Permanent residency

Permanent residency

Permanent residency refers to a person's visa status: the person is allowed to reside indefinitely within a country despite not having citizenship. A person with such status is known as a permanent resident.

Countries with permanent residency systems

Not every country has a facility for someone to be a 'permanent resident'.Fact|date=February 2007 All European Union countries have a facility for someone to become a permanent resident though, as EU legislation allows for an EU national that moves to another EU country to attain permanent resident status after residing there for five years.

The countries that have a permanent resident status include:
* Argentina
* Australia
* Brazil
* Brunei Darussalam (called "penduduk tetap")
* Canada (permanent residents were known as "landed immigrants" before 28 June 2002)
* Chile
* China (Programme started from 2004)
** Hong Kong (either through "Right to land" or Right of Abode)
** Macau
* Czech Republic - "trvalý pobyt"
* Denmark
* Finland (permit P) [ [;1160;{1E908B20-8316-4D4D-BCDE-685AC4EF566E} Finnish Immigration Service: Fact Sheet:Redidence permit for Finland Other than EU/EAA citizen (pdf)] ]
* Germany (called "Niederlassungserlaubnis")
* Greece (called "Πράσινη Κάρτα")
* Guatemala
* Iran [ [] ]
* Israel (The term "toshàv-kéva" may refer to a permanent resident without citizenship, or to a citizen with registered abode)
* Japan
* Malaysia
* Netherlands (called "Verblijfsvergunning voor onbepaalde tijd")
* New Zealand
* Norway (called "Bosettingstillatelse" [ [ UDI:Settlement permit] ] )
* Poland (called "Karta stałego pobytu")
* Republic of China (Taiwan) [ [ 歡迎光臨-內政部入出國及移民署全球資訊網 ] ]
* Romania (called "Permis de şedere permanentă")
* Russia (called "Vid na zhitelstvo")
* Singapore
* South Africa
* Spain
* Sweden
* Switzerland (called a "C permit" or "Niederlassungsbewilligung (settlement permit)" [ Permit C (settlement permit) - Federal Office for Migration] ] )
* United Kingdom (either through "Indefinite Leave to Remain" or "Right of Abode" or Permanent Residence for EEA nationals)
* United States of America
* Ukraine (called "posvidka na postijne prozhivanie")

Rights of permanent residents

Depending on the country, permanent residents usually have the same rights as citizens except for the following:
*they may not vote (some countries allow this)
*they may not stand for public office
*they may not apply for public sector employment (some countries allow this)
*they may not apply for employment involving national security (some countries allow this) (In Singapore, however, Second-generation PRs have to undergo compulsory military service)
*they may not own certain classes of real estate
*they may not hold the passport of that country
*they may not access the country's consular protection (some countries allow this)

Obligations of permanent residents

Permanent residents may be required to fulfill specific residence obligations to retain their status. In some cases, permanent residency may be conditional on a certain type of employment or maintenance of a business.

Some countries have compulsory military service for Permanent Residents and Citizens. For example, Singapore requires all males who are citizens and permanent residents to complete a compulsory 2 years of service in the army known as National Service (NS) upon attaining 18 years of age. However, most first generation permanent residents are exempted, and only their sons are held liable for NS.

In a similar vein, the United States has Selective Service, a compulsory "registration" for military service, which is required of all male citizens and permanent residents ages 18 to 26; this requirement applies even to those residing in the country illegally. [ "Are illegal alien males required to register?," Selective Service System: Registration Information (accessed August 14, 2006)] Applications for citizenship may be denied or otherwise impeded if the applicant cannot prove having complied with this requirement.

Permanent residents may be required to reside in the country offering them residence for a given minimum length of time (as in Australia and Canada).

Loss of status

Permanent residents may lose their status if they fail to comply with residency or other obligations imposed on them. For example:
*they leave the country beyond a maximum number of days
*they commit crimes so as they may be subject to deportation or removal from the country

Access to citizenship

Usually permanent residents may apply for citizenship by naturalisation after a period of residency in the country concerned.
Dual citizenship may or may not be permitted.

