Tourism is travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes. The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes".
Tourism has become a popular global leisure activity. In 2010, there were over 940 million international tourist arrivals worldwide, representing a growth of 6.6% when compared to 2009. International tourism receipts grew to US$919 billion (€693 billion) in 2010, corresponding to an increase in real terms of 4.7%. As a result of the late-2000s recession, international travel demand suffered a strong slowdown from the second half of 2008 through the end of 2009. After a 5% increase in the first half of 2008, growth in international tourist arrivals moved into negative territory in the second half of 2008, and ended up only 2% for the year, compared to a 7% increase in 2007. This negative trend intensified during 2009, exacerbated in some countries due to the outbreak of the H1N1 influenza virus, resulting in a worldwide decline of 4.2% in 2009 to 880 million international tourists arrivals, and a 5.7% decline in international tourism receipts.
Tourism is important and in some cases vital for many countries, such as France, Egypt, Greece, Lebanon, Israel, the United States, the United Kingdom, Spain, Italy, and Thailand, and many island nations, such as The Bahamas, Fiji, Maldives, Philippines and the Seychelles. It brings in large amounts of income in payment for goods and services available, contributing an estimated 5% to the worldwide gross domestic product (GDP), and it creates opportunities for employment in the service industries associated with tourism. These service industries include transportation services, such as airlines, cruise ships and taxicabs; hospitality services, such as accommodations, including hotels and resorts; and entertainment venues, such as amusement parks, casinos, shopping malls, music venues and theatres.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 World tourism statistics and rankings
- 3 History
- 4 Recent developments
- 5 Growth
- 6 References
- 7 Further reading
- 8 External links
Theobald (1994) suggested that "etymologically, the word tour is derived from the Latin, 'tornare' and the Greek, 'tornos', meaning 'a lathe or circle; the movement around a central point or axis'. This meaning changed in modern English to represent 'one's turn'. The suffix –ism is defined as 'an action or process; typical behaviour or quality', while the suffix, –ist denotes 'one that performs a given action'. When the word tour and the suffixes –ism and –ist are combined, they suggest the action of movement around a circle. One can argue that a circle represents a starting point, which ultimately returns back to its beginning. Therefore, like a circle, a tour represents a journey in that it is a round-trip, i.e., the act of leaving and then returning to the original starting point, and therefore, one who takes such a journey can be called a tourist."
In 1941, Hunziker and Krapf defined tourism as people who travel "the sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the travel and stay of non-residents, insofar as they do not lead to permanent residence and are not connected with any earning activity." In 1976, the Tourism Society of England's definition was: "Tourism is the temporary, short-term movement of people to destination outside the places where they normally live and work and their activities during the stay at each destination. It includes movements for all purposes." In 1981, the International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism defined tourism in terms of particular activities selected by choice and undertaken outside the home.
- Domestic tourism, involving residents of the given country traveling only within this country.
- Inbound tourism, involving non-residents traveling in the given country.
- Outbound tourism, involving residents traveling in another country.
World tourism statistics and rankings
Most visited countries by international tourist arrivals
In 2010, there were 940 million international tourist arrivals, with a growth of 6.6% as compared to 2009.
The World Tourism Organization reports the following ten countries as the most visited in terms of the number of international travellers. In 2010, China overtook Spain to become the third most visited country. Most of the top visited countries continue to be those in Europe, followed by a growing number of Asian countries.
Rank Country UNWTO
1 France Europe 76.8 million 76.8 million +0.0% 2 United States Americas 59.7 million 55.0 million +8.7% 3 China Asia 55.7 million 50.9 million +9.4% 4 Spain Europe 52.7 million 52.2 million +1.0% 5 Italy Europe 43.6 million 43.2 million +0.9% 6 United Kingdom Europe 28.1 million 28.2 million -0.2% 7 Turkey Europe 27.0 million 25.5 million +5.9% 8 Germany Europe 26.9 million 24.2 million +10.9% 9 Malaysia Asia 24.6 million 23.6 million +3.9% 10 Mexico Americas 22.4 million 21.5 million +4.4%
International tourism receipts
International tourism receipts grew to US$919 billion (€693 billion) in 2010, corresponding to an increase in real terms of 4.7% from 2009. The World Tourism Organization reports the following countries as the top ten tourism earners for the year 2010. It is noticeable that most of them are on the European continent, but the United States continues to be the top earner.
