Urdu: لاہور
Punjabi: لہور
—  City District  —
Clockwise from top: Kim's Gun, Badshahi Mosque, Samadhi of Ranjit Singh, Lahore Museum, Shalimar Gardens, Lahore Fort and Minar-e-Pakistan

Nickname(s): Paris of the East[1][2][3]

The Pearl of Punjab[4]

The Garden of the Mughals[5][6]

The Cultural Capital of Pakistan[7]

Data Ki Nagri (City of Ali Hujwiri)[8]

The Heart of Pakistan[9][10]

City of Gardens[11][12]
Location of Lahore (in red) in Punjab, Pakistan and (inset) Punjab in Pakistan
Coordinates: 31°32′59″N 74°20′37″E / 31.54972°N 74.34361°E / 31.54972; 74.34361Coordinates: 31°32′59″N 74°20′37″E / 31.54972°N 74.34361°E / 31.54972; 74.34361
Country  Pakistan
Punjab (Pakistan) Punjab
City District Government 11th September 2008
City Council Lahore
Towns 9
 – Type City District
 – Divisional Commissioner Jawad Rafiq (CSP/D.M.G)
 – City Nazim
 – Naib Nazim
 – District Coordination Officer Ahad Khan Cheema (CSP/D.M.G)
 – Total 1,772 km2 (684 sq mi)
Elevation 217 m (712 ft)
Population (2009[14])
 – Total 10,000,000
  Combined population of Lahore City and Lahore Cantonment
Postal code 54000
Dialling code 042[15]
Lahore Cantonment is a legally separate military-administered settlement.

Lahore (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab and the second largest city in the country. With a rich and fabulous history dating back to over a thousand years ago, Lahore is no doubt Pakistan's cultural capital. One of the most densely populated cities in the world, Lahore remains a vibrant economic, political, transportation, entertainment, and educational hub. Considered a gamma+ world city, Lahore maintains its historical status as one of the world's most cosmopolitan and lively of cities.

Lahore has been a center of cultural heritage for many civilizations. It successively served as regional capital of the empires of the Shahi kingdoms in the 11th century, the Ghaznavids in the 12th century, the Ghurid State in the 12th and 13th century, the Mughal Empire in the 16th century, the Sikh expansion in the early 19th century, and it was the capital of the Punjab region under the British Raj in the mid 19th and early 20th century. The traditional capital of Punjab for a thousand years, Lahore was the cultural center of the northern part of the subcontinent which extends from the eastern banks of the Indus River to New Delhi.[16][17] Mughal structures such as the Badshahi Mosque, the Lahore Fort, Shalimar Gardens, and the mausolea of Jehangir and Nur Jehan are popular tourist attractions for the city. Lahore is also home to many British colonial structures built in the Mughal-Gothic style, such as the Lahore High Court, the General Post Office, Lahore Museum and many older universities including the University of the Punjab. The Lahore Zoo, thought to be the fourth oldest zoo in the world,[18] is also situated here.

Lahore is referred to as the cultural heart of Punjab as it hosts most of the arts, cuisine, festivals, film-making, music, gardening and intelligentsia of the country. Known for its affiliation with poets and artists, it has the largest number of educational institutions in Punjab and some of the finest gardens in the continent.[16] Lahore has always been a center for publications, where 80 percent of Punjab's books are published and remains the foremost center of literary, educational and cultural activity in Punjab.[19] It is also an important religious center as it is a home to hundreds of temples, mosques and shrines like Data Durbar Complex.[20]

According to the 1998 census, Lahore's population was 6,310,000.[21] A 2010 government estimate now puts the population at 8,590,000. It is ranked 40 in the most populated urban areas in the world and the 8th largest city within the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. In 2008, Lahore was ranked as a city with High Sufficiency to become a Gamma world city.[22] In 2010 it was ranked by The Guardian as the 2nd Best Tourist Destination in Pakistan.[23]




A legend based on oral traditions holds that Lahore, known in ancient times as Lavapuri ("City of Lava" in Sanskrit),[24] was founded by Prince Lava or Loh,[25][26] the son of Rama, the Hindu deity, while Kasur was founded by his twin brother Prince Kusha.[27] To this day, Lahore Fort has a vacant temple dedicated to Lava (also pronounced Loh, hence Loh-awar or "The Fort of Loh").[28]

Ptolemy, the celebrated 2nd-century Egyptian astronomer and geographer, mentions in his Geographia a city called Labokla[29] situated on the route between the Indus River and Palibothra, or Pataliputra (Patna) mostly, in a tract of country called Kasperia (Kashmir). It was described as extending along the rivers Bidastes or Vitasta (Jhelum), Sandabal or Chandra Bhaga (Chenab), and Adris or Iravati (Ravi). This city may have been ancient Lahore.

The oldest authentic document about Lahore was written anonymously in 982. It is called Hudud-i-Alam (The Regions of the World).[30] In 1927 it was translated into English by Vladimir Fedorovich Minorsky and published in Lahore. In this document, Lahore is mentioned as a shehr or town inhabited by infidels[31] "impressive temples, large markets and huge orchards." It refers to "two major markets around which dwellings exist," and it also mentions "the mud walls that enclose these two dwellings to make it one." The original document is currently held in the British Museum.[32] Lahore was called by different names throughout history. To date there is no conclusive evidence as to when it was founded. Some historians trace the history of the city as far back as 4000 years ago.[33] However, historically, it has been proved that Lahore is at least 2,000 years old. Hieun-tsang, the famous Chinese pilgrim has given a vivid description of Lahore which he visited in the early parts of the 7th century AD. Lying on the main trade and invasion routes to South Asia, Lahore has been ruled and plundered by a number of dynasties and hordes.

