إمارة دبيّ
—  Emirate  —
Emirate of Dubai
Various views of Dubai.

Dubai is located in Dubai
Location of Dubai in the UAE
Coordinates: 25°15′00″N 55°18′00″E / 25.25°N 55.3°E / 25.25; 55.3
Country  United Arab Emirates
Emirate  Dubai
Incorporated (town) 9 June 1833
Independence from UK 2 December 1971
Founder Maktoum bin Bati bin Suhail (1833)
Seat Dubai
 – Type Constitutional monarchy[1]
 – Ruler Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum
 – Crown Prince Hamdan bin Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum
 – Emirate 4,114 km2 (1,588.4 sq mi)
Population (2010)
 – Emirate 2,262,000
 – Density 408.18/km2 (1,057/sq mi)
 – Metro 3,410,737
 – Nationality 
17% Emirati
9.1% Other Arab nationalities
42.3% Indian
13.3% Pakistani
7.5% Bangladeshi
2.5% Filipino
1.5% Sri Lankan
0.9% European
0.3% American
5.7% other countries
Time zone UAE standard time (UTC+4)
Website Dubai Emirate
Dubai Municipality

Dubai (Arabic: دبيّDubeii; IPA: [du'beii]; English pronunciation: /duːˈbaɪ/ doo-by) is a city and emirate in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The emirate is located south of the Persian Gulf on the Arabian Peninsula and has the largest population with the second-largest land territory by area of all the emirates, after Abu Dhabi.[4] Dubai and Abu Dhabi are the only two emirates to have veto power over critical matters of national importance in the country's legislature.[5] Dubai City is located on the emirate's northern coastline.

The earliest recorded mention of Dubai is in 1095, and the earliest settlement known as Dubai town dates from 1799. Dubai was formally established in 1833 by Sheikh Maktoum bin Buti al Maktoum when he persuaded 800 members of the Bani Yas tribe, living in what is now part of Saudi Arabia, to follow him to the Dubai Creek by the Al Abu Falasa clan of Bani Yas, and it remained under clan control when the United Kingdom assumed the protection of Dubai in 1892.[6] Its geographical location made it an important trading hub and by the beginning of the 20th century, it was an important port. In 1966, the year oil was discovered, Dubai and the emirate of Qatar set up a new monetary unit to replace the Gulf Rupee. The oil economy led to a massive influx of foreign workers, quickly expanding the city by 300% and bringing in international oil interests. The modern emirate of Dubai was created after the UK left the area in 1971. At this time Dubai, together with Abu Dhabi and four other emirates, formed the United Arab Emirates. The following year Ras al Khaimah joined the federation while Qatar and Bahrain chose to remain independent nations. In 1973, the monetary union with Qatar was dissolved and the UAE Dirham introduced throughout the UAE. A free trade zone was built around the Jebel Ali port in 1979, allowing foreign companies unrestricted import of labor and export capital. The Gulf War of 1990 had a negative financial effect on the city, as depositors withdrew their money and traders withdrew their trade, but subsequently the city recovered in a changing political climate and thrived.

Today, Dubai City has emerged as a global city and a business hub.[7] Although Dubai's economy was built on the oil industry, the emirate's model of business drives its economy, with the effect that its main revenues are now from tourism, real estate, and financial services, similar to that of Western countries.[8][9][10] Dubai has recently attracted world attention through many innovative large construction projects and sports events. This increased attention has highlighted labour rights and human rights issues concerning its largely South Asian workforce.[11] Dubai's property market experienced a major deterioration in 2008 and 2009 as a result of the worldwide economic downturn following the Financial crisis of 2007–2010.[12]


In the 1820s, Dubai was referred to as Al Wasl by British historians. Few records pertaining to the cultural history of the UAE or its constituent emirates exist and because of the region's oral traditions, folklore and myth were not written down. The linguistic origins of the word Dubai are disputed; some believe it to have originated from the Persian language, while some believe that Arabic is its linguistic root. According to Fedel Handhal, a researcher in the history and culture of the UAE, the word Dubai may have come from the word Daba (a derivative of Yadub, which means to creep); referring to the slow flow of Dubai Creek inland. The poet and scholar Ahmad Mohammad Obaid traces it to the same word, but to its alternative meaning of locust.[13]


Although stone tools have been found at many sites, little is known about UAE's early inhabitants as only a few settlements have been found.[14] Many ancient towns in the area were trading centers between the Eastern and Western worlds. The remnants of an ancient mangrove swamp, dated at 7,000 BC, were discovered during the construction of sewer lines near Dubai Internet City. The area was covered with sand about 5,000 years ago as the coast retreated inland, becoming a part of the city's present coastline.[14] [15] Pre Islamic ceramics have been found from the 3rd and 4th century.[16] Prior to Islam, the people in this region worshiped Bajir (or Bajar).[16] The Byzantine and Sassanian (Persian) empires constituted the great powers of the period, with the Sassanians controlling much of the region. After the spread of Islam in the area, the Umayyad Caliph, of the eastern Islamic world, invaded south-east Arabia and drove out the Sassanians. Excavations by the Dubai Museum in the region of Al-Jumayra (Jumeirah) found several artifacts from the Umayyad period.[17]

Al Fahidi Fort, built in 1799, is the oldest existing building in Dubai – now part of the Dubai Museum

The earliest recorded mention of Dubai is in 1095, in the "Book of Geography" by the Andalusian-Arab geographer Abu Abdullah al-Bakri. The Venetian pearl merchant Gaspero Balbi visited the area in 1580 and mentioned Dubai (Dibei) for its pearling industry.[17] Since 1799, there has been a settlement known as Dubai town.[18] In the early 19th century, the Al Abu Falasa clan (House of Al-Falasi) of Bani Yas clan established Dubai, which remained a dependent of Abu Dhabi until 1833.[19] On 8 January 1820, the sheikh of Dubai and other sheikhs in the region signed the "General Maritime Peace Treaty" with the British government.[14] In 1833, following tribal feuding, the Al Maktoum dynasty (also descendants of the House of Al-Falasi) of the Bani Yas tribe left their ancestral home of the Liwa Oasis, South-west of the settlement of Abu Dhabi and quickly took over Dubai from the Abu Fasala clan without resistance.[19]

The Al Ras district in Deira, Dubai in the 1960s
Wind Towers in Dubai

Dubai came under the protection of the United Kingdom by the "Exclusive Agreement" of 1892, in which the UK agreed to protect Dubai against the Ottoman Empire.[19] Two catastrophes struck the town during the 1800s. First, in 1841, a smallpox epidemic broke out in the Bur Dubai locality, forcing residents to relocate east to Deira. Then, in 1894, fire swept through Deira, burning down most homes.[20] However, the town's geographical location continued to attract traders and merchants from around the region. The emir of Dubai was keen to attract foreign traders and lowered trade tax brackets, which lured traders away from Sharjah and Bandar Lengeh, which were the region's main trade hubs at the time. Persian merchants naturally looked across to the Arab shore of the Persian Gulf finally making their homes in Dubai. They continued to trade with Lingah, however, as do many of the dhows in Dubai Creek today, and they named their district Bastakiya, after the Bastak region in southern Persia.[20][21]

Dubai's geographical proximity to Iran made it an important trade location. The town of Dubai was an important port of call for foreign tradesmen, chiefly those from Iran, many of whom eventually settled in the town. By the beginning of the 20th century, it was an important port.[18] Dubai was known for its pearl exports until the 1930s; the pearl trade was damaged irreparably by World War I, and later on by the Great Depression in the 1930s. With the collapse of the pearling industry, Dubai fell into a deep depression and many residents starved or migrated to other parts of the Persian Gulf.[14]

In the early days since its inception, Dubai was constantly at odds with Abu Dhabi. In 1947, a border dispute between Dubai and Abu Dhabi on the northern sector of their mutual border, escalated into war.[22] Arbitration by the British and the creation of a buffer frontier running south eastwards from the coast at Ras Hasian resulted in a temporary cessation of hostilities.[23] Electricity, telephone services, and an airport were established in Dubai in the 1950s, when the British moved their local administrative offices there from Sharjah.[24] After years of exploration following large finds in neighbouring Abu Dhabi, oil was eventually discovered in Dubai in 1971, albeit in far smaller quantities, after which the town granted concessions to international oil companies. The discovery of oil led to a massive influx of foreign workers, mainly Indians and Pakistanis. Between 1968 and 1975 the city's population grew by over 300%.[25]

On 2 December 1971 Dubai, together with Abu Dhabi and five other emirates, formed the United Arab Emirates after the former protector, Britain, left the Persian Gulf in 1971.[26] In 1973, Dubai joined the other emirates to adopt a uniform currency: the UAE dirham.[18] In the 1970s, Dubai continued to grow from revenues generated from oil and trade, even as the city saw an influx of immigrants fleeing the Lebanese civil war.[27] Border disputes between the emirates continued even after the formation of the UAE; it was only in 1979 that a formal compromise was reached that ended hostilities.[28] The Jebel Ali port was established in 1979. Jafza (Jebel Ali Free Zone) was built around the port in 1985 to provide foreign companies unrestricted import of labour and export capital.[29]

