nativename= _ur. Nastaliq|اُردو
caption=Ordu in Persian-Arabic script (Nasta`liq style)
Pakistan, India, Afghanistan, Saudi Arabia, UAE, UK, USA, Canadaand other countries with Pakistani migrants
South Asia, Greater Middle East, Middle Eastcite web|url = http://www.soas.ac.uk/southasia/languages/urdu/| title = Urdu|publisher = University of London|accessdate = 2008-05-20]
rank=19–21 (native speakers), in a near tieDubious|date=March 2008 with Italian and Turkish
speakers=130 million native (2007)Dubious|date=March 2008
270 million totalDubious|date=March 2008 (2007)
fam5=Western Hindi [http://www.ethnologue.com/show_lang_family.asp?code=urd Linguistic Lineage for Urdu - Ethnologue] ]
Urdu alphabet( Nasta'liq script), Devanagari(Indian Muslims)
Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Delhi, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh)
FJI (as Hindustani)
National Language Authority, (Pakistan);
[http://www.urducouncil.nic.in/ National Council for Promotion of Urdu language] , (India)
Urdu (Audio|hi-Urdu.ogg|pronunciation, _ur. Nastaliq|اردو, trans. "Urdū", historically spelled Ordu) is a Central Indo-Aryan languagecite web|url = http://www.omniglot.com/writing/urdu.htm| title = Urdu (اُردو)|publisher = Omniglot|accessdate = 2008-05-20] of the Indo-Iranian branch, belonging to the Indo-European family of languages. Its vocabulary developed under
Sanskritand Persian and to a lesser degree the Arabic and Turkic influence on apabhramshas. It began to take shape during the Delhi Sultanateand Mughal Empire(1526–1858 AD) in South Asia.cite web|url = http://www.urducouncil.nic.in/pers_pp/index.htm| title = A Historical Perspective of Urdu|publisher = National Council for Promotion of Urdu language|accessdate = 2007-06-15] Urdu is a standardised register of Hindustanicite web|url = http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/619612/Urdu-language| title = Urdu language|publisher = Encyclopædia Britannica|accessdate = 2008-05-20] cite web|url = http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/619612/Urdu-language|http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/266468/Hindustani-language#ref=ref66957| title = Hindustani language|publisher = Encyclopædia Britannica|accessdate = 2008-05-20] termed the standard dialect Khariboli.cite web|url = http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/266468/Hindustani-language#ref=ref66957| title = Hindustani language|publisher = Encyclopædia Britannica|accessdate = 2008-05-20] The grammatical description in this article concerns this standard Urdu. In general, the term "Urdu" can encompass dialects of Hindustani other than the standardised versions.
Standard Urdu has approximately the twentieth largest population of native speakers, among all languages. It is the
national languageof Pakistanas well as one of the 23 official languages of India.
While, at the spoken level,
Urduand Hindiare considered dialects of a single language (or diasystem), they differ vastly in literary and formal vocabulary; where literary Urdu draws heavily on Persian and Arabic, literary Hindi draws heavily on Sanskritand to a lesser extent Prakrit. The grammar of both Urdu and Hindi, however, are the same and derive from a Prakritic base. The main differences between the two are that Standard Urdu is conventionally written in Nastaliq calligraphy style of the Perso-Arabic scriptand draws vocabulary more heavily from Persian and Arabic than Hindi,cite web|url = http://www.languageinindia.com/oct2001/punjab1.html| title = Bringing Order to Linguistic Diversity: Language Planning in the British Raj|publisher = Language in India|accessdate = 2008-05-20] while Standard Hindi is conventionally written in Devanāgarīand draws vocabulary from Sanskritcomparativelycite web|url = http://www.geocities.com/sikmirza/arabic/hindustani.html| title = A Brief Hindi - Urdu FAQ|publisher = sikmirza|accessdate = 2008-05-20] more heavily.cite web|url = http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/urdu| title = Urdu|publisher = Random House Unabridged Dictionary|accessdate = 2008-05-20] Some linguists nonetheless consider Urdu and Hindi to be two standardized forms of the same language;cite web|url = http://mesa.ucdavis.edu/hindiurdu/index.html| title = Hindi/Urdu Language Instruction|publisher = University of California, Davis|accessdate = 2008-05-20] however, others classify them separately due to sociolinguisticdifferences.cite web|url = http://india_resource.tripod.com/Urdu.html| title = Urdu and it's Contribution to Secular Values| publisher = South Asian Voice| accessdate = 2008-02-26]