Rank Country UNWTO
1 United States North America $103.5 billion 2 Spain Europe $52.5 billion 3 France Europe $46.3 billion 4 China Asia $45.8 billion 5 Italy Europe $38.8 billion 6 Germany Europe $34.7 billion 7 United Kingdom Europe $30.4 billion 8 Australia Oceania $30.1 billion 9 Hong Kong (China) Asia $23.0 billion 10 Turkey Europe $20.8 billion
International tourism expenditures
The World Tourism Organization reports the following countries as the top ten biggest spenders on international tourism for the year 2010.
Rank Country UNWTO
1 Germany Europe $77.7 billion 2 United States North America $75.5 billion 3 China Asia $54.9 billion 4 United Kingdom Europe $48.6 billion 5 France Europe $39.4 billion 6 Canada North America $29.5 billion 7 Japan Asia $27.9 billion 8 Italy Europe $27.1 billion 9 Russia Europe $26.5 billion 10 Australia Oceania $22.5 billion
Most visited cities by international tourist arrivals
Top 10 most visited cities by estimated number of international visitors by selected year City Country International
Year/Notes Paris France 15.1 2010 (Excluding extra-muros visitors) London United Kingdom 14.6 2010 New York City United States 9.7 2010 Antalya Turkey 9.2 2010 Singapore Singapore 9.2 2010 Kuala Lumpur Malaysia 8.9 2010 Hong Kong Hong Kong 8.4 2010 (Excluding Mainland Chinese visitors) Dubai United Arab Emirates 8.3 2010 Bangkok Thailand 7.2 2010 Istanbul Turkey 6.9 2010
Wealthy people have always traveled to distant parts of the world, to see great buildings, works of art, learn new languages, experience new cultures and to taste different cuisines. Long ago, at the time of the Roman Republic, places such as Baiae were popular coastal resorts for the rich. The word tourist was used by 1772  and tourism by 1811. In 1936, the League of Nations defined foreign tourist as "someone traveling abroad for at least twenty-four hours". Its successor, the United Nations, amended this definition in 1945, by including a maximum stay of six months.
Leisure travel was associated with the Industrial Revolution in the United Kingdom – the first European country to promote leisure time to the increasing industrial population. Initially, this applied to the owners of the machinery of production, the economic oligarchy, the factory owners and the traders. These comprised the new middle class. Cox & Kings was the first official travel company to be formed in 1758.
The British origin of this new industry is reflected in many place names. In Nice, France, one of the first and best-established holiday resorts on the French Riviera, the long esplanade along the seafront is known to this day as the Promenade des Anglais; in many other historic resorts in continental Europe, old, well-established palace hotels have names like the Hotel Bristol, the Hotel Carlton or the Hotel Majestic – reflecting the dominance of English customers.
Many leisure-oriented tourists travel to the tropics, both in the summer and winter. Places of such nature often visited are: Bali in Indonesia, Colombia, Brazil, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Malaysia, Mexico the various Polynesian tropical islands, Queensland in Australia, Thailand, Saint-Tropez and Cannes in France, Florida, Hawaii and Puerto Rico in the United States, Barbados, Sint Maarten, Saint Kitts and Nevis, The Bahamas, Anguilla, Antigua, Aruba, Turks and Caicos Islands and Bermuda.
Although it is acknowledged that the Swiss were not the inventors of skiing it is well documented that St. Moritz, Graubünden, became the cradle of the developing winter tourism: Since that year of 1865 in St. Moritz, many daring hotel managers choose to risk opening their hotels in winter but it was only in the seventies of the 20th century when winter tourism took over the lead from summer tourism in many of the Swiss ski resorts. Even in Winter, portions of up to one third of all guests (depending on the location) consist of non-skiers.
Major ski resorts are located mostly in the various European countries (e.g. Andorra, Austria, Bulgaria, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Iceland, Italy, Norway, Poland, Serbia, Sweden, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland), Canada, the United States (e.g. Colorado, California, Utah, Montana, Wyoming, New York, New Jersey, Michigan, Vermont) New Zealand, Japan, South Korea, Chile, and Argentina.
Mass tourism could only have developed with the improvements in technology, allowing the transport of large numbers of people in a short space of time to places of leisure interest, so that greater numbers of people could begin to enjoy the benefits of leisure time.