Ghaznavid Empire to Delhi Sultanate

Tomb of Malik Ayaz in the Walled City
Data Durbar shrine, during urs at night

Lahore appears as the capital of the Punjab for the first time under Anandapala – the Hindu Shahi king who is referred to as the ruler of (hakim i lahur) –after leaving the earlier capital of Waihind.[34] Few references to Lahore remain from before its capture by Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni in the eleventh century. The sultan took Lahore after a long siege and battle in which the city was torched and depopulated. In 1021, Sultan Mahmud appointed Malik Ayaz to the throne and made Lahore the capital of the Ghaznavid Empire of India. As the first Muslim governor of Lahore, Ayaz rebuilt and repopulated the city. He added many important features, such as city gates and a masonry fort, built in 1037–1040 on the ruins of the previous one,[35] which had been demolished in the fighting (as recorded by Munshi Sujan Rae Bhandari, author of the Khulasatut Tawarikh in 1695–96). The present Lahore Fort stands on the same location. Under Ayaz's rule, the city became a cultural and academic center, renowned for poetry.[36] The tomb of Malik Ayaz can still be seen in the Rang Mahal commercial area of town.[37]

After the fall of the Ghaznavid Empire, Lahore was ruled by various Turkic dynasties based in Delhi, known as the Delhi Sultanate, including the Khiljis, Tughlaqs, Mamluk, Sayyid and Lodhis.[38] During the reign of Qutb-ud-din Aibak, Lahore was known as the 'Ghazni of India'. Scholars and poets from as far away as Kashghar, Bukhara, Samarkand, Iraq, Khorasan and Herat, gathered in Lahore and made it a city of learning. Under Aibak, Lahore had more poets of Persia than any other Islamic city.[39]

In the 13th Century, the Loharana king, Chahir Ray, was betrayed by his confidant Kualnger, who turned traitor for a large fortune in gold and gems. Due to this, the Lohana community split, and a new leader emerged who again unified the Lohanas. Veer Jashraj, who is revered as Veer Dada Jashraj, was born in the city of Lohar (today's Lahore in Pakistan), which was the capital of Lohargadh. His domain extended from Lahore to Multan (also in Pakistan today).[citation needed] As the folklore goes, Mongol invader Changez Khan, attacked Multan and was killed by Dada Jashraj, Rana of Lohargadh.

This finds mention in Mongol folklore, which say, "King of Mongols was killed by Mirana, the tiger of Multan fort". His descendants who proudly carry the surname of 'Mirana' preserve the memory of this great warrior king. Dada Jashraj was also treacherously killed when only 28 - a life so short but full of heroic deeds.

After the death of Dada Jashraj, the decline of Lohana kingdom began and their reign at Lohargadh ended. King Dahir ruled for a while from Narayankot (today's Hyderabad, Sindh).

After his demise in a war against Muslims, Narayankot and Sindh fell to Muslims. It was around this time that some Lohanas converted to Islam. Many migrated to far-off southern regions like Kutchchh, Saurashtra and Gujarat and gradually became a trader community like Agarwals and Baranwals.

Mughal Era

Badshahi Mosque, built by the Mughal Emperor, Aurangzeb.
The Lahore Fort is the most famous landmark from the days of Mughal Empire, in Pakistan.
The Zamzama cannon, owned by the Afghan king Ahmed Shah Abdali.

In the early 16th century, Babur, a Timurid descendant of Timur and Genghis Khan from Fergana Valley (modern day Uzbekistan), swept across the Khyber Pass and founded the Mughal Empire, covering modern day Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India.[40] The Mughals were descended from Central Asian Turks (with a significant Mongol admixture). Lahore reached the zenith of its glory during the Mughal rule from 1524 to 1752. Lahore reached the peak of its architectural glory during the rule of the Mughals, many of whose buildings and gardens have survived the ravages of time. During this time, the massive Lahore Fort was built. A few buildings within the fort were added by Akbar's son, the Mughal emperor Jahangir, who is buried in the city. Jahangir's son, Shahjahan Burki, was born in Lahore. He, like his father, extended the Lahore Fort and built many other structures in the city, including the Shalimar Gardens. The last of the great Mughals, Aurangzeb, who ruled from 1658 to 1707, built the city's most famous monuments, the Badshahi Masjid and the Alamgiri Gate next to the Lahore Fort.

Post Mughal Era

During the 18th century, as Mughal power dwindled, Punjab, including Lahore, was often invaded, and government authority was lacking. In 1739, Nader Shah, the Turkic emperor of Afsharid dynasty in Persia, invaded north western India, defeated the Mughal Emperor Mohammed Shah at the huge Battle of Karnal, and occupied most of Balochistan and the Indus plain including Lahore.[41] In 1747, the Durrani Empire was established by Ahmad Shah Abdali in Afghanistan, during this period, Punjab saw frequent invasions by Ahmad Shah Abdali, The great Punjabi poet Baba Waris Shah said of the situation, "khada peeta wahy da, baqi Ahmad Shahy da" — "we have nothing with us except what we eat and wear, all other things are for Ahmad Shah". In 1758 the Maratha Empire's general Raghunathrao conquered Lahore and Attock and drove out Timur Shah Durrani, the son and viceroy of Ahmad Shah Abdali. Lahore, Multan, Kashmir and other subahs on the south and eastern side of Attock were under the Maratha rule for the most part. In Punjab and Kashmir, the Marathas were now major players.[42][43] In 1761, following the victory at the Third battle of Panipat between the Durrani and the Maratha Empire, Ahmad Shah Abdali captured remnants of the Maratha Empire in Punjab and Kashmir regions and consolidated control over them.[44]

Sikh reign

During the late 18th century, frequent invasions by Ahmad Shah Abdali and the Durrani Empire led to a lack of governance in the Punjab region. The Sikh Misls began to gain territory and eventually the Bhangi Misl captured Lahore. When Zaman Shah invaded Punjab again in 1799 Ranjit Singh was able to make gains in the chaos. He defeated Zaman in a battle between Lahore and Amritsar. The citizens of Lahore, encouraged by Sada Kaur, offered him the city and he was able to take control of it in a series of battles with the Bhangi Misl and their allies. Lahore served as the capital city of the Sikh Empire. While much of Lahore's Mughal era fabric lay in ruins by the end of eighteenth century, rebuilding efforts under the Sikhs were shaped by and indebted to Mughal practice. Ranjit Singh moved into the Mughal palace in Lahore's citadel. By 1812 he had mostly refurbished the city's defenses by adding a second circuit of outer walls that followed the outline of Akbar's original walls and were separated from them by a moat. The maharaja also partially restored Shah Jahan's decaying gardens at Shalimar [disambiguation needed], and British maps of the area surrounding Lahore dating from the mid-nineteenth century show that walled private gardens - many of them bearing the names of prominent Sikh nobles - continued in the Mughal pattern under Sikh rule. The Sikh court continued to endow religious architecture in the city, including a number of Sikh gurdwaras, Hindu temples, and mosques. In short, the decaying structures and architecture of Lahore was restored by the emperor. The Empire of the Sikhs was most exceptional in that it allowed men from religions other than their own to rise to commanding positions of authority. Besides the Sikh, Muslim and the Hindu feature as prominent administrators. The Christians formed a part of the militia of the Sikhs.