Speakers and geographic distribution
There are between 60 and 80 million native speakers of standard Urdu ("Khari Boli"). According to the SIL
Ethnologue(1999 data), Hindi/Urdu is the fifth most spoken language in the world.cite web|url = http://www2.ignatius.edu/faculty/turner/languages.htm| title = Most Widely Spoken Languages|publisher = Saint Ignatius|accessdate = 2007-06-23] According to George Weber’s article "Top Languages: The World’s 10 Most Influential Languages" in "Language Today", Hindi/Urduis the fourth most spoken language in the world, with 4.7 percent of the world's population, after Mandarin, English, and Spanish.cite web|url = http://www.andaman.org/BOOK/reprints/weber/rep-weber.htm| title = The World's 10 most influential Languages| publisher = Language Today|accessdate = 2008-02-26] Because of Urdu's similarity to Hindi, speakers of the two languages can usually understand one another, if both sides refrain from using specialized vocabulary. Indeed, linguists sometimes count them as being part of the same language diasystem. However, Urdu and Hindi are socio-politically different, and people who self-describe as being speakers of Hindi would question their being counted as native speakers of Urdu, and vice-versa.
Pakistan, Urdu is spoken and understood by a majority of urban dwellers in such cities as Karachi, Lahore, Rawalpindi/ Islamabad, Abbottabad, Faisalabad, Hyderabad, Multan, Peshawar, Quetta, Gujranwala, Sialkot, Sukkurand Sargodha. Urdu is used as the official language in all provinces of Pakistan. It is also taught as a compulsory language up to higher secondary school in both the English and Urdu medium school systems. This has produced millions of Urdu speakers whose mother tongue is one of the regional languages of Pakistan such as Punjabi, Hindku, Sindhi, Pashtu, Kashmiri, Gujarati, Balochi, Siraiki, and Brahui. Urdu is the lingua francaof Pakistan and is absorbing many words from regional languages of Pakistan. This tone of Urdu is called now Pakistani Urdu. This thesis changes the basis of languages censes, i.e. An Urdu speaking is that who speaks Urdu, though he may have another indigenous language to speak. The regional languages are also being influenced by Urdu vocabulary. There are millions of Pakistanis whose mother tongue is not Urdu but since they have studied in Urdu medium schools they can read and write Urdu but can speak Urdu and their mother tongue. Most of the nearly five million Afghan refugeesof different ethnic origins (such as Pashtun, Tajik, Uzbek, Hazarvi, and Turkmen) who stayed in Pakistan for over twenty-five years have also become fluent in Urdu. All of them will be called Urdu speaking. A very large number of newspapers are published in Urdu in Pakistan, including the Daily Jang, Nawa-i-Waqt, Millat, among many others (see List of newspapers in Pakistan).
India, Urdu is spoken in places where there are large Muslim minorities or cities which were bases for Muslim Empires in the past. These include parts of Uttar Pradesh(namely Lucknow), Delhi, Bhopal, Hyderabad, Bangaluru, Kolkata, Mysore, Patna, Ajmer, and Ahmedabad. [ [https://www.indiatravelite.com/holyplaces/ajmerint.htm India Travelite: Holy Places - Ajmer] ] Some Indian schools teach Urdu as a first language and have their own syllabus and exams. Indian madrasahsalso teach Arabicas well as Urdu. India has more than 3,000 Urdu publications including 405 daily Urdu newspapers. Newspapers such as Sahara Urdu Daily Salar, Hindustan Express, Daily Pasban, Siasat Daily, Munsif Dailyand Inqilabare published and distributed in Bangaluru, Mysore, Hyderabad, and Mumbai(see List of newspapers in India).