In Continental Europe, early resorts included: Ostend, popularised by the people of Brussels; Boulogne-sur-Mer (Pas-de-Calais) and Deauville (Calvados) for the Parisians; and Heiligendamm, founded in 1793, as the first seaside resort on the Baltic Sea.
Adjectival tourism refers to the numerous niche or specialty travel forms of tourism that have emerged over the years, each with its own adjective. Many of these have come into common use by the tourism industry and academics. Others are emerging concepts that may or may not gain popular usage. Examples of the more common niche tourism markets include:
There has been an up trend in tourism over the last few decades, especially in Europe, where international travel for short breaks is common. Tourists have a wide range of budgets and tastes, and a wide variety of resorts and hotels have developed to cater for them. For example, some people prefer simple beach vacations, while others want more specialised holidays, quieter resorts, family-oriented holidays or niche market-targeted destination hotels.
The developments in technology and transport infrastructure, such as jumbo jets, low-cost airlines and more accessible airports have made many types of tourism more affordable. On April 28, 2009 The Guardian noted that "the WHO estimates that up to 500,000 people are on planes at any time." There have also been changes in lifestyle, for example some retirement-age people sustain year round tourism. This is facilitated by internet sales of tourist services. Some sites have now started to offer dynamic packaging, in which an inclusive price is quoted for a tailor-made package requested by the customer upon impulse.
There have been a few setbacks in tourism, such as the September 11 attacks and terrorist threats to tourist destinations, such as in Bali and several European cities. Also, on December 26, 2004, a tsunami, caused by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, hit the Asian countries on the Indian Ocean, including the Maldives. Thousands of lives were lost including many tourists. This, together with the vast clean-up operations, stopped or severely hampered tourism in the area for a time.
The terms tourism and travel are sometimes used interchangeably. In this context, travel has a similar definition to tourism, but implies a more purposeful journey. The terms tourism and tourist are sometimes used pejoratively, to imply a shallow interest in the cultures or locations visited by tourists.
"Sustainable tourism is envisaged as leading to management of all resources in such a way that economic, social and aesthetic needs can be fulfilled while maintaining cultural integrity, essential ecological processes, biological diversity and life support systems." (World Tourism Organization)
Sustainable development implies "meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs" (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987)
Sustainable tourism can be seen as having regard to ecological and socio-cultural carrying capacities and includes involving the community of the destination in tourism development planning. It also involves integrating tourism to match current economic and growth policies so as to mitigate some of the negative economic and social impacts of 'mass tourism'. Murphy (1985) advocates the use of an 'ecological approach', to consider both 'plants' and 'people' when implementing the sustainable tourism development process. This is in contrast to the 'boosterism' and 'economic' approaches to tourism planning, neither of which consider the detrimental ecological or sociological impacts of tourism development to a destination.
However, Butler questions the exposition of the term 'sustainable' in the context of tourism, citing its ambiguity and stating that "the emerging sustainable development philosophy of the 1990s can be viewed as an extension of the broader realization that a preoccupation with economic growth without regard to it social and environmental consequences is self-defeating in the long term." Thus 'sustainable tourism development' is seldom considered as an autonomous function of economic regeneration as separate from general economic growth.
Ecotourism, also known as ecological tourism, is responsible travel to fragile, pristine, and usually protected areas that strives to be low impact and (often) small scale. It helps educate the traveler; provides funds for conservation; directly benefits the economic development and political empowerment of local communities; and fosters respect for different cultures and for human rights.
Pro-poor tourism, which seeks to help the poorest people in developing countries, has been receiving increasing attention by those involved in development; the issue has been addressed through small-scale projects in local communities and through attempts by Ministries of Tourism to attract large numbers of tourists. Research by the Overseas Development Institute suggests that neither is the best way to encourage tourists' money to reach the poorest as only 25% or less (far less in some cases) ever reaches the poor; successful examples of money reaching the poor include mountain-climbing in Tanzania and cultural tourism in Luang Prabang, Laos.
Recession tourism is a travel trend, which evolved by way of the world economic crisis. Identified by American entrepreneur Matt Landau (2007), recession tourism is defined by low-cost, high-value experiences taking place of once-popular generic retreats. Various recession tourism hotspots have seen business boom during the recession thanks to comparatively low costs of living and a slow world job market suggesting travelers are elongating trips where their money travels further.
When there is a significant price difference between countries for a given medical procedure, particularly in Southeast Asia, India, Eastern Europe and where there are different regulatory regimes, in relation to particular medical procedures (e.g. dentistry), traveling to take advantage of the price or regulatory differences is often referred to as "medical tourism".