British Raj

Lahore Museum, built during the British Raj.
Map of Lahore drawn up during the rule of the British, 1893

Maharajah Ranjit Singh made Lahore his capital and was able to expand the kingdom to the Khyber Pass and also included Jammu and Kashmir, while keeping the British from expanding across the River Sutlej for more than 40 years. After his death in 1839 the internecine fighting between the Sikhs and several rapid forfeitures of territory by his sons, along with the intrigues of the Dogras and two Anglo-Sikh wars, eventually led to British control of the Lahore Darbar ten years later. For the British, Punjab was a frontier province, because Lahore had boundaries with Afghanistan and Persia. Therefore, the Punjabis, unlike the Bengalis and the Sindhis, were not allowed to use their mother tongue as an official language. The British first introduced Urdu as an official language in Punjab,[45][46] including Lahore, allegedly due to a fear of Punjabi nationalism. Under British rule (1849–1947), colonial architecture in Lahore combined Mughal, Gothic and Victorian styles. Under British rule, Sir Ganga Ram (referred to as the father of modern Lahore) designed and built the General Post Office, Lahore Museum, Aitchison College, Mayo School of Arts (now the NCA), Ganga Ram Hospital, Lady Mclagan Girls High School, the chemistry department of the Government College University, the Albert Victor wing of Mayo Hospital, Sir Ganga Ram High School (now Lahore College for Women) the Hailey College of Commerce, Ravi Road House for the Disabled, the Ganga Ram Trust Building on Shahrah-e-Quaid-e-Azam, and the Lady Maynard Industrial School.[47] He also constructed Model Town, a suburb that has recently developed into a cultural center for Lahore's growing socioeconomic elite.

The GPO and YMCA buildings in Lahore commemorated the golden jubilee of Queen Victoria, an event marked by the construction of clock towers and monuments all over British India. Other important British buildings included the High Court, the Government College University, the museums, the National College of Arts, Montgomery Hall, Tollinton Market, the University of the Punjab (Old Campus) and the Provincial Assembly. Even today, Mall Road retains a variety of Gothic and Victorian style buildings built during the British Raj. At one end of The Mall stands the university, one of the most prestigious in Pakistan. The British also launched the city's first horse-racing club in 1924, starting a tradition that continues today at the Lahore Race Club.

Partition of British India

Lahore played a special role in the independence movements of India. The 1929 Indian National Congress session was held at Lahore. In this Congress, the Declaration of the Independence of India was moved by Pandit Nehru and passed unanimously at midnight on 31 December 1929.[48] On this occasion, the contemporary tricolour of India (with a chakra at its centre) was hoisted for the first time as a national flag, and thousands of people saluted it.

Lahore's prison was used by the British to detain revolutionary freedom fighters. Noted freedom fighter Jatin Das died in Lahore's prison after fasting for 63 days in protest of British treatment of political prisoners. One of the greatest martyrs in the history of Indian independence, Shaheed Sardar Bhagat Singh, was hanged here.[49]

The most important session of the All India Muslim League (later the Pakistan Muslim League), demanding the creation of Pakistan, was held in Lahore in 1940.[50] Muslims under the leadership of Muhammad Ali Jinnah demanded a separate homeland for Muslims of India in a document known as the Pakistan Resolution or the Lahore Resolution. It was during this session that Jinnah, the leader of the league, publicly proposed the Two-Nation Theory for the first time.[51]


Upon the creation of Pakistan, Lahore was made capital of the Punjab province in the new state of Pakistan. Almost immediately, large scale riots broke out among Muslims, Sikhs and Hindus, causing many deaths as well as damage to historic monuments—including the Lahore Fort, Badshahi mosque and other colonial buildings.[52] With United Nations assistance, the government was able to rebuild Lahore, and most scars of the communal violence of independence were erased. Less than 20 years later, however, Lahore once again became a battleground in the War of 1965. The battlefield and trenches can still be observed today close to the Wagah border area.

After independence, Lahore lost much of its glory, but in the 1990s, Lahore once again gained its significance as an economic and cultural powerhouse through government reforms. The second Islamic Summit Conference was held in the city.[53] In 1996 the International Cricket Council Cricket World Cup final match was held at the Gaddafi Stadium in Lahore.

The Walled City of Lahore known locally as the "Un-droone Shehr" is the oldest and most historic part of Lahore. The Punjab government embarked on a major project in 2009 to restore the Royal Trail (Shahi Guzar Gah) from Akbari Gate to the Lahore Fort with the help of the World Bank under the Sustainable Development of the Walled City of Lahore (SDWCL) project. The project aims at the Walled City development, at exploring and highlighting economic potential of the Walled City as a cultural heritage, exploring and highlighting the benefits of the SWDCL project for the residents, and at soliciting suggestions regarding maintenance of development and conservation of the Walled City. This city is famous of historic places i.e. Badshahi masjid, Minaar Pakistan . (PATILdada)

Geography and climate

Climate chart (explanation)
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: HKO[54]
The Ravi River flows on the north-western side of Lahore.

Lying between 31°15′—31°45′ N and 74°01′—74°39′ E, Lahore is bounded on the north and west by the Sheikhupura District, on the east by Wagah, and on the south by Kasur District. The Ravi River flows on the northern side of Lahore. Lahore city covers a total land area of 404 km² and is still growing.