Outside South Asia, it is spoken by large numbers of migrant South Asian workers in the major urban centers of the
Persian Gulfcountries and Saudi Arabia. Urdu is also spoken by large numbers of immigrants and their children in the major urban centres of the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Germany, Norwayand Australia.
Countries with large numbers of native Urdu speakers:
Levels of formality
Urdu in its less formalised register has been referred to as a "
rekhta" (ریختہ, IPA| [reːxt̪aː] ), meaning "rough mixture". The more formal register of Urdu is sometimes referred to as "zabān-e-Urdu-e-mo'alla" (زبانِ اردوِ معلہ, IPA| [zəba:n e: ʊrd̪uː eː moəllaː] ), the "Language of Camp and Court".
etymologyof the word used in the Urdu language for the most part decides how polite or refined your speech is. For example, Urdu speakers would distinguish between پانی "pānī" and آب "āb", both meaning "water" for example, or between آدمی "ādmi" and مرد "mard", meaning "man". The former in each set is used colloquially and has older Hindustani origins, while the latter is used formally and poetically, being of Persian origin.
If a word is of Persian or
Arabicorigin, the level of speech is considered to be more formal and grand. Similarly, if Persian or Arabicgrammar constructs, such as the izafat, are used in Urdu, the level of speech is also considered more formal and grand. If a word is inherited from Sanskrit, the level of speech is considered more colloquial and personal.cite web|url = http://www.unc.edu/| title = About Urdu| publisher = Afroz Taj (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill|accessdate = 2008-02-26]
That distinction has likenesses with the division between words from a French or Old English origin while speaking English.
Urdu is supposed to be a subtle and polished language; a host of words are used in it to show respect and politeness. This emphasis on politeness, which is reflected in the vocabulary, is known as adab and to some extent as takalluf in Urdu. These words are generally used when addressing elders, or people with whom one is not acquainted. For example, the English pronoun 'you' can be translated into three words in Urdu the singular forms "tu" (informal, extremely intimate, or derogatory) and "tum" (informal and showing intimacy called "apna pan" in Urdu) and the plural form "āp" (formal and respectful). Similarly, verbs, for example, "come," can be translated with degrees of formality in three ways:
# آئے āiye/IPA| [aːɪje] or آئیں āen/IPA| [aːẽː] (formal and respectful)
# آو āo/IPA| [aːo] (informal and intimate with less degree)
# آ ā/IPA| [aː] (extremely informal, intimate and potentially derogatory).
Urdu has a vocabulary rich in words with Indic and Arabic.cite web|url = http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/society/A0850180.html| title = Urdu| publisher = The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. |accessdate = 2008-02-26] There are also a small number of borrowings from Turkish, Portuguese, and more recently English, but 80% vocabulary comes from
Persian. Many of the words of Arabic origin have different nuances of meaning and usage than they do in Arabic.
Nowadays, Urdu is generally written right-to left in an extension of the
Persian alphabet, which is itself an extension of the Arabic alphabet. Urdu is associated with the "Nasta’liq" style of Arabic calligraphy, whereas Arabic is generally written in the modernized "Naskh" style. "Nasta’liq" is notoriously difficult to typeset, so Urdu newspapers were hand-written by masters of calligraphy, known as "katib" or "khush-navees", until the late 1980s.
Historically, Urdu was also written in the
Kaithiscript. A highly-Persianized and technical form of Urdu was the "lingua franca" of the law courts of the British administration in Bengal, Bihar, and the North-West Provinces & Oudh. Until the late 19th century, all proceedings and court transactions in this register of Urdu was written officially in the Persian script. In 1880, Sir Ashley Eden, the Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal abolished the use of the Persian alphabet in the law courts of Bengaland Biharand ordered the exclusive use of Kaithi, a popular script used for both Urdu and Hindi. [King, 1994.] Kaithi's association with Urdu and Hindiwas ultimately eliminated by the political contest between these languages and their scripts, in which the Persian script was definitively linked to Urdu.