The Gulf War of 1990 had a huge effect on the city. Depositors withdrew massive amounts of money from Dubai banks due to uncertain political conditions in the region. Later in the 1990s many foreign trading communities—first from Kuwait, during the Gulf War, and later from Bahrain, during the Shia unrest—moved their businesses to Dubai.[21] Dubai provided refuelling bases to allied forces at the Jebel Ali free zone during the Gulf War, and again during the 2003 Invasion of Iraq. Large increases in oil prices after the Gulf War encouraged Dubai to continue to focus on free trade and tourism.[30]


City level map of Dubai

Dubai is situated on the Persian Gulf coast of the United Arab Emirates and is roughly at sea level (16 m/52 ft above). The emirate of Dubai shares borders with Abu Dhabi in the south, Sharjah in the northeast, and the Sultanate of Oman in the southeast. Hatta, a minor exclave of the emirate, is surrounded on three sides by Oman and by the emirates of Ajman (in the west) and Ras Al Khaimah (in the north). The Persian Gulf borders the western coast of the emirate. Dubai is positioned at 25°16′11″N 55°18′34″E / 25.2697°N 55.3095°E / 25.2697; 55.3095 and covers an area of 1,588 sq mi (4,110 km2), which represents a significant expansion beyond its initial 1,500 sq mi (3,900 km2) designation due to land reclamation from the sea.

Dubai lies directly within the Arabian Desert. However, the topography of Dubai is significantly different from that of the southern portion of the UAE in that much of Dubai's landscape is highlighted by sandy desert patterns, while gravel deserts dominate much of the southern region of the country.[31] The sand consists mostly of crushed shell and coral and is fine, clean and white. East of the city, the salt-crusted coastal plains, known as sabkha, give way to a north-south running line of dunes. Farther east, the dunes grow larger and are tinged red with iron oxide.[25]

View of Dubai Desert

The flat sandy desert gives way to the Western Hajar Mountains, which run alongside Dubai's border with Oman at Hatta. The Western Hajar chain has an arid, jagged and shattered landscape, whose mountains rise to about 1,300 meters in some places. Dubai has no natural river bodies or oases; however, Dubai does have a natural inlet, Dubai Creek, which has been dredged to make it deep enough for large vessels to pass through. Dubai also has multiple gorges and waterholes which dot the base of the Western Al Hajar mountains. A vast sea of sand dunes covers much of southern Dubai, and eventually leads into the desert known as The Empty Quarter. Seismically, Dubai is in a very stable zone—the nearest seismic fault line, the Zagros Fault, is 200 km (124.27 mi) from the UAE and is unlikely to have any seismic impact on Dubai.[32] Experts also predict that the possibility of a tsunami in the region is minimal because the Persian Gulf waters are not deep enough to trigger a tsunami.[32]

The Dubai-Sharjah-Ajman metropolitan area at night

The sandy desert surrounding the city supports wild grasses and occasional date palms. Desert hyacinths grow in the sabkha plains east of the city, while acacia and ghaf trees grow in the flat plains within the proximity of the Western Al Hajar mountains. Several indigenous trees such as the date palm and neem as well as imported trees like the eucalypts grow in Dubai's natural parks. The houbara bustard, striped hyena, caracal, desert fox, falcon and Arabian oryx are common in Dubai's desert. Dubai is on the migration path between Europe, Asia and Africa, and more than 320 migratory bird species pass through the emirate in spring and autumn. The waters of Dubai are home to more than 300 species of fish, including the hammour. The typical marine life off the Dubai coast includes tropical Fish, jellyfish, coral, dugong, dolphins, whales and sharks. Various types of turtles can also be found in the area including the Hawksbill turtle and Green Turtle which are listed as endangered species.[33][34]

Dubai Creek runs northeast-southwest through the city. The eastern section of the city forms the locality of Deira and is flanked by the emirate of Sharjah in the east and the town of Al Aweer in the south. The Dubai International Airport is located south of Deira, while the Palm Deira is located north of Deira in the Persian Gulf. Much of Dubai's real-estate boom is concentrated to the west of the Dubai Creek, on the Jumeirah coastal belt. Port Rashid, Jebel Ali, Burj Al Arab, the Palm Jumeirah and theme-based free-zone clusters such as Business Bay are all located in this section.


Dubai has a very hot arid climate. Summers in Dubai are extremely hot, windy and dry, with an average high around 40 °C (104 °F) and overnight lows around 30 °C (86 °F). Most days are sunny throughout the year. Winters are warm with an average high of 23 °C (73 °F) and overnight lows of 14 °C (57 °F). Precipitation, however, has been increasing in the last few decades with accumulated rain reaching 150 mm (5.91 in) per year.[35]

Climate data for Dubai
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 31
Average high °C (°F) 24.0
Daily mean °C (°F) 19
Average low °C (°F) 14.3
Record low °C (°F) 8
Precipitation mm (inches) 15.6
Avg. precipitation days 5 7 6 3 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 5 28
Source no. 1: Dubai Meteorological Office[36]
Source no. 2: Qwikcast [37]

Governance and politics

Dubai police car, a BMW 5 Series Sedan

Dubai's government operates within the framework of a constitutional monarchy, and has been ruled by the Al Maktoum family since 1833. The current ruler, His Highness Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, is also the Vice President and Prime Minister of the United Arab Emirates and member of the Supreme Council of the Union (SCU). Dubai appoints eight members in two-term periods to the Federal National Council (FNC) of the UAE, the supreme federal legislative body.[38]

The Dubai Municipality (DM) was established by the then ruler of Dubai, Rashid bin Saeed Al Maktoum in 1954 for purposes of city planning, citizen services and upkeep of local facilities.[39] DM is chaired by Hamdan bin Rashid Al Maktoum, deputy ruler of Dubai and comprises several departments such as the Roads Department, Planning and Survey Department, Environment and Public Health Department and Financial Affairs Department. In 2001, Dubai Municipality embarked on an e-Government project with the intention of providing 40 of its city services through its web portal, Thirteen such services were launched by October 2001, while several other services were expected to be operational in the future.[40] Dubai Municipality is also in charge of the city's sanitation and sewage infrastructure.[41]

The Dubai Police Force, founded in 1956 in the locality of Naif, has law enforcement jurisdiction over the emirate; the force is under direct command of Mohammed bin Rashid al Maktoum, ruler of Dubai.

Dubai and Ras al Khaimah are the only emirates that do not conform to the federal judicial system of the United Arab Emirates.[42] The emirate's judicial courts comprise the Court of First Instance, the Court of Appeal, and the Court of Cassation. The Court of First Instance consists of the Civil court, which hears all civil claims; the Criminal Court, which hears claims originating from police complaints; and Sharia Court, which is responsible for matters between Muslims. Non-Muslims do not appear before the Sharia Court. The Court of Cassation is the supreme court of the emirate and hears disputes on matters of law only.[43]

Human rights

Article 25 of the Constitution of the UAE provides for the equitable treatment of persons with regard to race, nationality, religious beliefs or social status. However, many of Dubai's 250,000 foreign labourers live in conditions described by Human Rights Watch as being "less than human."[44][45][46] NPR reports that workers "typically live eight to a room, sending home a portion of their salary to their families, whom they don't see for years at a time." On 21 March 2006, workers at the construction site of Burj Khalifa, upset over bus timings and working conditions, rioted: damaging cars, offices, computers, and construction tools.[47][48][49][50] The global financial crisis has caused the working class of Dubai to be affected especially badly, with many workers not being paid but also being unable to leave the country.[51]

Alleged labour injustices in Dubai have attracted the attention of various human rights groups, which have tried to persuade the government to become a signatory to two of the International Labour Organization's eight core conventions, which allows for the formation of labour unions. The Dubai government, however, denied any kind of labour injustices and stated that the watchdog's accusations were misguided.[52] Towards the end of March 2006, the government announced steps to allow construction unions. UAE labour minister Ali al-Kaabi said: "Labourers will be allowed to form unions".[53]

Prostitution, though illegal, is conspicuously present in the emirate because of its very large male/female imbalance. Research conducted by the American Center for International Policy Studies (AMCIPS) found that Russian and Ethiopian women are the most common prostitutes, as well as women from some African countries, while Indian prostitutes are part of a well organised trans-Oceanic prostitution network.[54] A 2007 PBS documentary entitled Dubai: Night Secrets reported that prostitution in clubs is tolerated by authorities and many foreign women work there without being coerced.[54][55]

Two high-profle sexual assault incidents have received widespread attention outside of Dubai. Alexandre Robert a 15-year-old French-Swiss living in Dubai with his hotel manager father was repeatedly raped at knifepoint by three men.[56] A British national stewardess for Emirates was viciously raped by a cab driver who was driving her home.[57]


Year Population
18221 1,200[58]
19001 10,000[59]
19301 20,000[60]
19401 38,000[58]
19541 20,000[58]
19601 40,000[61]
1968 58,971[62]
1975 183,000[63]
1985 370,800[64]
1995 674,000[64]
2005 1,204,000
1 The town of Dubai first conducted a census in 1968. All population figures in this table prior to 1968 are estimates obtained from various sources.