Lahore features a hot semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification BSh) with rainy, long and extremely hot summers, dry and warm winters, a monsoon and dust storms. The weather of Lahore is extreme during the months of May, June and July, when the temperatures soar to 40–48 °C (104–118 °F). From late June till August, the monsoon seasons starts, with heavy rainfall throughout the province. The city’s highest maximum temperature was 48.3 °C (118.9 °F) recorded on May 30, 1944.[55] And 48 °C (118 °F) was recorded on June 10, 2007.[56][57] At the time the meteorological office recorded this official temperature in the shade, it reported a heat index in direct sunlight of 55 °C (131 °F). The lowest temperature recorded in Lahore is −1.1 °C (30.0 °F) recorded on 13 January 1967.[58] The highest rainfall in the city recorded during 24 hours is 221 millimetres (8.7 in), which occurred on 13 August 2008.[59] The city on 26 February 2011, received heavy rain and hailstorm measuring 4.5 millimetres, which carpeted several roads and sidewalks with measurable hail for the first time in the climatic history of Lahore.[60][61]

Civic administration

Under the latest revision of Pakistan's administrative structure, promulgated in 2001,[62] Lahore was tagged as a City District, and divided into nine towns.[63] Each town in turn consists of a group of union councils (U.C.'s).[64]

Administrative towns of Lahore[65]

Administrative towns

  1. Ravi Town
  2. Shalimar Town
  3. Wagah Town
  4. Aziz Bhatti Town
  5. Data Gunj Bakhsh Town
  6. Gulberg
  7. Samanabad Town
  8. Iqbal Town
  9. Nishtar Town
A. Lahore Cantonment


Egyptian Style Bahria Town, Lahore

Other major residential areas within Lahore include: Garhi Shahu, Abdalian Housing Society, Awan Town, Badami Bagh, Bahria Town, Cavalry Ground, Defence Housing Authority (DHA), Faisal Town, Garden Town, GCP Society, Green Town, Gulberg, Gulshan-e-Lahore, Samanabad, Gulshan-e-Ravi, Hassan Town, Ichhra, Iqbal Town, Sabzazar Sheme, Islampura, Ittefaq Town, Johar Town, Model Town, Muhafiz Town, Mustafa Town, Nespak Society, New Muslim Town, NFC Employees Cooperative Housing Society, Pasco Society, Punjab Cooperative Housing Society, Sant Nagar, Saroba Gardens, Shad Bagh, Sukh Chayn Gardens, Township, Valencia Town, WAPDA Town, Iqbal Avenue Co-operative Housing Society, OPF Colony and Youhanabad.


Lahore's old city fabric has changed dramatically over time under the occupation of various South Asian empires. Some of the older remaining districts of Lahore are: Baghbanpura, Batapur, Begum Kot, Canal View Housing Society, Central Park, Chah Miran, Chowk Yateem Khana, Defence Housing Authority (DHA), Gawalmandi, Harbanspura, Jallo Mor, Krishan Nagar, Lakshmi Chowk, Mozang Chungi, Mughalpura, Qila Gujar Singh, Raiwind, Sanda, Shahdara Bagh, Shadman and Tajpura Scheme LDA, Sultanpura and Al Faisal Town.


The Liberty Roundabout or Al-Falah Square is an important economic center of Lahore.
Head office of the PIA in Lahore

As of 2008, the city's gross domestic product (GDP) by purchasing power parity (PPP) was estimated at billion with a projected average growth rate of 5.6 percent.[66] This is at par with Pakistan's economic hub, Karachi, with Lahore (having half the population) fostering an economy that is 51% of the size of Karachi's ( billion in 2008).[66] The contribution of Lahore to the national economy is supposed to be around 13.2%.[67][68][69] Lahore's GDP is projected to be billion by the year 2025, with a slightly higher growth rate of 5.6% per annum.[66][70] Central to Lahore's economy is the Lahore Stock Exchange (LSE), Pakistan's second largest stock exchange. Lahore has offices of several Pakistani government corporations including the Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) and Water and Sewage Authority (WASA). Food and restaurant businesses remain open all night. Lahore is the second largest financial hub of Pakistan and has industrial areas including Kot Lakhpat and the new Sundar Industrial Estate (near Raiwand). Lahore’s economic base is broad and varied. The city is the engineering hub of Pakistan.[citation needed] Major industries include the manufacture of automobiles and motorcycles, Heavy Machinery, Railway Coaches, home appliances, steel, telecommunications, information technology, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, computers, engineering, and construction material.[citation needed] A major industrial agglomeration with about 9,000 industrial units, Lahore has shifted in recent decades from manufacturing to service industries.[71] Some 42% of its work force is employed in finance, banking, real estate, community, cultural, and social services.[71] The city is Pakistan’s largest software producing center,[71] and hosts a growing computer-assembly industry.[71] Lahore's economic strength relies on the fact that it is the biggest city of Pakistan's most populous province. It is also the most advanced in terms of infrastructure, having extensive and relatively well developed road links to all major cities in Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, a rail link with India and the province's biggest International airport. It also has the most developed communications infrastructure in the Pakistan, which includes a wide network of fiber optic telephone and cable lines, GSM mobile network, IPP and WiMax. It has the most developed education and health sectors as well, making it the economic, political and educational hub of the Pakistan. ‎ As Lahore expands, former residential areas are being turned into commercial centres, and the suburban population is constantly moving outwards. This has resulted in the development of the Liberty Market, MM Alam Road, the new Jail Road (which has some of the largest office buildings in Lahore), and the Main Boulevard[citation needed].

Lahore is famous as the hub of handmade carpet manufacturing in Pakistan.[72] At present, hand-knitted carpets produced in and around Lahore are among Pakistan's leading export products, and their manufacturing is the second-largest cottage and small industry.

Craftsmen in Lahore produce almost every type of handmade carpet using popular motifs such as medallions, paisleys, traceries, and geometric designs. The Lahore Design Centre at the Punjab Small Industries Corporation maintains a separate section of carpet designing to experiment with new designs. Lahore is famous for single-wefted designs in Turkoman and Caucasian style and double-wefted Mughal types.

Metro, Makro and Hyperstar (Carrefour) have situated their headquarters in Lahore.


