingdom, a major market for sugar from the Territory, the Sugar Duties Act 1846also created a considerable downward effect on the price of Caribbean sugar cane.] significantly reduced sugar cane production and led to a period of economic decline.
In 1917, the
United Statespurchased St. John, St. Thomas and St. Croix from Denmark for US$25 million, renaming them the United States Virgin Islands.
The British Virgin Islands were administered variously as part of the
British Leeward Islandsor with St. Kitts and Nevis, with an Administrator representing the British Government on the Islands. Separate colony status was gained for the Islands in 1960 and the Islands became autonomous in 1967. Since the 1960s, the Islands have diversified away from their traditionally agriculture-based economy towards tourism and financial services, becoming one of the richest areas in the Caribbean.
The British Virgin Islands comprise around sixty tropical Caribbean islands, ranging in size from the largest, Tortola 20 km (approx. 12 mi) long and 5 km (approx. 3 mi) wide, to tiny uninhabited islets. They are located in the Virgin Islands archipelago, a few miles east of the
U.S. Virgin Islands. The North Atlantic Ocean lies to the north of the islands, and the Caribbean Sealies to the south. Most of the islands are volcanic in origin and have a hilly, rugged terrain. Anegada is geologically distinct from the rest of the group and is a flat island composed of limestone and coral.
In addition to the four main islands of
Tortola, Virgin Gorda, Anegada, and Jost Van Dyke, other islands include:columns
See also .
The British Virgin Islands enjoy a tropical climate, moderated by
trade winds. Temperatures vary little throughout the year. In the capital, Road Town, typical daily maxima are around 32 °C (90 °F) in the summer and 29 °C (84 °F) in the winter. Typical daily minima are around 24 °C (75 °F) in the summer and 21 °C (70 °F) in the winter. Rainfall averages about 1150 mm (45 in) per year, higher in the hills and lower on the coast. Rainfall can be quite variable, but the wettest months on average are September to November and the driest months on average are February and March. Hurricanes occasionally hit the islands, with the hurricane season running from June to November.
Executive authority in British Virgin Islands is invested in The Queen and is exercised on her behalf by the
Governor of the British Virgin Islands. The Governor is appointed by the Queen on the advice of the British Government. Defence and Foreign Affairs remain the responsibility of the United Kingdom.
A new constitution was adopted in 2007 (the Virgin Islands Constitution Order, 2007 [ [http://www.opsi.gov.uk/si/em2007/uksiem_20071678_en.pdf Virgin Islands Constitution Order 2007] ] ) and came into force when the Legislative Council was dissolved for the 2007 general election. The Head of Government under the new constitution is the Premier (prior to the new constitution the office was referred to as Chief Minister), who is elected in a general election along with the other members of the ruling government as well as the members of the opposition. An Executive Council is nominated by the Premier and appointed by the Governor. There is a
unicameral Legislative Councilmade up of 13 seats.
The current Governor is
David Pearey(since 2006). The current Premier is Ralph T. O'Neal(since 22 August 2007).
The British Virgin Islands enjoys one of the more prosperous economies of the Caribbean region, with a per capita GDP of around $38,500 (2004 est.) [CIA. [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/vi.html#Econ Economy: British Virgin Islands] . The World Factbook, CIA publications, 19 December. 2006. Retrieved 25 December. 2006.]
In the British Virgin Islands it has long been fashionable to talk about the "twin pillars" of the Territory's economy – tourism and financial services. Politically, tourism is the more important of the two, as it employs a greater number of people within the Territory, and a larger proportion of the businesses in the tourist industry are locally owned, as are a number of the highly tourism-dependent sole traders (e.g. taxi drivers and street vendors). Economically, however, financial services are by far the more important. Nearly 50% of the Government's revenue comes directly from licence fees for offshore companies, and considerable further sums are raised directly or indirectly from payroll taxes relating to salaries paid within the trust industry sector (which tend to be higher on average than those paid in the tourism sector).
Tourismaccounts for 45% of national income. The islands are a popular destination for U.S. citizens, with around 350,000 tourists visiting annually (1997 figures). Tourists frequent the numerous white sand beaches, visit The Baths on Virgin Gorda, snorkel the coral reefs near Anegada, or experience the well-known bars of Jost Van Dyke. The BVI are known as one of the world's greatest sailing destinations, and charter sailboats are a very popular way to visit less accessible islands. A substantial number of the tourists who visit the BVI are cruise shippassengers, although they produce far lower revenue per head than charter boat tourists and hotel based tourists. They are nonetheless important to the substantial (and politically important) taxi driving community.
Substantial revenues are also generated by the registration of offshore companies. As of 2004, over 550,000 companies were so registered. In 2000 KPMG reported in its survey of offshore jurisdictions for the
United Kingdomgovernment that over 41% of the world's offshore companies were formed in the British Virgin Islands. Since 2001, financial services in the British Virgin Islands have been regulated by the independent Financial Services Commission.