More recently in India, Urdu speakers have adopted Devanagari for publishing Urdu periodicals and have innovated new strategies to mark Urdū in Devanagari as distinct from Hindi in Devanagari. [Ahmad, R., 2006.] The popular Urdu monthly magazine, महकता आंचल ("Mahakta Anchal"), is published in Delhi in Devanagari in order to target the generation of Muslim boys and girls who do not know the Persian script. Such publishers have introduced new orthographic features into Devanagari for the purpose of representing Urdu sounds. One example is the use of अ (Devanagari "a") with vowel signs to mimic contexts of ع ("‘ain"). To Urdu publishers, the use of Devanagari gives them a greater audience, but helps them to preserve the distinct identity of Urdu when written in Devanagari.
A list of the Urdu alphabet and pronunciation is given below. Urdu contains many historical spellings from Arabic and Persian, and therefore has many irregularities. The Arabic letters "yaa" and "haa" are split into two in Urdu: one of the "yaa" variants is used at the ends of words for the sound [i] , and one of the "haa" variants is used to indicate the aspirated consonants. The
retroflex consonants needed to be added as well; this was accomplished by placing a superscript ط ("to'e") above the corresponding dental consonants. Several letters which represent distinct consonants in Arabic are conflated in Persian, and this has carried over to Urdu. The National Language Authority of the Government of Pakistan has finalized the list and collating order of Urdu letters. [ Government of Pakistan, National Language Authority (Cabinet Division) [nla.gov.pk] .]
Daily Jangwas the first Urdu newspaper to be typeset digitally in "Nasta’liq" by computer. There are efforts underway to develop more sophisticated and user-friendly Urdu support on computers and the Internet. Nowadays, nearly all Urdu newspapers, magazines, journals, and periodicals are composed on computers via various Urdu software programs. The most widely used Nastaliqsoftware is called " InPage". Pak Nastaleeqfont released by Center of Excellence for Urdu Informatics is unicodebased, workable in MSword ,having Ghost Characters Theory, recognised by UTC in 2008.
Transliteration In English
Urdu is occasionally also written in the Roman script.
Roman Urduhas been used since the days of the British Raj, partly as a result of the availability and low cost of Roman movable typefor printing presses. The use of Roman Urdu was common in contexts such as product labels. Today it is regaining popularity among users of text-messaging and Internet services and is developing its own style and conventions. Habib R. Sulemanisays, "The younger generation of Urdu-speaking people around the world are using Romanised Urdu on the Internet and it has become essential for them, because they use the Internet and English is its language. A person from Islamabad chats with another in Delhi on the Internet only in Roman Urdū. They both speak the same language but with different scripts. Moreover, the younger generation of those who are from the English medium schools or settled in the west, can speak Urdu but can’t write it in the traditional Arabic script and thus Roman Urdu is a blessing for such a population." [ [http://mailgate.dada.net/soc/soc.culture.punjab/msg21165.html The News, Karachi, Pakistan: Roman Urdu by Habib R Sulemani] ] Roman Urdu also holds significance among the Christians of North India. Urdū was the dominant native language among Christians of Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, and Rajasthan in the early part of twentieth century and is still used by some people in these Indian states. Indian Christians often used the Roman script for writing Urdū. Thus Roman Urdū was a common way of writing among Indian Christians in these states up to the 1960s. The Bible Society of India publishes Roman Urdū Bibles which enjoyed sale late into the 1960s (though they are still published today). Church songbooks are also common in Roman Urdū. However, the usage of Roman Urdū is declining with the wider use of Hindi and English in these states. The major Hindi-UrduSouth Asian film industries, Bollywoodand Lollywood, are also noteworthy for their use of Roman Urdū for their movie titles.
Usually, bare transliterations of Urdu into Roman letters omit many phonemic elements that have no equivalent in English or other languages commonly written in the
Latin alphabet. It should be noted that a comprehensive system has emerged with specific notations to signify non-English sounds, but it can only be properly read by someone already familiar with Urdu, Persian, or Arabic for letters such as: _ur. ژ خ غ ط ص or _ur. ق and Hindifor letters such as _ur. ڑ. This script may be found on the Internet, and it allows people who understand the language but without knowledge of their written forms to communicate with each other.