The Lahore Expo Centre is one of the biggest projects in the history of the city and was inaugurated on 22 May 2010.[73]

Lake City is a resort and residential development planned on the outskirts of Lahore. Covering an area of more than 2,104 acres (851 ha), the resort will include lush green parks, sinuous lakes, an 18-hole regulation golf course and other features.[74]

Defense Raya Golf Resort, also under construction, will be Pakistan's largest and Asia's largest golf course. The project is the result of a partnership between DHA Lahore and BRDB Malaysia. The rapid development of large projects such as these in the city is expected to boost the economy of the country.[75] Among the many other projects under construction in Lahore are: Pace Tower (24 floors, under construction),[76] Mall99 (21 floors, under construction),[77] Lahore Expo Center (completed),[73] Expo Center tower (approved), IT Tower (23 floors, under construction),[78] Alamgir Tower (31 floors, under construction),[79] DHA Haly Tower (low rise, under construction),[80] Lahore Ring Road (under construction),[81] Lahore Sports City (approved),[82] Kot Lakhpat elevated expressway (approved), Lahore Rapid Mass Transit System (vision),[83] Xinhua Mall (20 floors, under construction),[84] Lahore-Sialkot motorway (under construction), Boulevard Heights (19 floors, under construction),[85] Pearl Continental Tower (40 floors, 152 meters, proposed),[86][87] LDA Tower (40 floors, approved),[88] Bank Square Gulberg (vision), Pace Circle and Hyatt Regency (12 floors, under construction)[89] and Tricon Corporate Tower (18 floors, under construction).[90]

The economy is also enhanced by Lahore's historic and cultural importance. Being the capital of the largest province in Pakistan brings the city one of the largest development budgets in the country.


The Lahore Ring Road
The M-2: the Lahore-Islamabad motorway

Lahore is one of Pakistan's most accessible cities and the only city in the country where one can find public and private transportation 24 hours a day and 7 days a week. This includes public buses, as well as thousands of rickshaws and taxis, which run on compressed natural gas to reduce pollution in the city. About 75% of residents have their own conveyances. The roads in the city are well maintained and are broadened when needed to meet increasing demand.

The Lahore Ring Road (LRR) Project was launched on December 22, 2004 at a groundbreaking ceremony attended by President General Pervez Musharaf. The LRR Project is a large road project being developed by the Punjab Government, intended to ensure efficient and speedy movement of freight and passengers, to alleviate traffic flow problems, and to boost the city's potential for industrial development. The project includes the construction of a six-lane divided highway, interchanges, RCC bridges, reinforced earth abutments and walls, overhead pedestrian bridges, culverts, tunnels, underpasses, flyovers and related works, at a total projected cost of over Rs. 20 billion and Rs. 13 billion respectively.

The Wagah Border on the Grand Trunk Road near Lahore and Amritsar. The road was historically the main route of travel from Lahore to Delhi.[91] Today, it is one of the few trade routes between India and Pakistan.[92]

In addition to the historic Grand Trunk Road (G.T. Road), motorways connecting all major cities (Islamabad, Multan, Faisalabad, Peshawar, Rawalpindi, etc.) have been built. A motorway to Sialkot is under construction. The government has built underpasses to ease congestion and prevent traffic jams, and according to official figures, Lahore has the highest number of underpasses in Pakistan. The government would undertake planned rehabilitation of the roads, which have outlived their designed life, construction of missing road links and development of province-wide secondary arteries linking national motorways and trade corridors to foster economic opportunities via meeting expanding domestic and international travel and trade demands.

The Punjab government had allocated Rs. 170.300 million for W/I of Thokar-Raiwind Road, Rs. 50 million for the dualisation of Lahore-Jaranwala Road from Ferozepur Interchange to Mandi Faizabad, Rs. 40 million for the construction of extending building for IWMI Thokar Niaz Baig Lahore, Rs. 2.7 million for the construction of an overhead bridge at Sheikh Abdul Qadir Jillani Road near University of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Rs. 56 million for PC-II for a feasibility study of elevated expressways in Lahore, Rs. 10 million for the construction of an elevated expressway from Lahore Bridge to Niazi Chowk, Rs. 50 million for the strengthening of Sheikhupura-Gujranwala Road, and Rs. 15 million for the construction of a bypass between Sargodha and Lahore Road.

Several bus companies operate in Lahore. Premier Bus Services, owned by the Beaconhouse Group, was started in 2003, and provides transportation services to the general public in Lahore. With over 240 buses running on exclusive routes, it is the largest public transport company in Pakistan. As of 2010, the buses are in the process of being converted to compressed natural gas for environmental and economic reasons.[93] Sammi Daewoo's City Bus Division operates four routes within the city and two suburban routes for Gujranwala and Sheikhupura.[94] Though these buses are fewer in number, they are air-conditioned and provide better comfort to passengers. In addition to these two major companies, there are several other small companies (New Khan Metro, Niazi, etc.) that provide services within Lahore; they cover only particular routes and are few in number.

Lahore Railway Station

Pakistan Railways is headquartered in Lahore.[95] Pakistan Railways provides an important mode of transportation for commuters and connects distant parts of the country with Lahore for business, sightseeing, pilgrimage, and education. The Lahore Central Railway Station, built during the British colonial era, is located in the heart of the city.

To accommodate increased air travel, the government built a new city airport in 2003. It was named Allama Iqbal International Airport after the national poet-philosopher of Pakistan, Allama Muhammad Iqbal, and is served by international airlines as well as the national flag carrier, Pakistan International Airlines. The previous airport now operates as the Hajj Terminal to facilitate the great influx of pilgrims traveling to Saudi Arabia to perform the hajj every year. Lahore also has a general aviation airport known as Walton Airport.

Lahore Rapid Mass Transit (LRMT) System is a project envisioned to provide mass transit facilities to Lahore. The project is expected to be completed in 2020. In the first phase, two light rail lines will be constructed. The first Green Line between Shahdra and Hamza Town (Ferozpur Road) will be completed by 2011 and cost billion. The second Orange Line between Pakistan Mint and Sabzazar will cost billion and will be completed by 2015. In the second phase, Blue and Purple lines will be constructed.


An aerial view of the skyline in the Walled City of Lahore.


According to the 1998 census, Lahore's population was 6,318,745. Estimate for 2010 is 8,592,000, which makes it the second largest city in Pakistan, after Karachi.[96] It is considered to be one of the 30 largest cities of the world.