According to the census conducted by the Statistics Centre of Dubai, the population of the emirate was 1,771,000 as of 2009, which included 1,370,000 males and 401,000 females.[65] The region covers 497.1 square miles (1,287.4 km²). The population density is 408.18/km² – more than eight times that of the entire country. Dubai is the second most expensive city in the region, and 20th most expensive city in the world.[66]

As of 2005, 17% of the population of the emirate was made up of UAE nationals. Approximately 85% of the expatriate population (and 71% of the emirate's total population) was Asian, chiefly Indian (51%), Pakistani (16%), Bangladeshi (9%) and Filipino (3%) and a sizeable community of Somalis numbering around 30,000.[3][67] A quarter of the population however reportedly traces their origins to Iran.[68] In addition, 16% of the population (or 288,000 persons) living in collective labour accommodation were not identified by ethnicity or nationality, but were thought to be primarily Asian.[69] The median age in the emirate was about 27 years. The crude birth rate, as of 2005, was 13.6%, while the crude death rate was about 1%.[70] Although Arabic is the official language, English is the lingua franca of the city and is very widely spoken by the majority of its residents either as a primary or secondary language. Other languages spoken by Dubai's many foreign residents include Hindi, Urdu, Bengali, Malayalam, Tamil, Tagalog, Persian, and Chinese.[71]

Article 7 of the UAE's Provisional Constitution declares Islam the official state religion of the UAE. The government subsidises almost 95% of mosques and employs all Imams; approximately 5% of mosques are entirely private, and several large mosques have large private endowments.[72]

Dubai also has large Hindu, Christian, Bahá'í, Sikh, Buddhist, and other religious communities residing in the city.[73] Non-Muslim groups can own their own houses of worship, where they can practice their religion freely, by requesting a land grant and permission to build a compound. Groups that do not have their own buildings must use the facilities of other religious organisations or worship in private homes.[74] Non-Muslim religious groups are permitted to openly advertise group functions; however, proselytising or distributing religious literature is strictly prohibited under penalty of criminal prosecution, imprisonment, and deportation for engaging in behaviour offensive to Islam.[72]


Construction cranes tower above the Dubai skyline in 2008, at the height of the recent construction boom
World Trade Center with Deira skyline in the background. Dubai has established itself as the preeminent regional hub for finance, trade, tourism, and shopping.

Dubai's gross domestic product as of 2008 was US$ 82.11 billion.[75] Although Dubai's economy was built on the back of the oil industry,[76] revenues from oil and natural gas currently account for less than 6% of the emirate's revenues.[8] It is estimated that Dubai produces 50,000 to 70,000 barrels (11,000 m3) of oil a day[77] and substantial quantities of gas from offshore fields. The emirate's share in UAE's gas revenues is about 2%. Dubai's oil reserves have diminished significantly and are expected to be exhausted in 20 years.[78] Real estate and construction (22.6%),[10] trade (16%), entrepôt (15%) and financial services (11%) are the largest contributors to Dubai's economy.[79] Dubai's top exporting destinations include India (US$ 5.8 billion), Switzerland (US$ 2.37 billion) and Saudi Arabia (US$ 0.57 billion). Dubai's top re-exporting destinations include India (US$ 6.53 billion), Iran (US$ 5.8 billion) and Iraq (US$ 2.8 billion). The emirate's top import sources are India (US$ 12.55 billion), China (US$ 11.52 billion) and the United States (US$ 7.57 billion). As of 2009 India was Dubai's largest trade partner.[80]

Historically, Dubai and its twin across the Dubai creek, Deira (independent of Dubai City at that time), were important ports of call for Western manufacturers. Most of the new city's banking and financial centres were headquartered in the port area. Dubai maintained its importance as a trade route through the 1970s and 1980s. Dubai has a free trade in gold and, until the 1990s, was the hub of a "brisk smuggling trade"[18] of gold ingots to India, where gold import was restricted. Dubai's Jebel Ali port, constructed in the 1970s, has the largest man-made harbour in the world and was ranked seventh globally for the volume of container traffic it supports.[81] Dubai is also a hub for service industries such as information technology and finance, with industry-specific free zones throughout the city. Dubai Internet City, combined with Dubai Media City as part of TECOM (Dubai Technology, Electronic Commerce and Media Free Zone Authority) is one such enclave whose members include IT firms such as EMC Corporation, Oracle Corporation, Microsoft, and IBM, and media organisations such as MBC, CNN, BBC, Reuters, Sky News and AP.

The government's decision to diversify from a trade-based, oil-reliant economy to one that is service and tourism-oriented made property more valuable, resulting in the property appreciation from 2004–2006. A longer-term assessment of Dubai's property market, however, showed depreciation; some properties lost as much as 64% of their value from 2001 to November 2008.[82] The large scale real estate development projects have led to the construction of some of the tallest skyscrapers and largest projects in the world such as the Emirates Towers, the Burj Khalifa, the Palm Islands and the world's second tallest, and most expensive hotel, the Burj Al Arab.[83] The Dubai Financial Market (DFM) was established in March 2000 as a secondary market for trading securities and bonds, both local and foreign. As of fourth quarter 2006, its trading volume stood at about 400 billion shares, worth $95 billion in total. The DFM had a market capitalisation of about $87 billion.[69]

Dubai's property market experienced a major downturn in 2008 and 2009 as a result of the slowing economic climate.[12] Mohammed al-Abbar, Chief Executive Officer of Emaar told the international press in December 2008 that Emaar had credits of $70 billion and the state of Dubai additional $10 billion while holding estimated $350 billion in real estate assets. By early 2009, the situation had worsened with the global economic crisis taking a heavy toll on property values, construction and employment.[84] As of February 2009 Dubai's foreign debt was estimated at approximately $80 billion, although this is a tiny fraction of the sovereign debt worldwide.[85]

A City Mayors survey rated Dubai as 44th among the world's best financial cities in 2007,[86] while another report by City Mayors indicated that Dubai was the world's 33rd richest city in 2009, in terms of purchasing power parity (PPP).[87] Dubai is also an international financial centre and has been ranked 37th within the top 50 global financial cities as surveyed by the Mastercard Worldwide Centres of Commerce Index (2007),[88] and 1st within the Middle East.

Tourism and retail

Dubai Mall is largest mall in the world based on total area and sixth largest by gross leasable area.[89][90][91]

Tourism is an important part of the Dubai government's strategy to maintain the flow of foreign cash into the emirate. Dubai's lure for tourists is based mainly on shopping, but also on its possession of other ancient and modern attractions. As of 2007, Dubai was the 8th most visited city of the world.[92] Dubai is expected to accommodate over 15 million tourists by 2015.[93] Dubai is the most populous emirate of the seven emirates of United Arab Emirates. It is distinct from other members of the UAE in that a large part of the emirate's revenues are from tourism.[94]

Dubai has been called the "shopping capital of the Middle East".[95] Dubai alone has more than 70 shopping malls, including the world's largest shopping mall, Dubai Mall. The city draws large numbers of shopping tourists from countries within the region and from as far as Eastern Europe, Africa and the Indian Subcontinent. While boutiques, some electronics shops, department stores and supermarkets operate on a fixed-price basis, most other outlets consider friendly negotiation a way of life.[96]

Dubai is also known for its souk districts located on either side of the creek. Traditionally, dhows from the Far East, China, Sri Lanka, and India would discharge their cargo and the goods would be bargained over in the souks adjacent to the docks.[97] Many boutiques and jewellery stores are also found in the city. Dubai is known as "the City of Gold" and Gold Souk in Deira houses nearly 250 gold retail shops.[98] Dubai Duty Free Company at the Dubai International Airport offers merchandise catering to the multinational passengers using the airport.



The Burj Khalifa is currently the tallest structure in the world.