The following is a sample text in IPA|zabān-e urdū-e muʻallā (formal Urdu), of the Article 1 of the
Universal Declaration of Human Rights(by the United Nations):
:دفعہ 1: تمام انسان آزاد اور حقوق و عزت کے اعتبار سے برابر پیدا ہوۓ ہیں۔ انہیں ضمیر اور عقل ودیعت ہوئی ہی۔ اسلۓ انہیں ایک دوسرے کے ساتھ بھائی چارے کا سلوک کرنا چاہیۓ۔
:IPA|Dafʻah 1: Tamām insān āzād aur ḥuqūq o ʻizzat ke iʻtibār se barābar paidā hu’e heṇ. Unheṇ zamīr aur ʻaql wadīʻat hu’ī he. Isli’e unheṇ ek dūsre ke sāth bhā’ī chāre kā sulūk karnā chāhi’e.
:IPA|d̪əfa ek: t̪əmam ɪnsan azad̪ ɔɾ hʊquq o ʔizət̪ ke ɪʔt̪ɪbaɾ se bəɾabəɾ pɛda hʊe hẽ. ʊnɦẽ zəmiɾ ɔɾ ʔəqəl ʋədiət̪ hʊi he. ɪslɪe ʊnɦẽ ek d̪usɾe ke sat̪ʰ bɦai tʃaɾe ka sʊluk kəɾna tʃahɪe.
:Article 1: All humans free [,] and rights and dignity *('s) consideration from equal born are. To them conscience and intellect endowed is. Therefore, they one another *('s) brotherhood *('s) treatment do must.
:Article 1: All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience. Therefore, they should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
Note: "*('s) represents a possessive case which when written is preceded by the possessor and followed by the possessed, unlike the English 'of'."
Urdu has only become a literary language in recent centuries, as Persian and Arabic were formerly the idioms of choice for "elevated" subjects. However, despite its late development, Urdu literature boasts some world-recognised artists and a considerable corpus.
Urdu holds the largest collection of works on Islamic literature and
Shariaafter Arabic and Persian. These include translations and interpretation of Qur'an, commentary on "Hadith", "Fiqh", history, spirituality, Sufismand metaphysics. A great number of classical texts from Arabicand Persian, have also been translated into Urdu. Relatively inexpensive publishing, combined with the use of Urdu as a lingua francaamong Muslims of South Asia, has meant that Islam-related works in Urdu far outnumber such works in any other South Asian language.Fact|date=June 2007 Popular Islamic books, originally written in Urdu, include Qasas-ul-Anbia, Fazail-e-Amal, Bahishti Zewarthe Bahar-e-Shariat.
Secular prose includes all categories of widely known fiction and non-fiction work, separable into genres.
The "dāstān", or tale, a traditional story which may have many characters and complex plotting. This has now fallen into disuse.
The "afsāna", or
short story, probably the best-known genre of Urdu fiction. The best-known "afsāna" writers, or "afsāna nigār", in Urdu are Saadat Hasan Manto, Qurratulain Hyder(Qurat-ul-Ain Haider), Munshi Premchand, Ismat Chughtai, Krishan Chander, Bhupendra nath Kaushik"fikr" Ghulam Abbas, Banu Qudsiaand Ahmed Nadeem Qasmi. Munshi Premchand, became known as a pioneer in the "afsāna", though some contend that his were not technically the first as Sir Ross Masood had already written many short stories in Urdu. Novels form a genre of their own, in the tradition of the English novel.
Other genres include "saférnāma" (travel story), "mazmoon" (essay), "sarguzisht"(account/narrative), "inshaeya"(satirical essay), "murasela"(editorial), and "khud navvisht" (autobiography).
Mirza Ghalib(1796–1869), a respected poet of Urdu.]