Punjabi is the native language of the province and is the most widely spoken language in Lahore. Punjabi is the primary means of communication in both the city and adjoining rural areas. Punjabi has no official status in Lahore and some Punjabi activists have raised demands for recognition of Punjabi.[97] English has become increasingly popular with educated and younger people due to its official status in government and preferred language status for business. Many Punjabi speakers in Lahore are known as Majha Dialect Of Punjabi. According to the 1998 census, 86.2% or 6,896,000 of the population are Punjabis; 10.2% or 816,000 are Urdu speakers and the Seraikis, at 0.4%, number about 32,000.[98]

Sacred Heart Cathedral.


According to the 1998 census, 94% of Lahore's population is Sunni or Shia Muslim, up from 60% in 1941.[original research?] Other religions include Christians (5.80% of the total population, though they form around 9.0% of the rural population), and a small number of Bahá'ís, Hindus, Parsis, and Sikhs. Due to Lahore's diverse culture, there are many mosques, shrines, synagogues, Hindu and Jain temples, Sikh Gurudwaras, and churches across the city. Some of the most famous mosques include: Badshahi Masjid, Dai Anga Mosque, Data Durbar Complex, Shia Masjid, Suneri Mosque, Wazir Khan Mosque, Moti Masjid, Masjid-e-Shuhda (Martyr's Mosque) and Mosque of Mariyam Zamani Begum. There are many shrines dedicated to different people. Some of the famous shrines include: Tomb of Muhammad Iqbal, Bibi Pak Daman, Samadhi of Ranjit Singh, Tomb of Shah Jamal, Tomb of Lal Hussain, Tomb of Anārkalī, Tomb of Jahangir, Tomb of Empress Nur Jehan and Tomb of Abdul Hasan Asaf Khan. Some of the well-known churches include Regal Church, Hall Road Church, Convent of Jesus and Mary and Sacred Heart Cathedral.


The Siddiq Trade Center, one of the many modern upscale shopping centres in the city.

Lahore's culture is unique. Known as the Cultural Capital or Heart of Pakistan, the city was the seat of the Mughal Empire and the Sikh Empire as well as the capital of Punjab in Mahmud Ghaznavi's 11th century empire and in the British Empire.Lahore has so many glitzy and trendy shopping malls like Mall of Lahore which is most prestiguous shopping mall with a super market green valley in underground and food court with lots of fast food,Italian,Chinese,Pakistani and mediterranean restaurants.There are also al noor and vogue towers and ali towers on MM.Alam road,Gulberg.Gulberg and Defence and DHA Emi are Affluent suburbs of lahore.Urban neighbourhoods of lahore like bahria town Safari villas and ahram e misr,lake city,park view villas,tricon valley and raiwind are developing rapidly. Lahore has played an important role in Pakistani history. It was in this city that Pakistan's independence declaration was made. It was the largest city in the newly formed Pakistan at the time of independence and provided the easiest access to India, with its porous border near the Indian city of Amritsar only 30 miles (48 km) to the east. Large numbers of Hindus, Sikhs, and Muslims lived closely in Lahore before the independence of Pakistan. The city suffered revolts, demonstrations and bloodshed at the time of independence due to the enmity between Muslims and Hindus at the time and the uncertainty which loomed over the fate of Lahore even after India and Pakistan became independent. Lahore's culture, its history, institutions, food, clothing, films, music, fashion, and liberal community lifestyle attract people from all over the country.

The people of Lahore celebrate many festivals and events throughout the year, blending Mughal, Western, and other traditions. Eid ul-Fitr and Eid ul-Adha are celebrated. Many people decorate their houses and light candles to illuminate the streets and houses during public holidays; roads and businesses may be lit for days. The mausoleum of Ali Hujwiri, also known as Data Ganj Bakhsh (Persian/Urdu: داتا گنج بخش) or Data Sahib, is located in Lahore, and an annual urs is held every year as a big festival.

Basant is a Punjabi festival marking the coming of spring. Basant celebrations in Pakistan are centered in Lahore, and people from all over the country and from abroad come to the city for the annual festivities. Kite-flying competitions traditionally take place on city rooftops during Basant. Courts have banned the kite-flying because of casualties and power installation losses. The ban was lifted for two days in 2007, then immediately reimposed when 11 people were killed by celebratory gunfire, sharp kite-strings, electrocution, and falls related to the competition.[99]

The Festival of Lamps, or Mela Chiraghan, is an important and popular event in Lahore. This is celebrated at the same time as Basant, every spring on the last Friday of March, outside the Shalimar Gardens.

The tomb of Allama Iqbal.

The National Horse and Cattle Show is one of the most famous annual festivals, held in spring in the Fortress Stadium. The week-long activities include a livestock display, horse and camel dances, tent pegging, colourful folk dances from all regions of Pakistan, mass-band displays, and tattoo shows in the evenings. On August 14, the people of Pakistan celebrate the day Pakistan gained its independence from the British Raj. There are lots of celebrations in Lahore; the streets are full of people singing and dancing. Parades of the Pakistan Army and Pakistan Air Force are held early in the morning. Concerts are held with many pop and classical singers.

The World Performing Arts Festival is held every autumn (usually in November) at the Alhambra cultural complex, a large venue consisting of several theatres and amphitheatres. This ten-day festival consists of musicals, theatre, concerts, dance, solo, mime, and puppetry shows. The festival has an international character, with nearly 80 percent of the shows performed by international performers. On average 15–20 different shows are performed every day of the festival.[100]

Lahoris are known for their love of food and eating. While Lahore has a great many traditional and modern restaurants, in recent years Western fast food chains, such as McDonald's, Pizza Hut, Domino's Pizza, Subway Sandwiches, Dunkin Donuts, Nando's, Kentucky Fried Chicken and Hardee's have appeared all over the city. Recently the food streets in the historic locales of Lahore (Gawalmandi, Anarkali, and Badshahi) have attracted tourists. Food streets have undergone restorations and are cordoned off in the evenings for pedestrian traffic only; numerous cafés serve local delicacies under the lights and balconies of restored havelis (traditional residential dwellings). Some of the trendiest restaurants in Lahore are concentrated on the M M Alam Road in Gulberg. Here, dozens of high-class culinary outlets, ranging from Western franchises to traditional, ethnic, or theme restaurants, attract all classes of Lahore's citizens. New restaurants are constantly opening, and the business is extremely competitive. Many boisterous restaurants of Lahore are open late into the night. Some branches of Pizza Hut and McDonald's are open 24/7; McDonald's and KFC also offer a home delivery service. Lahore also boasts a unique restaurant housed in a 300-year-old Kothi-style dwelling of a famous artist which was once a brothel. At different times in the life of this property, Hindu, Buddhist, Christian, and Muslim families have owned it. Another famous Lahore landmark is the Pak Tea House in Anarkali, long a favored haunt of intellectuals and artists. Lahore remains a traditional center of Pakistani Chinese cuisine, demonstrated through the large presence and popularity of Chinese restaurants in the city.