Dubai has a rich collection of buildings and structures of various architectural styles. Many modern interpretations of Islamic architecture can be found here, due to a boom in construction and architectural innovation in the Arab World in general, and in Dubai in particular, supported not only by top Arab or international architectural and engineering design firms such as Al Hashemi and Aedas, but also by top firms of New York and Chicago.[99] As a result of this boom, modern Islamic – and world – architecture has literally been taken to new levels in skyscraper building design and technology. Dubai now boasts more completed or topped-out skyscrapers higher than 2/3 km, 1/3 km, or 1/4 km than any other city. A culmination point was reached in 2010 with the completion of the Burj Khalifa (Khalifa Tower), now by far the world's tallest building at 829.84 m (2,722.57 ft). The Burj Khalifa's design is derived from the patterning systems embodied in Islamic architecture, with the triple-lobed footprint of the building based on an abstracted version of the desert flower hymenocallis which is native to the Dubai region.[100] The completion of the Khalifa Tower, following the construction boom that began in the 1980s, accelerated in the 1990s, and took on a rapid pace of construction unparalled in modern human history during the decade of the 2000s, leaving Dubai with the world's tallest skyline as of 4 January 2010.[101][102]

Burj al Arab

Burj al Arab and 360 degree club

The Burj Al Arab (Arabic: برج العرب, "Tower of the Arabs") is a luxury hotel in Dubai, United Arab Emirates managed by the Jumeirah Group and built by Said Khalil. Its construction started in 1994 and ended in 1999. It was designed by Tom Wright of WS Atkins PLC. The hotel cost $650,000,000 to build. At 321 metres (1,053 ft) and 60 floors, it was the tallest building used exclusively as a hotel until being succeeded by Rose Rayhaan by Rotana in 23 December 2009, again in Dubai. The Burj Al Arab stands on an artificial island 280 metres (919 ft) out from Jumeirah beach, and is connected to the mainland by a private curving bridge. It is an iconic structure, designed to symbolize Dubai's urban transformation and to mimic the sail of a boat.

Burj Al Arab characterizes itself as the world's only "7-star" property, a designation considered by travel professionals to be hyperbole. All major travel guides and hotel rating systems have a 5-star maximum, which some hotels attempt to out-do by ascribing themselves "6-star" status. Yet according to the Burj Al Arab's official site, the hotel is a "5-star deluxe hotel".

The Burj Al Arab was built to resemble the sail of a Dhow, a type of Arabian vessel. Its design features a steel exoskeleton wrapped around a reinforced concrete tower. Two wings spread in a V to form a vast mast, while the space between them is enclosed in a massive atrium by a teflon-coated fibreglass sail. During the day, the white fabric allows a soft, milky light inside the hotel, whereas a clear, glass front would produce blinding amounts of glare and a constantly increasing temperature. At night, both inside and outside, the fabric is lit by colour changing lights. Near the top of the building is a suspended helipad supported by a cantilever which has featured some of the hotel's notable publicity events.

The hotel's interior was designed by Kunan Chew. It features the tallest atrium lobby in the world at 180 metres. It is formed by the building's V-shaped span, dominates the interior of the hotel, and takes up over 1/3 of the interior space. Despite its size, the Burj Al Arab holds only 28 double-story floors which accommodate 202 bedroom suites. It is one of the most expensive hotels in the world. The cost of staying at a suite begins at $1,000 per night. The Royal Suite is the most expensive, at $28,000 per night.

One of its restaurants, Al Muntaha, is located 200 metres above the Persian Gulf, offering a view of Dubai. It is supported by a full cantilever that extends 27 metres from either side of the mast, and is accessed by a panoramic elevator. Another restaurant, the Al Mahara, which is accessed by a simulated submarine voyage, features a large seawater aquarium, holding roughly 35,000 cubic feet (990 m3) of water. The tank, made of acrylic glass in order to withstand the water pressure, is about 18 centimetres thick.

Sanitation issues

Currently, human waste is collected daily from thousands of septic tanks across the city and driven by tankers to the city's only sewage treatment plant at Al-Awir. Dubai's rapid growth means that it is stretching its limited sewage treatment infrastructure to its limits. Because of the long queues and delays, some tanker drivers resort to illegally dumping the effluent into storm drains or behind dunes in the desert. Sewage dumped into storm drains flows directly into the Persian Gulf, near the city's prime swimming beaches. Doctors have warned that tourists using the beaches run the risk of contracting serious illnesses like typhoid and hepatitis.[103] Dubai municipality says that it is committed to catching the culprits and has imposed fines of up to $25,000 and threatened to confiscate tankers if dumping persists. The municipality maintains that test results show samples of the water are "within the standard".[104]


Dubai Bus
A Dubai Bus in Dubai Marina
Dubai Metro on its opening day
The Red Line on the Dubai Metro. The Dubai Metro is the first urban train network in the Arabian Peninsula.[106]
Abra on Dubai Creek
Abras are the traditional mode of transport between Deira and Bur Dubai.

Transport in Dubai is controlled by the Roads and Transport authority. The public transport network faces huge congestion and reliability issues which a large investment programme is attempting to address, including over AED 70 billion of improvements planned for completion by 2020, when the population of the city is projected to exceed 3.5 million.[107] In 2009, according to Dubai Municipality statistics, there were an estimated 1,021,880 cars in Dubai.[108] In January 2010, the number of Dubai residents who use public transport stood at 6%.[109] Although the government has invested heavily in the Dubai's road infrastructure, this has not kept pace with the increasing number of vehicles. This, coupled with the induced traffic phenomenon, has led to growing problems of congestion.[110]


Five main routes – E 11 (Sheikh Zayed Road), E 311 (Emirates Road), E 44 (Dubai-Hatta Highway), E 77 (Dubai-Al Habab Road) and E 66 (Oud Metha Road) – run through Dubai, connecting the city to other towns and emirates. Additionally, several important intra-city routes, such as D 89 (Al Maktoum Road/Airport Road), D 85 (Baniyas Road), D 75 (Sheikh Rashid Road), D 73 (Al Dhiyafa Road), D 94 (Jumeirah Road) and D 92 (Al Khaleej/Al Wasl Road) connect the various localities in the city. The eastern and western sections of the city are connected by Al Maktoum Bridge, Al Garhoud Bridge, Al Shindagha Tunnel, Business Bay Crossing and Floating Bridge.[111]

The Public Bus Transport system in Dubai is run by the Roads and Transport Authority (RTA). The bus system services 140 routes and transported over about 109.5 million people in 2008. By the end of 2010, there will be 2,100 buses in service across the city.[112] In 2006, the Transport authority announced the construction of 500 air-conditioned (A/C) Passenger Bus Shelters, and planned for 1,000 more across the emirates in a move to encourage the use of public buses.[113]

Dubai also has an extensive taxi system, by far the most frequently used means of public transport within the Emirate.[114][unreliable source?] Dubai Taxi Corporation operates the taxi services as part of the Roads & Transport Authority. There are both government-operated and private cab companies. The DTC taxis are easily identifiable with their cream color.[115] There are more than 3000 taxis operating within the emirate. Taxi cabs in Dubai make an average of 192,000 trips every day, lifting about 385,000 persons. In 2009 taxi trips exceeded 70 million trips serving around 140.45 million passengers.[116][117]


Dubai International Airport (IATA: DXB), the hub for the Emirates Airline, serves the city of Dubai and other emirates in the country. The airport was the 15th busiest airport in the world by passenger traffic handling 40.9 million passengers in 2009. The airport was also the 6th busiest airport in the world by international passenger traffic.[118] In addition to being an important passenger traffic hub, the airport is the 7th busiest cargo airport in world, handling 1.927 million tonnes of cargo in 2009, a 5.6% increase compared to 2008[119] and was also the 4th busiest International freight traffic airport in world.[120] Emirates Airline is the national airline of Dubai. As of 2009, it operated internationally serving 101 destinations in 61 countries across six continents.[121]

The development of Al Maktoum International Airport was announced in 2004. The first phase of the airport, featuring one A380 capable runway, 64 remote stands, one cargo terminal with annual capacity for 250,000 tonnes of cargo and a passenger terminal building designed to accommodate five million passengers per year, has been opened.[122] When completed, Dubai World Central-Al Maktoum International will be the largest airport in the world with five runways, four terminal buildings and capacity for 160 million passengers and 12 million tons of cargo.[123]

Metro rail

A $3.89 billion, Dubai Metro project is currently operational. It currently consists of two lines (Red line and Green line) which run through the major financial and residential areas of the city. The Metro system was partially opened on September 2009.[124] UK-based international service company Serco Group is responsible for operating the metro. Dubai Metro is the world's second cheapest metro transportation system after Tehran Metro in Iran.[citation needed] The metro comprises the Green Line from Al Rashidiya to the main city center and the Red Line from the airport to Jebel Ali. A Blue and a Purple Line have also been planned. As of 2005, the Dubai Metro (Green and Blue Lines) will have 70 km (43.5 mi) of track and 43 stations, 37 above ground and ten underground.[125] The Dubai Metro is the first urban train network in the Arabian Peninsula.[106]

Palm Jumeirah Monorail

The Palm Jumeirah Monorail is a monorail line on the Palm Jumeirah. It connects the Palm Jumeirah to the mainland, with a planned further extension to the Red Line of the Dubai Metro.[126] The line opened on 30 April 2009.[127] Two trams systems are expected to be built in Dubai by 2011. The first is the Downtown Burj Khalifa Tram System and the second is the Al Sufouh Tram. The Downtown Burj Khalifa Tram System is a 4.6 km (2.86 mi) tram service that is planned to service the area around the Burj Khalifa, and the second tram will run 14.5 km (9 mi) along Al Sufouh Road from Dubai Marina to the Burj Al Arab and the Mall of the Emirates.