Urdu has been the premier language of poetry in South Asia for two centuries, and has developed a rich tradition in a variety of poetic genres. The 'Ghazal' in Urdu represents the most popular form of subjective poetry, while the '
Nazm' exemplifies the objective kind, often reserved for narrative, descriptive, didactic or satirical purposes. Under the broad head of the Nazm we may also include the classical forms of poems known by specific names such as ' Masnavi' (a long narrative poem in rhyming couplets on any theme: romantic, religious, or didactic), ' Marsia' (an elegy traditionally meant to commemorate the martyrdom of Hazrat Imam Hussain, grandson of Muhammad, and his comrades of the Karbalafame), or 'Qasida' (a panegyric written in praise of a king or a nobleman), for all these poems have a single presiding subject, logically developed and concluded. However, these poetic species have an old world aura about their subject and style, and are different from the modern Nazm, supposed to have come into vogue in the later part of the nineteenth century.
Urdu poetry forms itself with following basic ingredients:
The major genres of poetry found in Urdu are:
* "Doha" (دوہا)
* "Geet" (گیت)
Ghazal" (غزل), as practiced by many poets in the Arab tradition. Mir, Ghalib, Daagh, Jaunand Nasir Kazmiare well-known composers of "ghazal".
Bhupendra nath Kaushik"fikr"
Marsia" (مرثیہ) Meer Anees Mirza Dabeerand Naseem Amrohviare known as the masters of Marsia writing.
Nazm" (نظم), Faiz, Bhupendra nath Kaushik"fikr"and Rashidare known as great poets of this form.
* "Qat'ã" (قطعہ)
Rubai" (a.k.a. Rubayyat or Rubaiyat) (رباعیات)
* "Shehr a'ashob"
* "Wasokht"Foreign forms such as the
sonnet, azad nazm or ( Free verse) and haikuhave also been used by some modern Urdu poets.
Probably the most widely recited, and memorised genre of contemporary Urdu poetry is "nāt"—panegyric poetry written in praise of the Prophet
Muhammad. "Nāt" can be of any formal category, but is most commonly in the "ghazal" form. The language used in Urdu "nāt" ranges from the intensely colloquial to a highly Persified formal language. The great early twentieth century scholar Imam Ahmad Raza Khan, who wrote many of the most well known "nāts" in Urdu (the collection of his poetic work is Hadaiq-e-Baqhshish), epitomised this range in a "ghazal" of nine stanzas ("bayt") in which every stanza contains half a line each of Arabic, Persian, formal Urdu, and colloquial Hindi. The same poet composed a "salām"—a poem of greeting to the Prophet Muhammad, derived from the unorthodox practice of "qiyam", or standing, during the " mawlid", or celebration of the birth of the Prophet—"Mustafā Jān-e Rahmat", which, due to being recited on Fridays in some Urdu speaking mosques throughout the world, is probably the more frequently recited Urdu poems of the modern era.
Another important genre of Urdu prose are the poems commemorating the martyrdom of
Imam HussainAllah hiss salam and Battle of Karbala, called " noha" (نوحہ) and " marsia". Aneesand Dabeerare famous in this regard.Indian film industry has long history of Urdu Poetry in the songs, in fact, popularity and success is some time song dependent. The quality of language and expression is much higher than Hindi language.
Ash'ār (اشعار) (Couplet). It consists of two lines, Misra (مصرعہ); first line is called "Misra-e-oola" (مصرع اولی) and the second is called 'Misra-e-sānī' (مصرعہ ثانی). Each verse embodies a single thought or subject (sing)
Urdu poetry example
Ghalib's famous couplet where he compares himself to his great predecessor, the master poet "Mir": [ [http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00ghalib/036/36_11.html?urdu Columbia University: Ghazal 36, Verse 11] ]Unicode|ریختا کے تمہی نہیں ہو استاد غالب
:"Rekhta ke tumhin nahīn ho ustād Ghālib":"Kahte hain agle zamāne men ko'ī Mīr bhī thā"
:You are not the only master of poetry O'Ghalib,:They say, in the past; was also a someone named Mir
نقش فریادی ہے کس کی شوخیٴ تحریر کا؟
کاغذی ہے پیرہن ہر پیکرِ تصویر کا
کاؤ کاوِ سخت جانی ہائے تنہائی، نہ پوچھ
صبح کرنا شام کا، لانا ہے جوئی شِیر کا
جذبہٴ بے اختیارِ شوق دیکھا چاہیے
سینہٴ شمشیر سے باہر ہے دم شمشیر کا
آگہی دامِ شنیدن جس قدر چاہے بچھائے
مدعا عنقا ہے اپنے عالَمِ تقریر کا
بسکہ ہوں غالب اسیری میں بھی آتش زیرپا
موئے آتش دیدہ ہے حلقہ مری زنجیر کا
Urdu developed as local Indo-Aryan dialects came under the influence of the Muslim courts that ruled South Asia from the early thirteenth century. Its
Indicvocabulary has been enriched by borrowings from Arabic, Persian, Turkish, English and other Indian languages.