The alleys and lanes of these bazaars are full of traditional wares like leather articles, embroidered garments, glass bangles, beaten gold and silver jewelry, and creations in silk. Anarkali is named after the famous courtesan of Akbar’s time, Anarkali (Pomegranate Blossom). The grave of Sultan Qutbuddin Aibak, who died falling off his horse while playing polo, is located in Anarkali on Aibak Road. Rang Mahal is part of old Lahore and today's houses a largest wholesale and retail cloth markets in Punjab. Lahore's technology markets include the Hall Road, Pakistan's largest electronics market adjacent to the Mall Road, Abid Market on Queen's Road and the Hafeez Centre, Asia's largest computer market, located on the Gulberg Main Boulevard. Pace, a shopping centre, is also located on the Main Boulevard beside the Hafeez Centre. Other well-known and popular shopping areas are the Liberty Market in Gulberg and at the Fortress Stadium, as well as malls in Gulberg, Model Town, M M Alam Road, and Cantonment. Apart from these, shopping areas are being developed in many of Lahore's new suburbs such as Bahria, Lake City, and Cantonment.

Lahore Museum, a house to the largest 13th century Buddhist collections as well

Lahore offers a variety of nighttime activities. There are popular shisha bars (offering the flavoured tobacco pipes commonly found in Middle Eastern nations), attractive food outlets, and musical concerts and shows. Alcohol is available to foreigners who request it at certain hotels, but is generally not sold in public. Lahoris are known for their exquisite taste in food, so the market has produced some of the most versatile, classy and inviting restaurants in the world. The blend of food and music at some uniquely expressive locales is exceptional. There are many shopping areas which remain open late into the night, offering an atmosphere of lively hustle and bustle (not to mention numerous bargains). There are scenic parks that are frequented by joggers, couples, children, students and seniors. Bagh-e-Jinnah (formerly known as Lawrence Gardens) is one such place; it has a large variety of gorgeous plants, trees, long and varied pathways and creative light effects. The younger crowd is generally more attracted to shops and restaurants near Gaddafi Stadium, Fortress Stadium and Gulberg. Most of the food chains are also here. The city has many significant connections with Sikhism and played an important part in the history of the Sikh Gurus. Guru Ram Das was born at Bazaar Chuna Mandi, Lahore in 1534 A.D. Guru Arjan Dev got the foundation stone of Harmandir Sahib, laid by a Muslim Saint Hazrat Mian Mir Ji of Lahore in December 1588. Guru Arjan met an untimely death when he was tortured on the orders of the Emperor Jahangir in 1606 in this city. The Gurdwara Dehra Sahib and the Ranjit Singh Samadhi are located in Lahore.

Parks and gardens

An artificial waterfall at Jilani Park.
Shalamar Gardens is a Persian garden built by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan

Lahore is known as the City of Gardens. Many gardens were built in Lahore during the Mughal era, some of which still survive. The Shalimar Gardens were laid out during the reign of Shah Jahan and were designed to mimic the Islamic paradise of the afterlife described in the Qur'an. The gardens follow the familiar charbagh layout of four squares, with three descending terraces. The Lawrence Gardens were established in 1862 and were originally named after Sir John Lawrence, late 19th century British Viceroy to India. The many other gardens and parks in the city include Hazuri Bagh, Iqbal Park, Mochi Bagh, Gulshan Iqbal Park, Model Town Park, Race Course Park, Nasir Bagh Lahore, Jallo Park, Wild Life Park, and Changa Manga, an artificial forest near Lahore in the Kasur district. Another example is the Bagh-e-Jinnah, a 141-acre (57 ha) botanical garden that houses entertainment and sports facilities as well as a library.[101]

The Lahore Zoo is the second oldest zoo in the South Asia after Calcutta and has been a source of amusement and recreation for families for more than a 100 years. In December 2004, Pakistan and China signed a million contract for the construction of a housing project on Multan Road in Lahore.[102] The result was Sukh Chayn Gardens, a beautiful housing society full of lush green parks and gardens.

Lahore also has a safari park covering more than 200 acres (81 ha). The park has safaris for different animals. The safaris with tigers, lions, rhinos, elephants, bear, apes, African and Indus plane animals cover an area of 80 acres (32 ha). Pakistan’s largest walkthrough aviary is also located here, with all kinds of birds, including pheasants, waterfowls and peacocks. Birds are kept in their natural habitat instead of being caged; a net fence at the perimeter keeps birds in the aviary. There are more than a thousand species of animals in the park. Lahore's biggest lake is also situated here for boating and fishing.

Jilani Park (formerly Race Course Park) is famous for its floral exhibitions and artificial waterfall. Annual horse racing competitions are held in this park.