Educational tourism developed, because of the growing popularity of teaching and learning of knowledge and the enhancing of technical competency outside of the classroom environment. In educational tourism, the main focus of the tour or leisure activity includes visiting another country to learn about the culture, such as in Student Exchange Programs and Study Tours, or to work and apply skills learned inside the classroom in a different environment, such as in the International Practicum Training Program.
Creative tourism has existed as a form of cultural tourism, since the early beginnings of tourism itself. Its European roots date back to the time of the Grand Tour, which saw the sons of aristocratic families traveling for the purpose of mostly interactive, educational experiences. More recently, creative tourism has been given its own name by Crispin Raymond and Greg Richards, who as members of the Association for Tourism and Leisure Education (ATLAS), have directed a number of projects for the European Commission, including cultural and crafts tourism, known as sustainable tourism. They have defined "creative tourism" as tourism related to the active participation of travellers in the culture of the host community, through interactive workshops and informal learning experiences.
Meanwhile, the concept of creative tourism has been picked up by high-profile organizations such as UNESCO, who through the Creative Cities Network, have endorsed creative tourism as an engaged, authentic experience that promotes an active understanding of the specific cultural features of a place.
More recently, creative tourism has gained popularity as a form of cultural tourism, drawing on active participation by travelers in the culture of the host communities they visit. Several countries offer examples of this type of tourism development, including the United Kingdom, the Bahamas, Jamaica, Spain, Italy and New Zealand.
One emerging area of special interest has been identified by Lennon and Foley (2000) as "dark" tourism. This type of tourism involves visits to "dark" sites, such as battlegrounds, scenes of horrific crimes or acts of genocide, for example: concentration camps. Dark tourism remains a small niche market, driven by varied motivations, such as mourning, remembrance, education, macabre curiosity or even entertainment. Its early origins are rooted in fairgrounds and medieval fairs.
Also known as "Tourism of Doom," or "Last Chance Tourism" this emerging trend involves traveling to places that are environmentally or otherwise threatened (the ice caps of Mount Kilimanjaro, the melting glaciers of Patagonia, The coral of the Great Barrier Reef) before it is too late. Identified by travel trade magazine TravelAge West editor-in-chief Kenneth Shapiro in 2007 and later explored in The New York Times, this type of tourism is believed to be on the rise. Some see the trend as related to sustainable tourism or ecotourism due to the fact that a number of these tourist destinations are considered threatened by environmental factors such as global warming, over population or climate change. Others worry that travel to many of these threatened locations increases an individual’s carbon footprint and only hastens problems threatened locations are already facing.
The World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) forecasts that international tourism will continue growing at the average annual rate of 4 %. With the advent of e-commerce, tourism products have become one of the most traded items on the internet. Tourism products and services have been made available through intermediaries, although tourism providers (hotels, airlines, etc.) can sell their services directly. This has put pressure on intermediaries from both on-line and traditional shops.
It has been suggested there is a strong correlation between tourism expenditure per capita and the degree to which countries play in the global context. Not only as a result of the important economic contribution of the tourism industry, but also as an indicator of the degree of confidence with which global citizens leverage the resources of the globe for the benefit of their local economies. This is why any projections of growth in tourism may serve as an indication of the relative influence that each country will exercise in the future.
Space tourism is expected to "take off" in the first quarter of the 21st century, although compared with traditional destinations the number of tourists in orbit will remain low until technologies such as a space elevator make space travel cheap.
Technological improvement is likely to make possible air-ship hotels, based either on solar-powered airplanes or large dirigibles. Underwater hotels, such as Hydropolis, expected to open in Dubai in 2009, will be built. On the ocean, tourists will be welcomed by ever larger cruise ships and perhaps floating cities.
Since the late 1980s, sports tourism has become increasingly popular. Events such as rugby, Olympics, Commonwealth games, Asian Games and football World Cups have enabled specialist travel companies to gain official ticket allocation and then sell them in packages that include flights, hotels and excursions.