The official language of the
Delhi Sultanate, the Mughal Empire, and their successor states, as well as the cultured language of poetry and literature, was Persian, while the language of religion was Arabic. Most of the Sultans and nobility in the Sultanate period were Turks from Central Asiawho spoke Turkic as their mother tongue. The Mughals were also from Central Asia, they spoke Turkish as their first language; however the Mughals later adopted Persian. Persian became the preferred language of the Muslim elite of north India before the Mughals entered the scene. Babur's mother tongue was Turkish and he wrote exclusively in Turkish. His son and successor Humayun also spoke and wrote in Turkish. Muzaffar Alam, a noted scholar of Mughal and Indo-Persian history, suggests that Persian became the "lingua franca" of the empire under Akbar for various political and social factors due to its non-sectarian and fluid nature. [Alam, Muzaffar. "The Pursuit of Persian: Language in Mughal Politics." In "Modern Asian Studies", vol. 32, no. 2. (May, 1998), pp. 317–349.] The influence of these languages on Indian apabhramshas led to a vernacularthat is the ancestor of today's Urdu. Dialects of this vernacular are spoken today in cities and villages throughout Pakistanand northern India. Cities with a particularly strong tradition of Urdu include Delhi, Hyderabad, Karachi, Lucknowand Lahore.
The name "Urdu"
The term Urdu came into use when
Shah Jahanbuilt the Red Fortin Delhi. The word "Urdu" itself comes from a Turkic word "ordu", "tent" or "army", from which English also gets the word " horde". Hence Urdu is sometimes called "Lashkarī zabān", Persian for "the language of the army". Furthermore, armies of India often contained soldiers with various native tongues. Hence, Urdu was the chosen language to address the soldiers as it abridged several languages.
Wherever Muslim soldiers and officials settled, they carried Urdu with them. Urdu enjoyed commanding status in the literary courts of late Muslim rulers and
Nawabs, and flourished under their patronage, partially displacing Persian as the language of elite in the then Indian society.
Urdu continued as one of many languages in Northwest India. In 1947, Urdu was established as the national language of Pakistan in the hope that this move would unite and homogenise the various ethnic groups of the new nation. Urdu suddenly went from a language of a minority to the language of the majority. It also became the official language of some of the various states of India. Today, Urdu is taught throughout Pakistani schools and spoken in government positions, and it is also common in much of Northern India. Hindi, which is very similar to Urdu, is the official language of India.
Urdu and Hindi
Because of their identical grammar and nearly identical core vocabularies, most linguists do not distinguish between Hindi and Urdu as separate languages—at least not in reference to the informal spoken registers. For them, ordinary informal Urdu and Hindi can be seen as variants of the same language (
Hindustani) with the difference being that Urdu is supplemented with a Perso-Arabic vocabulary and Hindi a Sanskritic vocabulary. Additionally, there is the convention of Urdu being written in Perso-Arabic script, and Hindi in Devanagari. The standard, "proper" grammars of both languages are based on Khariboligrammar — the dialect of the Delhi region. So, with respect to grammar, the languages are mutually intelligible when spoken, and can be thought of as two written variants of the same language.