Dubai has announced it will complete a link of the UAE high speed rail system which will eventually hook up with the whole GCC and then possibly Europe. The High Speed Rail will serve passengers and cargo.[128][129]


There are two major commercial ports in Dubai, Port Rashid and Port Jebel Ali. Port Jebel Ali is the world's largest man-made harbour, the biggest port in the Middle East,[130] and the 7th-busiest port in the world.[81] One of the more traditional methods of getting across Bur Dubai to Deira is through abras, small boats that ferry passengers across the Dubai Creek, between abra stations in Bastakiya and Baniyas Road.[131] The Marine Transport Agency has also implemented the Dubai Water Bus System. Water bus is a fully air conditioned boat service across selected destinations across the creek. One can also avail the tourist water bus facility in Dubai. Latest addition to the water transport system is the Water Taxi.[132]


A traditional souk in Deira
The Deira Clocktower is an important landmark in the city

The UAE culture mainly revolves around the religion of Islam and traditional Arab and Bedouin culture. In contrast, the city of Dubai is a highly cosmopolitan society with a diverse and vibrant culture. The influence of Islamic and Arab culture on its architecture, music, attire, cuisine and lifestyle are very prominent as well. Five times every day, Muslims are called to prayer from the minarets of mosques which are scattered around the country. Since 2006, the weekend has been Friday-Saturday, as a compromise between Friday's holiness to Muslims and the Western weekend of Saturday-Sunday.[133]

In 2005, 84% of the population of metropolitan Dubai was foreign-born, about half of them from India.[67] The city's cultural imprint as a small, ethnically homogenous pearling community was changed with the arrival of other ethnic groups and nationals—first by the Iranians in the early 1900s, and later by Indians and Pakistanis in the 1960s.

Major holidays in Dubai include Eid al Fitr, which marks the end of Ramadan, and National Day (2 December ), which marks the formation of the United Arab Emirates. Annual entertainment events such as the Dubai Shopping Festival[134] (DSF) and Dubai Summer Surprises (DSS) attract over 4 million visitors from across the region and generate revenues in excess of $2.7 billion.[135][136] Large shopping malls in the city, such as Deira City Centre, Mirdiff City Centre, BurJuman, Mall of the Emirates, Dubai Mall and Ibn Battuta Mall as well as traditional souks attract shoppers from the region.


Arabic food is very popular and is available everywhere in the city, from the small shawarma diners in Deira and Al Karama to the restaurants in Dubai's hotels. Fast food, South Asian, and Chinese cuisines are also very popular and are widely available. The sale and consumption of pork, though not illegal, is regulated and is sold only to non-Muslims, in designated areas of supermarkets and airports.[137] Similarly, the sale of alcoholic beverages is regulated. A liquor permit is required to purchase alcohol; however, alcohol is available in bars and restaurants within hotels.[138] Shisha and qahwa boutiques are also popular in Dubai. Dubai is known for its nightlife. Clubs and bars are found mostly in hotels due to the liquor laws. The New York Times described Dubai as "the kind of city where you might run into Michael Jordan at the Buddha Bar or stumble across Naomi Campbell celebrating her birthday with a multiday bash".[139]

Dress and etiquette

The Islamic dress code is not compulsory, unlike in neighbouring Saudi Arabia. Most Emirati males prefer to wear a kandura, an ankle-length white shirt woven from wool or cotton, and most Emirati women wear an abaya, a black over-garment covering most parts of the body.[140] This attire is particularly well-suited for the UAE's hot and dry climate. Western-style clothing is, however, dominant because of the large expatriate population, and this practice is beginning to grow in popularity among Emiratis.

Etiquette is an important aspect of UAE culture and tradition, to which visitors are expected to conform. Recently, many expatriates have disregarded the law and been arrested for indecent clothing, or lack thereof, at beaches.[141] Western-style dress is tolerated in appropriate places, such as bars or clubs, but the UAE has maintained a strict policy of protecting highly public spaces from cultural insensitivity.


The United Arab Emirates is a part of the khaliji tradition, and is also known for Bedouin folk music.[142] During celebrations singing and dancing also take place and many of the traditional songs and dances have survived to the present time. Yowalah is the traditional dance of the UAE. Young girls would dance by swinging their long black hair and swaying their bodies in time to the strong beat of the music. Men would re-enact battles fought or successful hunting expeditions, often symbolically using sticks, swords or rifles.[143]

Hollywood and Indian movies are popular in Dubai. Since 2004, the city has hosted the annual Dubai International Film Festival which serves as a showcase Arab film making talent.[144] Musicians Amr Diab, Diana Haddad, Tarkan, Aerosmith, Santana, Mark Knopfler, Elton John, Pink, Shakira, Celine Dion, Coldplay, Keane, Phil Collins, Kavita Krishnamurthy, A R Rahman, Roxette[145] have performed in the city.[138] Kylie Minogue was reportedly paid 3.5 million dollars to perform at the opening of the Atlantis resort on 20 November 2008.[146] The Dubai Desert Rock Festival is also another major festival consisting of Heavy metal and rock artists.


Dubai Tennis Stadium

Football and cricket are the most popular sports in Dubai. five teams (Al Wasl FC, Al-Ahli Dubai, Al Nasr SC, Al Shabab Al Arabi Club and Dubai Club) represent Dubai in UAE Pro-League.[138] Al-Wasl have the second-most number of championships in the UAE League, after Al Ain. Cricket is followed by Dubai's large community of Indians and the residents from other cricket playing nations (Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Bangladesh, England, Australia and South Africa). In 2005, the International Cricket Council (ICC) moved its headquarters from London to Dubai. The city has hosted several Pakistan matches and two new grass grounds are being developed in Dubai Sports City.[147] Dubai also hosts both the annual Dubai Tennis Championships and The Legends Rock Dubai tennis tournaments, as well as the Dubai Desert Classic golf tournament and the Dubai World Championship, all of which attract sports stars from around the world. The Dubai World Cup, a thoroughbred horse race, is held annually at the Meydan Racecourse.

2024 Summer Olympics bid

Dubai had expressed great interest in a 2020 Olympic bid but had not formally announced it would bid. Dubai's hosting of Sportaccord 2010 has been a great way to show off Dubai's sport infrastructure. Dubai has already won the rights to host the 10th FINA World Swimming Championships (25 m) .[148] Statement from Dubai's ruler Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum: "We will have to take an honest look at our weaknesses as well as our strengths," Sheikh Mohammed said on 25 April. "I can assure you of this, though: if we decide to make a bid for the Olympics, we will be in it to win".[149] On 29 July 2011, it was announced that Dubai would not bid for the 2020 Olympics but would instead focus on bidding for the 2024 Games.[150] As reported by Olympic news outlet Around the Rings, the United Arab Emirates Olympic Committee shifted the focus to 2024, event though " much of 70 percent of the 'hard' infrastructure was already in place or planned." Dubai is also looking into the possibility of bidding for the 2018 Summer Youth Olympics.[151]


Dubai Knowledge Village was built to allow Universities to open branches and campuses in Dubai.

The school system in Dubai does not differ from that of the United Arab Emirates. As of 2009, there are 79 public schools run by the Ministry of Education that serve Emiratis and expatriate Arab people as well as 145 private schools.[65] The medium of instruction in public schools is Arabic with emphasis on English as a second language, while most of the private schools use English as their medium of instruction. Most private schools cater to one or more expatriate communities.

The New Indian Model School, Dubai (NIMS), Delhi Private School, Our Own English High School, the Dubai Modern High School, and The Indian High School, Dubai offer either a CBSE or an Indian Certificate of Secondary Education Indian syllabus. Similarly, there are also several reputable Pakistani schools offering FBISE curriculum for expatriate children.[152]

Dubai English Speaking School, Jumeirah Primary School, Jebel Ali Primary School, Cambridge International School, Jumeirah English Speaking School, King's School and the Horizon School all offer British primary education up to the age of eleven. Dubai Gem Private School, Dubai British School, Dubai College, English College Dubai, Jumeirah English Speaking School – Arabian Ranches, Jumeirah College and St. Mary's Catholic High School are British eleven-to-eighteen secondary schools offering General Certificate of Secondary Education and A-Levels. Emirates International School, Cambridge High School and Wellington International School provides full student education up to the age of 18, and offers International General Certificate of Secondary Education and A-Levels. Deira International School, Dubai International Academy and Jumeirah English Speaking School offer the International Baccalaureate program with the IGCSE program. Dubai American Academy, American School of Dubai and the Universal American School of Dubai offer curriculum of the United States.[152]

The Ministry of Education of the United Arab Emirates is responsible for accreditation of schools.