As a result of the late-2000s recession, international arrivals suffered a strong slowdown beginning in June 2008. Growth from 2007 to 2008 was only 3.7% during the first eight months of 2008. The Asian and Pacific markets were affected and Europe stagnated during the boreal summer months, while the Americas performed better, reducing their expansion rate but keeping a 6% growth from January to August 2008. Only the Middle East continued its rapid growth during the same period, reaching a 17% growth as compared to the same period in 2007. This slowdown on international tourism demand was also reflected in the air transport industry, with a negative growth in September 2008 and a 3.3% growth in passenger traffic through September. The hotel industry also reports a slowdown, as room occupancy continues to decline. As the global economic situation deteriorated dramatically during September and October as a result of the global financial crisis, growth of international tourism is expected to slow even further for the remaining of 2008, and this slowdown in demand growth is forecasted to continue into 2009 as recession has already hit most of the top spender countries, with long-haul travel expected to be the most affected by the economic crisis. This negative trend intensified as international tourist arrivals fell by 8% during the first four months of 2009, and the decline was exacerbated in some regions due to the outbreak of the influenza AH1N1 virus.
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- ^ a b c d e f g h "UNTWO Tourism Highlights 2011 Edition". World Tourism Organization. July 2011. http://mkt.unwto.org/sites/all/files/docpdf/unwtohighlights11enhr.pdf. Retrieved 24 October 2011.
- ^ "International tourism challenged by deteriorating global economy". UNWTO World Tourism Barometer (World Tourism Organization) 7 (1). January 2009. http://www.unwto.org/facts/eng/pdf/barometer/UNWTO_Barom09_1_en.pdf. Retrieved 2011-11-17.
- ^ "UNWTO World Tourism Barometer Interim Update". UNWTO World Tourism Barometer (World Tourism Organization). August 2010. http://www.unwto.org/facts/eng/pdf/barometer/UNWTO_Barom10_update_august_en.pdf. Retrieved 2011-11-17.
- ^ a b Theobald, William F. (1998). Global Tourism (2nd ed.). Oxford [England]: Butterworth–Heinemann. pp. 6–7. ISBN 0750640227. OCLC 40330075. http://books.google.com/?id=9dvK2ajv7zIC&lpg=PA10&dq=league%20of%20nations%20tourism%201936&pg=PA6#v=onepage&q=league%20of%20nations%20tourism%201936.
- ^ Hunziker, W; Krapf, K (1942) (in German). Grundriß Der Allgemeinen Fremdenverkehrslehre. Zurich: Polygr. Verl. OCLC 180109383.
- ^ Spode, Hasso (1998). "Geschichte der Tourismuswissenschaft". In Haedrich, Günther (in German). Tourismus-management: Tourismus-marketing Und Fremdenverkehrsplanung. Berlin: [u.a.] de Gruyter. ISBN 3110151855. OCLC 243881885.
- ^ Beaver, Allan (2002). A Dictionary of Travel and Tourism Terminology. Wallingford: CAB International. p. 313. ISBN 0851995829. OCLC 301675778.
- ^ International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism. "The AIEST, its character and aims". http://www.aiest.org/org/idt/idt_aiest.nsf/en/index.html. Retrieved 2008-03-29.
- ^ "Recommendations on Tourism Statistics". Statistical Papers. M (New York: United Nations) (83): 5. 1994. http://unstats.un.org/unsd/newsletter/unsd_workshops/tourism/st_esa_stat_ser_M_83.pdf. Retrieved 12 July 2010.
- ^ World Tourism Organization releases tourist arrival statistics (worldtourismdirectory.com)
- ^ Estimation extrapolated from http://asp.zone-secure.net/v2/index.jsp?id=1203/1515/14072&lng=fr Paris's tourism office : Key figures]
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- ^ "International Visitors to NYC 2009". NYC & Company. 2010. http://www.nycgo.com/?event=view.article&id=78912. Retrieved 2 June 2010.
- ^ a b "Number of Arriving-Departing Foreigners and Citizens". Tourism Statistics. Ministry of Culture and Tourism (Turkey). 2010. http://www.kultur.gov.tr/EN/dosya/2-5788/h/december2010bulletin.xls. Retrieved 28 January 2011.
- ^ "Malaysia Hotel Guests by State, January-December 2010: Kuala Lumpur". Tourism Malaysia. March 2011. http://corporate.tourism.gov.my/images/research/pdf/hotel_guest/HGuest_JanDec2010.pdf. Retrieved 09 April 2011.