Hindustani is the name often given to this language as it developed over hundreds of years throughout India (which formerly included what is now Pakistan). In the same way that the core vocabulary of English evolved from Old English (Anglo-Saxon) but includes a large number of words borrowed from French and other languages (whose pronunciations often changed naturally so as to become easier for speakers of English to pronounce), what may be called Hindustani can be said to have evolved from Sanskrit while borrowing many Persian and Arabic words over the years, and changing the pronunciations (and often even the meanings) of those words to make them easier for Hindustani speakers to pronounce. Therefore, Hindustani is the language as it evolved organically.
Linguistically speaking, Standard Hindi is a form of colloquial Hindustani, with lesser use of Persian and Arabic loanwords, while inheriting its formal vocabulary from Sanskrit; Standard Urdu is also a form of Hindustani, de-Sanskritised, with a significant part of its formal vocabulary consisting of loanwords from Persian and Arabic. The difference, thus is in the vocabulary, and not the structure of the language.
The difference is also sociolinguistic: When people speak Hindustani (i.e., when they are speaking colloquially) speakers who are Muslims will usually say that they are speaking Urdu, and those who are Hindus will typically say that they are speaking Hindi, even though they are speaking essentially the same language.
The two standardised registers of Hindustani — Hindi and Urdu — have become so entrenched as separate languages that often nationalists, both
Muslimand Hindu, claim that Hindi and Urdu have always been separate languages. However, there are unifying forces. For example, it is said that Indian Bollywoodfilms are made in "Hindi", but the language used in most of them is Urdu.Fact|date=May 2008 The dialogue is frequently developed in English and later translated to an intentionally neutral Hindustani which can be easily understood by speakers of most North Indian languages, both in India and in Pakistan.
Urdu and Bollywood
The part of the Indian film industry based in
Mumbaiis often called Bollywood(بالی وڈ). The language used in Bollywood movies uses a vocabulary that could be understood by Urdu and Hindi speakers alike. The film industry wants to reach the largest possible audience, and it cannot do that if the vocabulary is too one-sidedly Sanskritized or Persianized. This rule is broken only for song lyrics, which use elevated, poetic language. Often, this means using poetic Urdu words of Arabic and Persian origin. A few films, like Jodha Akbar, Umrao Jaan, Pakeezah, Heer Raanjha, Mughal-e-Azamand The Chess Players, have used vocabulary that leans more towards Urdu, as they depict places and times when Urdu would have been used.cite web|url = http://www.uiowa.edu/~incinema/Hindinote.htm| title = Hindi? Urdu? Hindustani? Hindi-Urdu?|publisher = University of Iowa|accessdate = 2008-05-20] From the 1950s through the 1970s, Bollywood films displayed the name of the film in Hindi, Urdu, and Roman scripts. Most Bollywood films today present film titles in the Roman alphabetalong with the Devanagari script, however sometimes Nasta`liq scripts are used as well.
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*URDU Poetry by an Eminent Poet from INDIA - [http://www.geocities.com/BarqKadapavi Barq Kadapavi]
Languages of India
Languages of Pakistan
List of Urdu poets
List of Urdu writers
Persian and Urdu
TIHUS - The International Hindi-Urdu Script
Uddin and Begum Urdu-Hindustani Romanization
Badshah Munir Bukhari
* [http://www.bbc.co.uk/languages/other/guide/urdu/ A Guide to Urdu] ,
* [http://www.haroof.com/ Urdu Website]
* [http://www.urdu.zoonic.com/ A Good Urdu Site]
* [http://www.urdustuff.com/ Urdu Stuff]
* [http://www.nla.gov.pk/ National Language Authority] , Pakistan
* [http://www.ajsoftpk.com/mutakallim/ Mutakallim - A Free Urdu Speaking Software] , Pakistan
* [http://www.urduweb.org/wiki/UrduHome UrduWiki] , reading and writing Urdu on the Web
* [http://www.minhajspain.org/atiq minhajspain.org/atiq] - اردو میں لکھنے کے لئے کلک کریں
* [http://www.urdu.saarim.com/ Online Aasaan Urdu Qaida for children] , interactive and with colorful pictures
* [http://forum.chatdd.com/urdu-stuff/ Urdu Poetry]
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