The Knowledge and Human Development Authority (KHDA) was established in 2006 to develop education and human resource sectors in Dubai, and license educational institutes.[153]

Approximately 10% of the population has university or postgraduate degrees. Many expatriates tend to send their children back to their home country or to Western countries for university education and to India for technology studies. However, a sizeable number of foreign accredited universities have been set up in the city over the last ten years. Some of these universities include Manchester Business School,[154] RIT Dubai, Michigan State University Dubai (MSU Dubai),[155] Middlesex University Dubai campus,[156] the Birla Institute of Technology & Science, Pilani – Dubai (BITS Pilani), Murdoch University Dubai, Heriot-Watt University Dubai, Hult International Business School, American University in Dubai (AUD), Gulf Medical University Gulf Medical College, the American College of Dubai, Mahatma Gandhi University (Off-Campus Centre), Institute of Management Technology – Dubai Campus, SP Jain Center Of Management, University of Wollongong in Dubai, and MAHE Manipal. In 2004, the Dubai School of Government in collaboration with Harvard University's John F. Kennedy School of Government and Harvard Medical School Dubai Center (HMSDC) were established in Dubai. In 2010 London College of Fashion began to run its twice-yearly portfolio of fashion short courses. The Dubai Public Libraries is the public library system in Dubai.[157]


View of Etisalat tower from Zabeel Park

Dubai has a well-established network, radio, television and electronic media which serve the city. Dubai is the home of the Arabian Radio Network, which broadcasts eight FM radio stations including the first talk radio station in the Middle East, Dubai Eye 103.8. Dubai-based FM radio stations such as Radio 1 and Radio 2 (104.1 and 99.3), Dubai92 (92.0), Al Khaleejia (100.9) and Hit FM (96.7) provide programming in English, Arabic and South Asian languages. Multiple international channels available through cable, while satellite, radio and local channels are provided via the Arabian Radio Network and Dubai Media Incorporated systems. The UAE's most popular English radio station, Channel 4 FM, took to the air in 1997 and became the UAE's first private commercial radio station.

Many international news agencies such as Reuters, APTN, Bloomberg L.P. and Middle East Broadcasting Center (MBC) as well as network news channels operate in Dubai Media City and Dubai Internet City. Additionally, several local network television channels such as Dubai One (formerly Channel 33), and Dubai TV (EDTV) provide programming in English and Arabic respectively. Dubai is also the headquarters for several print media outlets. Dar Al Khaleej, Al Bayan and Al Ittihad are the city's largest circulating Arabic language newspapers,[158] while Gulf News and 7DAYS are the largest circulating English newspapers.[159]

Etisalat, the government-owned telecommunications provider, held a virtual monopoly over telecommunication services in Dubai prior to the establishment of other, smaller telecommunications companies such as Emirates Integrated Telecommunications Company (EITC—better known as Du) in 2006. Internet was introduced into the UAE (and therefore Dubai) in 1995. The current network has an Internet bandwidth of 7.5 Gbit/s with capacity of 49 STM1 links.[160] Dubai houses two of four Domain Name System (DNS) data centres in the country (DXBNIC1, DXBNIC2).[161] Censorship is common in Dubai and used by the government to control content that it believes violates the cultural and political sensitivities of Emirates.[162] Homosexuality, drugs, and the theory of evolution are generally considered taboo.[138][163]

Internet content is regulated in Dubai. Etisalat uses a proxy server to filter Internet content that the government deems to be inconsistent with the values of the country, such as sites that provide information on how to bypass the proxy; sites pertaining to dating, gay and lesbian networks, and pornography; sites pertaining to the Bahá'í Faith and sites originating from Israel.[164] Emirates Media and Internet (a division of Etisalat) notes that as of 2002, 76% of Internet users are male. About 60% of Internet users were Asian, while 25% of users were Arab. Dubai enacted an Electronic Transactions and Commerce Law in 2002 which deals with digital signatures and electronic registers. It prohibits Internet Service Providers (ISPs) from disclosing information gathered in providing services.[165] The penal code contains official provisions that prohibit digital access to pornography; however, it does not address cyber crime or data protection.[166]

International relations

Twin towns and sister cities

Dubai is twinned with the following cities:[167][168]