- ^ "2010 YEARLY VISITOR ARRIVALS & SPENDING HIT NEW HEIGHTS". Hong Kong Tourism Board. 26 January 2011. http://tw.partnernet.hktb.com/pnweb/jsp/doc/listDoc.jsp?doc_id=136265. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
- ^ Department of Tourism and Commerce Marketing
- ^ Department of Tourism
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- ^ "Cox & Kings Website". http://www.coxandkings.co.uk/aboutus-history.aspx.
- ^ 1865: ignition of winter holidays Switzerland
- ^ Winter Walking in Swiss skiing resorts
- ^ Swine flu prompts EU warning on travel to US. The Guardian. April 28, 2009.
- ^ "Sustainable Tourism". Ecotourism.org. http://www.ecotourism.org/webmodules/webarticlesnet/templates/eco_template.aspx?articleid=95&zoneid=2. Retrieved 2009-09-14.
- ^ Jonathan Mitchel (2009). "Value chain analysis and poverty reduction at scale". Overseas Development Institute. http://www.odi.org.uk/resources/details.asp?id=2675&title=value-chains-tourism-poverty-reduction.
- ^ a b Wurzburger, Rebecca; et al (2009). Creative Tourism: A Global Conversation: How to Provide Unique Creative Experiences for Travelers Worldwide: As Presented at the 2008 Santa Fe & UNESCO International Conference on Creative Tourism in Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA. Santa Fe: Sunstone Press. ISBN 9780865347243. OCLC 370387178.
- ^ Quinion, Michael (26 November 2005). "Dark Tourism". World Wide Words. http://www.worldwidewords.org/turnsofphrase/tp-dar2.htm. Retrieved 9 April 2010.
- ^ Lennon, J. John; Foley, Malcolm (2000). Dark Tourism. London: Continuum. ISBN 0826450636. OCLC 44603703.
- ^ Cooper, Chris; et al (2005). Tourism: Principles and Practice (3rd ed.). Harlow: Pearson Education. ISBN 027368406X. OCLC 466952897.
- ^ "Long-term Prospects: Tourism 2020 Vision". World Tourism. 2004. http://www.world-tourism.org/market_research/facts/market_trends.htm.
- ^ "airports & tourists". Global Culture. 2007. http://global-culture.org/blog/2007/01/27/airports-tourists/.
- ^ a b c "Rapid slowdown of international tourism growth". UNWTO World Tourism Barometer (World Tourism Organization) 6 (3). October 2008. http://www.unwto.org/facts/eng/pdf/barometer/UNWTO_Barom08_3_en_Excerpt.pdf. Retrieved 2008-11-17.
- ^ "Testing times for international tourism". UNWTO World Tourism Barometer (World Tourism Organization) 7 (2). June 2009. http://www.unwto.org/facts/eng/pdf/barometer/UNWTO_Barom09_2_en.pdf. Retrieved 3 August 2009.
- Holder IV, Floyd William (2009). An Empirical Analysis of the State’s Monopolization of the Legitimate Means of Movement: Evaluating the Effects of Required Passport use on International Travel (M.P.A. thesis). Texas State University-San Marcos. OCLC 564144593. Docket Applied Research Projects. Paper 308. http://ecommons.txstate.edu/arp/308/.
- Wilkerson, Chad (2003). "Travel and Tourism: An Overlooked Industry in the U.S. and Tenth District". Economic Review 88 (Third Quarter): 45–72. ISSN 0161-2387. OCLC 295437935. http://www.kc.frb.org/publicat/econrev/Pdf/3q03wilk.pdf.
Tourism in Africa Sovereign
- Burkina Faso
- Cape Verde
- Central African Republic
- Democratic Republic of the Congo
- Republic of the Congo
- Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast)
- Equatorial Guinea
- The Gambia
- São Tomé and Príncipe
- Sierra Leone
- South Africa
- South Sudan
States with limited
- Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
Tourism in Asia Sovereign
- Burma (Myanmar)
- People's Republic of China
- East Timor (Timor-Leste)
- North Korea
- South Korea
- Saudi Arabia
- Sri Lanka
- United Arab Emirates
States with limited
- Northern Cyprus
- Republic of China (Taiwan)
- South Ossetia
Tourism in Europe Sovereign
- Bosnia and Herzegovina
- Czech Republic
- San Marino
- United Kingdom
- Northern Ireland
- Vatican City
States with limited
- Northern Cyprus
- South Ossetia
and other territories
Other entities Tourism in North America Sovereign states Dependencies and
Tourism in Oceania Sovereign states Dependencies and
Tourism in South America Sovereign states Dependencies and
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