In many nations an application for naturalisation can be denied on character grounds sometimes resulting in individuals that are not in danger of being deported but may not proceed to citizenship. In the United States, the residency requirements for citizenship are normally five years, even though permanent residents that have been married to a US citizen for three years or more may apply in three years. Those who have served in the armed forces may qualify for an expedited process allowing citizenship after only one year, or even without any residence requirement. [ [ General Naturalization Requirements] ]

Automatic entitlement

Full permanent residence rights are granted automatically between:
* the Republic of Ireland and United Kingdom
* the states of the Nordic Council

Rights conferred under the European Union Treaties do not extend to full permanent residence, but in practise there is little difference.

Australian and New Zealand citizens have significant rights of residence in each other's nations under the Trans-Tasman Travel Arrangement.

Proof of permanent residency

People who are granted permanent residency in a country are usually issued some sort of documentary evidence as legal proof of this status. In the past, many countries would merely stamp the person's passport indicating that the holder was admitted as a permanent resident or that he/she was exempt from immigration control and permitted to work without restriction. Other countries would issue a photo ID card (known in the United States as a "green card") or would issue a visa sticker in the person's passport or present them with letter to indicate their permanent resident status.

In Australia and New Zealand, a printout of permanent residence visa or residence permit is stuck to a page of the permanent resident's passport.

In Canada, permanent residents are issued a photo ID card known as PR Card or Maple Leaf Card.

In Hong Kong, permanent residents are issued a Hong Kong Permanent Identity Card.

In Singapore, permanent residents are issued a blue identity card with their photograph, thumb print and other personal particulars.

In Switzerland, permanent residents are issued a yellow ID

Loss of the identification document and/or the possession of a stolen document are major crimes in many countries.


ee also

*Residency, Habitual residence
*Right of abode
*Nationality law

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Поможем написать реферат

Look at other dictionaries:

  • permanent residency — noun A visa status which allows a person to reside indefinitely in a foreign country without acquiring citizenship in that country Syn: residence permit …   Wiktionary

  • New Zealand permanent residency — British Commonwealth citizenship …   Wikipedia

  • Cook Islands permanent residency — Cook Islands permanent residents are residents of the Cook Islands who hold permanent residency visas and who are not ethnic Cook Islanders. By law, a maximum of 650 Cook Islands Permanent Residence certificates may be in effect at any one moment …   Wikipedia

  • Residency — can refer to:*Residency (domicile), the act of establishing or maintaining a residence in a given place **Permanent residency, indefinite residence within a country despite not having citizenship *Residency (country subdivision), an… …   Wikipedia

  • Permanent residence (United States) — [ thumb|A United States Permanent Resident Card (green card)] A United States Permanent Resident Card, also known as a green card, is an identification card attesting to the permanent resident status of an alien in the United States of America.… …   Wikipedia

  • Permanent resident (Canada) — A Permanent Resident in Canada is someone who is not a Canadian citizen but who has been granted permission to live and work in Canada without any time limit on his or her stay. A permanent resident must live in Canada for two years out of every… …   Wikipedia

  • Residency (domicile) — This article deals with personal residence in a given place. For other uses, see Residency (disambiguation) and Resident. Residency is the act of establishing or maintaining a residence in a given place. United States of AmericaIt is important in …   Wikipedia

  • permanent residence — /pɜmənənt ˈrɛzədəns/ (say permuhnuhnt rezuhduhns) noun a visa status which gives holders the right to stay permanently in their chosen country. Abbrev.: PR Also, permanent residency. –permanent resident, noun …  

  • permanent resident — noun A person with permanent residency, a visa status which allows that person to reside indefinitely in a foreign country without acquiring citizenship in that country …   Wiktionary

  • Residency (medicine) — Anesthesia residents being led through training with a patient simulator Residency is a stage of graduate medical training. A resident physician or resident (also called a house officer / senior house officer in the United Kingdom and several… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”