See also


  1. ^ "UAE Constitution". Retrieved 21 July 2008. 
  2. ^ Area of "Dubai emirate", includes artificial islands.
  3. ^ a b "Dubai Metropolitan Statistical Area". Retrieved 7 April 2009. 
  4. ^ "United Arab Emirates: metropolitan areas". Retrieved 31 July 2009. 
  5. ^ The Government and Politics of the Middle East and North Africa. D Long, B Reich. p.157
  6. ^ "Give me a break: stop knocking Dubai". London: Telegraph. 16 June 2011. Retrieved 12 August 2011. 
  7. ^ "The 2008 Global Cities Index". Foreign Policy. 15 October 2008.,0. Retrieved 20 April 2010. 
  8. ^ a b Oil share dips in Dubai GDP AMEInfo (9 June 2007) Retrieved on 15 October 2007.
  9. ^ Dubai economy set to treble by 2015[dead link] (3 February 2007) Retrieved on 15 October 2007.
  10. ^ a b "Dubai diversifies out of oil". AMEInfo. 7 September 2005. Retrieved 12 August 2008. 
  11. ^ Mike Davis (2006) Fear and Money in Dubai, New Left Review 41, pp. 47–68
  12. ^ a b "Job losses hasten property decline in Dubai but medium-long term outlook upbeat | Middle East | News". 3 December 2008. Retrieved 14 July 2009. 
  13. ^ How did Dubai, Abu Dhabi and other cities get their names? Experts reveal all. 10 March 2007
  14. ^ a b c d "History and Traditions of the UAE" (PDF). Retrieved 31 July 2009. 
  15. ^ "The old...turned new". Gulf News. 25 October 2001. Retrieved 15 March 2008. 
  16. ^ a b Ibrahim Al Abed, Peter Hellyer (2001). United Arab Emirates: A perspective. Trident Press. ISBN 978-1-900724-47-0. Retrieved 31 July 2009. 
  17. ^ a b The Coming of Islam and the Islamic Period in the UAE. King, Geoffrey R.
  18. ^ a b c d "Dubayy". Encyclopedia Britannica. 2008
  19. ^ a b c "United Arab Emirates" (PDF). Retrieved 31 July 2009. 
  20. ^ a b "Modernity and tradition in Dubai architecture. Karim, Luiza". Retrieved 31 July 2009. 
  21. ^ a b Davidson, Christopher, The Emirates of Abu Dhabi and Dubai: Contrasting Roles in the International System. March 2007.
  22. ^ The UAE: Internal Boundaries And The Boundary With Oman. Archived Editions. Walker, J.
  23. ^ The Middle East and North Africa. Schofield, C. p 175
  24. ^ Dubai City. Melamid, Alexander. Jul 1989
  25. ^ a b "Historic population statistics" (PDF). Retrieved 31 July 2009. 
  26. ^ "Six Persian Gulf Emirates Agree to a Federation". New York Times. 19 Jul 1971. pg. 4
  27. ^ "Beirut Showing Signs of Recovery From Wounds of War". New York Times. 26 May 1977. pg.2
  28. ^ Dubai. Carter, T and Dunston, L. Lonely Planet Publications
  29. ^ "Free Zones in the UAE". Retrieved 23 April 2010. 
  30. ^ "Dubai Focus" (PDF). Retrieved 31 July 2009. 
  31. ^ Environmental Development and Protection in the UAE. Aspinall, Simon
  32. ^ a b Far enough from the fault lines. The National, 23 April 2008
  33. ^ Flora and fauna of Dubai
  34. ^ Natural UAE UAE Interact Retrieved 29 April 2010
  35. ^ Climate in Dubai across the year. Dubai Meteorological office.
  36. ^ "Climate". Dubai Meteorological Office. Retrieved 2008-12-20. 
  37. ^ "Records and Averages of Dubai, United Arab Emirates". Qwikcast. 
  38. ^ "Executive and Legislative Branches". US Library of Congress. Retrieved 12 May 2010. 
  39. ^ Organizational Chart. Dubai Municipality
  40. ^ "Dubai Municipality's e-government initiative" (PPT). 2 December 2005. Retrieved 22 April 2010. 
  41. ^ Wheeler, Julia (13 October 2008). "Raw sewage threat to booming Dubai". BBC News. Retrieved 31 July 2009. 
  42. ^ "Background on the United Arab Emirates (UAE) Legal System". Retrieved 25 April 2010. 
  43. ^ "Dubai – UAE Consulate of the United States". Consulate of the United States. Retrieved 23 April 2010. 
  44. ^ "Human Rights Watch – Building Towers, Cheating Workers: Exploitation of Migrant Construction Workers in the United Arab Emirates". 11 November 2006. Retrieved 31 July 2009. 
  45. ^ "UAE to Allow Construction Unions". BBC News. 30 March 2006. Retrieved 31 July 2009. 
  46. ^ "Dubai Fire Investigation Launched". BBC News. 19 January 2007. Retrieved 31 July 2009. 
  47. ^ Labour unrest hampers Burj Dubai work Khaleej Times (AP report), 22 March 2006
  48. ^ "Burj Dubai workers who protested may be sued" Khaleej Times, 24 March 2006
  49. ^ Labour in the UAE Gulf News articles on Labour Law in the UAE, protests, etc
  50. ^ "Burj Dubai strike continues". AMEinfo. 8 November 2007. Retrieved 27 April 2010. 
  51. ^ "The dark side of Dubai". The Independent (London). 7 April 2009. Retrieved 31 July 2009. 
  52. ^ UAE to allow construction unions BBC News, 30 March 2006. Retrieved 24 April 2006.
  53. ^ UAE plans to form labour unions, legalise collective bargaining Khaleej Times. 30 March 2006.
  54. ^ a b Mimi Chakarova. Dubai: Night Secrets, PBS Frontline, 13 September 2007
  55. ^ Deparle, Jason (6 August 2007). "Fearful of Restive Foreign Labor, Dubai Eyes Reforms". New York Times (Dubai;United Arab Emirates). Retrieved 12 August 2011. 
  56. ^ Walt, Vivienne (5 November 2007). "Outrage Over Dubai Rape Case". TIME (Dubai;United Arab Emirates).,8599,1680682,00.html. Retrieved 16 October 2011. 
  57. ^ "British air hostess 'kidnapped and raped in Dubai desert'". (Dubai). 2 June 2010. Retrieved 16 October 2011. 
  58. ^ a b c Karin, Luiza (September , 1999). "Modernity and tradition in Dubai architecture by Luiza Karim". Retrieved 19 April 2010. 
  59. ^ Hadjari, Karim. "3D Modelling and Visualisation OF Al Baskita in Dubai IN Dubai, United Arab Emerites". Retrieved 19 April 2010. 
  60. ^ "Tourism in Dubai". Retrieved 19 April 2010. 
  61. ^ Lahmeyer, Jan (2001). "The United Arab Emigrates – Historical demographical data of the urban centers". .populstat. Retrieved 19 April 2010. 
  62. ^ Heard-Bey, Frauke. "The Tribal Society of the UAE and its Traditional Economy". Retrieved 19 April 2010. 
  63. ^ "Census 2005 U.A.E.". Retrieved 19 April 2010. 
  64. ^ a b Younes, Bassem. "Roundabouts vs. Intersections: The Tale of Three UAE Cities". Retrieved 19 April 2010. 
  65. ^ a b "Dubai in Figures 2009. Government of Dubai. Statistical Center". Retrieved 31 October 2010. 
  66. ^ "Cost of living – The world's most expensive cities". City Mayors. 
  67. ^ a b "Country and Metropolitan Stats in Brief. MPI Data Hub
  68. ^ "Young Iranians Follow Dreams to Dubai" The New York Times, by Hassan M. Fattah. Published: 4 December 2005
  69. ^ a b "HSBC Reveals "The Future of Retirement: What the World Wants" Survey Results". HSBC. 26 April 2006. Retrieved 19 April 2010. 
  70. ^ "Population in Dubai". dubaivisitguide. Retrieved 15 February 2011. 
  71. ^ Languages spoken in Dubai Retrieved 13 August 2011.
  72. ^ a b Country Profile: United Arab Emirates (UAE). United States Library of Congress
  73. ^ Religion in Dubai. Dubaidreams
  74. ^ "International Religious Freedom Report 2007 – United Arab Emirates". Retrieved 31 July 2009. 
  75. ^ "Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the Emirate of Dubai 2006–2008". Dubai Statistics Centre. Retrieved 5 May 2010. 
  76. ^ "Dubai – Overview". USA Today. Retrieved 22 July 2007. 
  77. ^ Dubai's oil discovery and Dubai's debt Moneycontrol Business News. 4 Feb 2010.
  78. ^ "UAE Oil and Gas". 19 June 1999. Archived from the original on 5 July 2008. Retrieved 31 July 2009. 
  79. ^ Prospects of Dubai Economic Sectors. Dubai Chamber of Commerce. 2003
  80. ^ "Foreign direct trade". Dubai Statistics Centre. Retrieved 5 May 2010. 
  81. ^ a b "World Port Rankings – 2008". American Association of Port Authorities. 15 April 2008. Retrieved 5 May 2010. 
  82. ^ Armitstead, Louise (20 November 2008). "Dubai's Palm Jumeirah sees prices fall as crunch moves in". The Daily Telegraph (UK). Retrieved 20 November 2008. 
  83. ^ "World's Tallest Hotel Opens Its Doors". BBC News. 1 December 1999. Retrieved 31 July 2009. 
  84. ^ "Laid-Off Foreigners Flee as Dubai Spirals Down" article by Robert F. Worth in The New York Times 11 February 2009
  85. ^ Warner, Jeremy (27 November 2009) Dubai is just a harbinger of things to come for sovereign debt. The Telegraph
  86. ^ "Citgy Mayors: World's best financial cities". 10 June 2008. Retrieved 26 August 2009. 
  87. ^ "World's richest cities by purchasing power". City Mayors. Retrieved 26 August 2009. 
  88. ^ "MW-IndexRpt-CoComm FA.indd" (PDF). Retrieved 10 October 2008. 
  89. ^
  90. ^, Dubai Mall: A milestone harks back to humble origins
  91. ^
  92. ^ Surge in Dubai’s accommodation fuels increase in visitor demand. TW Academy
  93. ^ Dubai can achieve 15m tourist target by 2015 – expert. arabian business. 3 March 2009.
  94. ^ El Sayed, Saad (21 December 2004). "Dubai Hotels Post 42% Revenue Growth". Press Release. Government of Dubai. Retrieved 22 April 2010. 
  95. ^ Duabi.. Ashopping paradise.
  96. ^ Shopping in Dubai Dept. of tourism and commerce
  97. ^ Dubai guide Eye of dubai. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
  98. ^ Krane, Jim (September , 2009). City of Gold: Dubai and the Dream of Capitalism. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-53574-2. 
  99. ^ Karim, Luiza Modernity and tradition in Dubai architecture. AlShindagah, 1999
  100. ^ Design of Burj Khalifa. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
  101. ^ "World's Ten Tallest Cities". Ultrapolis Project. Retrieved 3 November 2010. 
  102. ^ "Calculated Average Height of the Twenty-five Tallest (CAHTT)", Retrieved on 3 November 2010.
  103. ^ Haslam, Chris (23 November 2008) Poo-bai: floods of sewage threaten Dubai beaches The Sunday Times. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
  104. ^ Wheeler, Julia (13 October 2008) Raw sewage threat to booming Dubai
  105. ^ Gale, Ivan (25 January. 2009) Dubai airport passengers top 37m, The National. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
  106. ^ a b "Will metro change Dubai car culture?". BBC News. 11 September 2009. 
  107. ^ "Gulfnews: Dubai traffic woes inflict losses of Dh4.6b a year". Retrieved 14 July 2009. 
  108. ^ "Gulfnews: Public transport regains allure as Car-free Day gets under way". 17 February 2010. Retrieved 29 April 2010. 
  109. ^ "Gulfnews: Rta wants 30 of dubai residents on public transport". 21 January 2010. Retrieved 29 April 2010. 
  110. ^ "Dubai Overtakes Cairo in Traffic Congestion –".<!. 7 February 2007. Retrieved 14 July 2009. 
  111. ^ Completed projects. RTA Dubai
  112. ^ "Dubai buses may be privatised – The National Newspaper". 8 June 2009. Retrieved 14 July 2009. 
  113. ^ "Gulfnews: Air-conditioned bus shelters for Dubai". 6 March 2010. Retrieved 10 March 2006. 
  114. ^ Dubai Transportation
  115. ^ "Getting Around in Dubai". Retrieved 14 September 2011. 
  116. ^ "Gulfnews: Dubai Metro gives boost to public transport in city". 6 March 2010. Retrieved 29 April 2010. 
  117. ^ "Dubai Taxi Corporation". 29 September 2010. Retrieved 31 October 2010. 
  118. ^ Dubai world’s sixth busiest airport "2008 Annual Report". Dubai Airport. 2009. Dubai world’s sixth busiest airport. Retrieved 30 February 2009. [dead link]
  119. ^ "Dubai International Airport". Dubai Airport. 2010. Retrieved 30 February 2009. 
  120. ^ "Year to date International Freight Traffic". Airports Council International. 15 April 2010. Retrieved 29 April 2010. 
  121. ^ "Emirates Announces 2009 Expansion Plan – Airline to increase capacity by 14 per cent". Emirates Airline. 18 February 2009. Retrieved 22 April 2010. 
  122. ^ "Al Maktoum International airport begins operations". Gulf News. 27 June 2010. Retrieved 28 June 2010. 
  123. ^ "Al Maktoum International airport receives first flight". Gulf News. 21 June 2010. Retrieved 21 June 2010. 
  124. ^ "Dubai RTA – Dubai Metro – Blue Line". zawya. 11 September 2009. 
  125. ^ "Dubai Municipality signs Dhs12.45 billion Metro contract". UAE Interact. 30 May 2005. 
  126. ^ "Middle East's first monorail to start services in Palm Jumeirah by April". Gulf News. 7 August 2008. Retrieved 11 August 2008. 
  127. ^ "Palm monorail tried and tested". Timeoutdubai. 6 May 2009. Retrieved 2010-48-29. 
  128. ^ "The GCC Rail Revolution". Railway. 29 September 2008. Retrieved 11 June 2009. 
  129. ^ "GCC Rail Network". zawya projects. 14 April 2010. Retrieved 25 April 2010. 
  130. ^ "Port of Jebel Ali". 14 August 2008. Retrieved 25 April 2010. 
  131. ^ Abra-services dubai-online
  132. ^ "RTA launches Water Bus System on Dubai Creek". AMEinfo. 16 July 2007. Retrieved 25 April 2010. 
  133. ^ Jonathan Sheikh-Miller. "UAE Weekend Switchover". AMEinfo. Retrieved 22 March 2010. 
  134. ^ Dubai Shopping Festival 2011 More Details
  135. ^ DSF Milestones. Dubaicityguide
  136. ^ Sales will account for 8% of Dubai's GDP. Gulf News. 3 May 2009.
  137. ^ Food and Agricultural Import Regulations and Standards[dead link]. GAIN Report. United States Department of Agriculture
  138. ^ a b c d Dubai Culture
  139. ^ Sherwood, Seth (9 December 2007). "Clubs Bloom in the Desert". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 April 2010. 
  140. ^ "Clothing in the UAE". Retrieved 15 July 2009. 
  141. ^ "Blame Europeans for topless displays, British women say". Gulfnews. Retrieved 15 July 2009. 
  142. ^ "Welcome to Abu Dhabi – Literature and Poetry". 1 July 2009. Retrieved 15 July 2009. 
  143. ^ "Photo of the week". Gulf News. 21 September 2006. Retrieved 23 April 2010. 
  144. ^ "About Dubai Film Festival (DFF)". 7th Dubai International Film Festival. Archived from the original on 22 August 2008. Retrieved 23 April 2010. 
  145. ^ "du sponsors AR Rahman Live in Concert". 16 April – 2008. Retrieved 25 April 2010. 
  146. ^ Ferris-Lay, Claire (11 September 2008). was-paid-35mn-for-atlantis-gig "Kylie 'being paid $3.5mn' for Atlantis gig". Arab was-paid-35mn-for-atlantis-gig. Retrieved 23 April 2010. 
  147. ^ ICC moves to new headquarters in Sports City. Gulf News 18 April 2009
  148. ^ "Dubai on track for 2020 Olympic bid". 20 July 2009. Retrieved 31 May 2010. 
  149. ^ Surk, Barbara (25 April 2010). "Dubai still considering Olympic bid". USA Today. Retrieved 31 May 2010. 
  150. ^ Solomon, Erika (29 July 2011). "Olympics-Dubai opts out of 2020 bid, targets 2024". Reuters. Retrieved 12 August 2011. 
  151. ^ "Dubai considers Youth Olympic Games bid". Retrieved 15 September 2011. 
  152. ^ a b List of schools in Dubai Dubai school finder. Retrieved 7 May 2010.
  153. ^ About KHDA, KHDA, 2006
  154. ^ "Global MBA programmes". University of Manchester Business School. Retrieved 23 April 2010. 
  155. ^ "About MSU Dubai". Michigan State University – Dubai. Retrieved 23 April 2010. 
  156. ^ "Dubai". Middlesex University. Retrieved 25 December 2010. 
  157. ^ About DPL Dubai Government
  158. ^ Largest-Circulation Arabic Newspapers. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Arab Reform Bulletin, December 2004
  159. ^ Gulf News continues to lead the way. zawya. February 2010
  160. ^ "Etisalat ramps up UAE bandwidth". 11 June 2006. Retrieved 3 May 2010. 
  161. ^ Hashim, Abdulla (5 May 2005). "UAEnicat a Glance". Retrieved 21 April 2010. 
  162. ^ United Arab Emirates. OpenNet Interactive. 2008
  163. ^ Jack, Malvern (16 February 2009). "Geraldine Bedell's novel banned in Dubai because of gay character". The Times (UK). Retrieved 22 April 2010. 
  164. ^ "Internet Filtering in the United Arab Emirates in 2004–2005: A Country Study". OpenNet Initiative. 5 May 2005. Retrieved 9 June 2010. 
  165. ^ "Electronic Transactions and Commerce Law No.2/2002". Dubai Technology and Media Free Zone Authority. Retrieved 9 June 2010. 
  166. ^ Silenced – United Arab Emirates. Privacy International (21 September 2003). Retrieved 23 April 2010.
  167. ^ "Dubai’s sister cities". dubaicityguide. Retrieved 14 September 2011. 
  168. ^ "Twinning Cities Agreements". UAE Official Website. Retrieved 14 September 2011. 
  169. ^ "Twinning agreement brings a taste of Spain to Dubai UAE – The Official Web Site – News". Retrieved 14 July 2009. 
  170. ^ "Dubai, Detroit ink sister-city accord UAE – The Official Web Site – News". Retrieved 14 July 2009. 
  171. ^ "Dubai, Granada discuss cooperation UAE – The Official Web Site – News".,_Granada_discuss_cooperation/34149.htm. Retrieved 14 July 2009. 
  172. ^ "Los Angeles cultural body takes Dubai as sister city UAE – The Official Web Site – News". Retrieved 14 July 2009. 
  173. ^ "Dubai partners with the U.S. city of Phoenix UAE – The Official Web Site – News". Retrieved 14 July 2009. 
  174. ^ "Dynamic Busan – City Government – Sister Cities – Dubai". Retrieved 14 July 2009. 