Health care

Lahore has a number of hospitals, including Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital, Mayo Hospital, Hamid Latif Hospital, Nawaz Sharif Social Security Hospital, Lahore General Hospital, Jinnah Hospital, Gulab Devi Hospital, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, Sheikh Zaid Hospital, Ittefaq Hospital, Punjab Institute of Cardiology and Sharif Medical Complex. The current government of Punjab has a comprehensive plan to establish new hospitals and medical colleges in the city.[citation needed]


Quaid-e-Azam Library, Lahore

Lahore is known as Pakistan's educational capital, with more colleges and universities than any other city in Pakistan. Lahore is Pakistan’s largest producer of professionals in the fields of science, technology, IT, engineering, medicine, nuclear sciences, pharmacology[telecommunication, biotechnology and microelectronics, Nanotechnology and the only future high tech center of Pakistan .[103] Most of the reputable universities are public, but in recent years there has also been an upsurge in the number of private universities. The current literacy rate of Lahore is 74%.[104].jpg

Lahore hosts some of Pakistan's oldest educational institutes: Government College Lahore (now Government College University), established in 1864; Forman Christian College, a chartered university established in 1864; University of the Punjab, established in 1882;[105] Kinnaird College, established in 1913; and University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore (UET Lahore), established in 1921. UET is also Pakistan's oldest technical degree-awarding institute and its first university in the field of engineering and technology.

Lahore's institutes in the fields of computer science, IT, and engineering include the National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences (NUCES or FAST-NU), Beaconhouse National University (SCIT,BNU) and Punjab University College of Information Technology. Notable architecture schools include Beaconhouse National University, COMSATS University of Science and Technology, University of South Asia, National College of Arts and University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore. Notable business schools include the Lahore University of Management Sciences (LUMS), Lahore School of Economics, National College of Business Administration & Economics, Forman Christian College, University of Central Punjab and University of Management and Technology. University of Education, established in 2002, is Pakistan's first specialized university in the field of of lahore

Lahore also provides education in many fields of health sciences. Notable medical colleges offering MBBS degrees include Allama Iqbal Medical College, Fatima Jinnah Medical College, King Edward Medical University, Lahore Medical and Dental College, Services Institute of Medical Sciences, Shaikh Khalifa Bin Zayed Al-Nahyan Medical and Dental College and Shalamar Medical and Dental College. Important postgraduate institutes are Punjab Institute of Cardiology and University of Health Sciences, Lahore. University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences is the only college in Lahore providing education in the field of veterinary medicine. De'Montmorency College of Dentistry is an important college of dentistry. There are many institutes offering education in fields of nursing and pharmacy as well.

Notable schools include Aitchison College, Beaconhouse School System, St. Anthony's College, The Punjab School, Divisional Public School and Lahore Grammar School .

Arts and media

Khuda Kay Liye, a recent successful movie shot and based in Lahore.

Lahore is at the core of Pakistan's media and arts scene. Pakistan's most prestigious art college, National College of Arts, is located here. Every year, it hosts the World Performing Arts Festival, in which artists from dozens of countries show off their talents. This festival is managed by the Peerzada group, which is also the largest puppetry theater company in Pakistan.

Lahore is also home to the country's developing fashion industry.It houses Pakistan's most esteemed board of designers, the Pakistan Fashion Design Council, which features some of Pakistan's best names in the circles of fashion and design.As a result the city is supported by numerous designer outlets and the country's most prestigious fashion school, the Pakistan School of Fashion Design, which has some of the best photo studios and photographers in the country. The Pakistan Fashion Design Council, also successfully organized the Lahore Fashion Week 2010 as well as the PFDC Sunsilk Fashion Week Lahore 2011.

Lahore has also been home to Pakistan's old classical music, ghazals and Qawwalis, with big names such as Noor Jehan, Arif Lohar, Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan, Mehdi Hassan and Ghulam Ali residing in the city. In recent years Lahore has produced some of Pakistan's greatest pop singers, such as Ali Azmat, Atif Aslam and Ali Zafar. The city is recognized as the birthplace of South Asia's modern rock scene thanks to popular bands like Junoon, Jal, Call, Roxen, Noori and Entity Paradigm, some of whose songs have been featured in Bollywood films.

Pakistan's film industry is based in the city and is called Lollywood. Many films are filmed in Lahore and the city has some of the oldest film studios in the country. Many actors and directors are based in Lahore, which brings many artists together to launch films. Cinema's popularity is on the upswing again in recent years and IMAX is building outlets in the city. Several FM radio stations and television stations have set up their operations here. Lahore is home to many popular news channels such as Dunya News and Express News amongst others.Geo TV's Infotainment Division and Pakistan's first children's television channel, Wikid, as well as Pakistan's first community channel, Asset Plus (available only in DHA Lahore) and lifestyle channel, Value TV are all based here. The television channel, City 42 broadcasts news and information about latest happenings and events in the city. The channel contains a variety of programs in Urdu, Punjabi and English which span from current affairs to general infotainment.


Gaddafi Stadium is a Test cricket ground in Lahore. Designed by Pakistani architect Nayyar Ali Dada, it was completed in 1959 and is one of the biggest cricket stadiums in Asia. After its renovation for the 1996 Cricket World Cup, the stadium now boasts a capacity of over 60,000. Nearby is an athletics stadium, a basketball pitch, the Al Hamra, open-air hall similar in design to the coliseum, and the world's largest field hockey stadium, Another Cricket Ground and Headquarters of Pakistan Cricket Board, all based in the city's Sports complex. In the same vicinity lie headquarters of the Pakistan Football Federation, as well as the multi-sport Punjab Stadium.

Lahore is home to Lahore Lions and Lahore Eagles in Twenty-20 Cup, as well as to Pakistan Premier League giants WAPDA FC, Pakistan Railways FC, PEL FC, and Wohaib FC. In addition to cricket and football, Kabaddi, a South Asian team sport, is also popular in Lahore. Many citizens play Kabbadi after work.

Lahore's elites are very fond of golf. The city is home to several spectacular golf courses. Among them the most popular are the Lahore Gymkhana Golf Course and the Bank Alfalah Mini Golf Course.

The newly opened Oasis Golf and Aqua Resort is a great addition to the city.It is a state-of-the-art facility featuring Golf, water parks, and leisure activities such as horse riding, archery and more.

The Lahore Marathon is part of an annual package of six international marathons being sponsored by Standard Chartered Bank across Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. The Lahore race carries prize money of approximately More than 20,000 athletes from Pakistan and all over the world participate in this event. It was first held on January 30, 2005, and again on January 29, 2006. More than 22,000 people participated in the 2006 race. The third marathon was held on January 14, 2007.[106]

Plans exist to build Pakistan's first sports city in Lahore, on the bank of the Ravi River.[107]

Notable people

Twin towns and sister cities

Lahore is twinned with:


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