Agriculture and industry account for only a small proportion of the islands' GDP. Agricultural produce includes fruit, vegetables, sugar cane, livestock and poultry, and industries include rum distillation, construction and boatbuilding.
Since 1959, the official currency of the British Virgin Islands has been the US dollar, also used by the
United States Virgin Islands.
The British Virgin Islands are a major target for drug traffickers, who use the area as a gateway to the United States. According to the Foreign & Commonwealth Office, drug trafficking is "potentially the most serious threat to stability in the BVI". [ [http://www.fco.gov.uk/servlet/Front?pagename=OpenMarket/Xcelerate/ShowPage&c=Page&cid=1007029394365&a=KCountryProfile&aid=1018965234868 British Virgin Islands Country Profile] , Foreign & Commonwealth Office]
The population of the Islands is around 21,730 in 2003. The majority of the population (83%) are
Afro-Caribbean, descended from the slaves brought to the islands by the British. Other large ethnic groups include those of British and other European origin.
The 1999 census reports:: 83.36% Black: spaces|27.28% White*: spaces|25.38% Mixed: spaces|23.14% East Indian: spaces|20.84% Others
The islands are predominantly
Protestant Christian(86%). The largest individual Christian denominations are Methodist(33%), Anglican(17%), and the Catholic (10%).
There are convert|113|km|mi|0 of roads. The main airport (
Terrance B. Lettsome International Airport, also known as Beef Island Airport) is located on Beef Island, which lies off the eastern tip of Tortola. Virgin Gorda and Anegada have their own smaller airports. The main harbour is in Road Town. There are also ferries that operate within the British Virgin Islands and to the neighbouring United States Virgin Islands. As in the UK, cars in the British Virgin Islands drive on the left side of the road.
The British Virgin Islands operates several government schools as well as private schools. There is also a community college, Hamilton Lavity Stoutt Community College, that is located on the eastern end of Tortola. This college was named after the late Honourable Lavity Stoutt (Chief Minister). [ [http://www.bvi.gov.vg/products.asp?iProd=35&iCat=12&hierarchy=0 British Virgin Islands Schools] , BVI Government website]
The traditional music of the British Virgin Islands is called "fungi" after the local
cornmealdish with the same name, often made with okra. The special sound of fungi is due to a unique local fusion between African and European music. It functions as a medium of local history and folklore and is therefore a cherished cultural form of expression that is part of the curriculum in BVI schools. The fungi bands, also called "scratch bands", use instruments ranging from calabash, washboard, bongos and ukulele, to more traditional western instruments like keyboard, banjo, guitar, bass, triangle and saxophone. Apart from being a form of festive dance music, fungi often contains humorous social commentaries, as well as BVI oral history. [Penn, Dexter J.A. [http://dexterpenn.smugmug.com/gallery/4068409 Music of the British Virgin Islands: Fungi] . Retrieved 13 January 2008.]
List of British Virgin Islands-related topics
Communications on the British Virgin Islands
Culture of the Virgin Islands
Demographics of the British Virgin Islands
Military of the British Virgin Islands
Music of the Virgin Islands
Politics of the British Virgin Islands
Virgin Islands Creole
Official sites and overviews
* [http://www.bvi.gov.vg The Government of the British Virgin Islands] (official government site)
* [http://www.bvi.org.uk/the_london_office.asp The Government of the BVI, London Office] — Official government site
* [http://www.bvitouristboard.com British Virgin Islands: Nature's Little Secrets] — Official site of the British Virgin Islands Tourist Board
* [http://www.bvivacation.com British Virgin Islands Most Informative Tourism Guide] — online Tourism Guide of the BVI
* [http://www.bviwelcome.com/ BVI Welcome Tourist Guide] — Bi-monthly tourism publication
* [http://www.bviports.org/ The British Virgin Islands Ports Authority] — Official site
* [http://www.bvinationalparkstrust.org/ National Parks Trust of the British Virgin Islands] — Official site
* [http://www.bvifsc.vg/ British Virgin Islands Financial Services Commission] — Official site
*CIA World Factbook link|vi|British Virgin Islands
News and media
* [http://www.bviplatinum.com/ BVI Platinum News] — First Daily Online News, Weather & More of the British Virgin Islands
* [http://www.bvinews.com/ BVI News] — Daily News (Online) of the British Virgin Islands
* [http://www.islandsun.com/ The Island Sun] — Weekly newspaper of the British Virgin Islands
* [http://www.bvibeacon.com/main/ The BVI Beacon] — Weekly newspaper of the British Virgin Islands
* [http://www.bvistandpoint.net/ BVI Standpoint] — Weekly newspaper of the British Virgin Islands
* [http://www.dir.vg/ BVI Web Directory] Web Site Directory of the British Virgin Islands
* [http://dmoz.org/Regional/Caribbean/British_virgin_Islands Open Directory Project — "British Virgin Islands"] directory category
title = Geographic locale
list =Template group
title = International membership
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