Dubai auto news


  • Syed Ali. Dubai: Gilded Cage (Yale University Press; 2010) 240 pages. Focuses on the Arab emirate's treatment of foreign workers.
  • Heiko Schmid: Economy of Fascination: Dubai and Las Vegas as Themed Urban Landscapes, Berlin, Stuttgart 2009, ISBN 978-3-443-37014-5
  • John M. Smith: Dubai The Maktoum Story, Norderstedt 2007, ISBN 3-8334-4660-9

External links

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Dubai — Dubaï 25° 15′ 57″ N 55° 17′ 29″ E / 25.2658, 55.2915 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Dubái — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda إمارة دبيّ Emirato de Dubái Dubái Bandera …   Wikipedia Español

  • Dubai TV — Création 1979 (en tant que Emirates Dubai TV) 2004 (en tant que Dubai TV) Langue Arabe Pays Émirats arabes unis Siège social …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Dubai TV — Type Satellite television network Country …   Wikipedia

  • Dubai 33 — Dubai Channel 33 (originally branded as Ch33) was a national television channel transmitting terrestrially out of Dubai in English, targeting the expat community in the U.A.E.. It was founded in 1977. Up until the late 80s, it was a 12 hour… …   Wikipedia

  • Dubai SC — Dubaï Club Dubaï Club Nom complet Dubai Cultural Sp …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Dubaï SC — Dubaï Club Dubaï Club Nom complet Dubai Cultural Sp …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Dubaï TV — Dubai TV Fichier:Dubai tv logo.jpg Création 1992 Langue Arabe, Pays d origine Émirats arabes unis Siège social Dubai Site Web …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Dubai — es un emirato, y una ciudad, en los Emiratos Árabes Unidos. Dubai es famosa por su aeropuerto y el hotel Burj al Arab. En Dubai últimamente se han construido grandes rascacielos, y se ha convertido en una puerta muy importante para Occidente. En… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • DUBAÏ — ou DOUBAÏ Capitale de l’émirat du même nom qui fait partie des Émirats arabes unis, la prospérité de Dubaï date d’avant la découverte du pétrole (en 1966); en effet, Dubaï (en arabe «la sauterelle») possédait, grâce à sa crique en eau profonde et …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Dubái — El nombre de este emirato árabe y de su capital debe escribirse con tilde en español, por ser voz aguda acabada en vocal (→ tilde2, 1.1.1 y 6.2): «Los sudamericanos enfrentarán a Japón [...] en Dubái por los cuartos de final de la competición… …   Diccionario panhispánico de dudas

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”