- Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf Persian Gulf from space Location Southwest Asia Ocean type Gulf Primary sources Sea of Oman Basin countries Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Bahrain, United Arab Emirates and Oman (exclave of Musandam) Max length 989 km (615 mi) Max width (min) Surface area 251,000 km2 (97,000 sq mi) Average depth 50 m (160 ft) Max depth 90 m (300 ft)
The Persian Gulf was the focus of the 1980–1988 Iran-Iraq War, in which each side attacked the other's oil tankers. In 1991, the Persian Gulf again was the background for what was called the "Persian Gulf War" or the "Gulf War" when Iraq invaded Kuwait and was subsequently pushed back, despite the fact that this conflict was primarily a land conflict.
The Persian Gulf has many good fishing grounds, extensive coral reefs, and abundant pearl oysters, but its ecology has come under pressure from industrialization, and in particular, oil and petroleum spillages during wars in the region.
Historically and internationally known as the Persian Gulf, this body of water is sometimes controversially referred to as the Arabian Gulf or simply The Gulf by most Arab states, although neither of the latter two terms are recognized internationally. The name Gulf of Iran (Persian Gulf) is used by the International Hydrographic Organization.
This inland sea of some 251,000 km² is connected to the Gulf of Oman in the east by the Strait of Hormuz; and its western end is marked by the major river delta of the Shatt al-Arab, which carries the waters of the Euphrates and the Tigris. Its length is 989 kilometres, with Iran covering most of the northern coast and Saudi Arabia most of the southern coast. The Persian Gulf is about 56 kilometres wide at its narrowest, in the Strait of Hormuz. The waters are overall very shallow, with a maximum depth of 90 metres and an average depth of 50 metres.
Countries with a coastline on the Persian Gulf are (clockwise, from the north): Iran, Oman (exclave of Musandam), United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Qatar on a peninsula off the Saudi coast, Bahrain on an island, Kuwait and Iraq in the northwest. Various small islands lie within the Persian Gulf, some of which are the subject of territorial disputes between the states of the region.
The International Hydrographic Organization refers to the gulf as the "Gulf of Iran (Persian Gulf)", and defines its southern limit as "The Northwestern limit of Gulf of Oman". This limit is defined as "A line joining Ràs Limah (25°57'N) on the coast of Arabia and Ràs al Kuh (25°48'N) on the coast of Iran (Persia)".
Oil and gas
The Persian Gulf and its coastal areas are the world's largest single source of crude oil and related industries dominate the region. Safaniya Oil Field, the world's largest offshore oilfield, is located in the Persian Gulf. Large gas finds have also been made with Qatar and Iran sharing a giant field across the territorial median line (North Field in the Qatari sector; South Pars Field in the Iranian sector). Using this gas, Qatar has built up a substantial liquified natural gas (LNG) and petrochemical industry.
In 2002, the Persian Gulf nations of Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the UAE, produced about 25% of the world's oil, held nearly two-thirds of the world's crude oil reserves, and about 35% of the world natural gas reserves. The oil-rich countries (excluding Iraq) that have a coastline on the Persian Gulf are referred to as the Persian Gulf States. Iraq's egress to the gulf is narrow and easily blockaded consisting of the marshy river delta of the Shatt al-Arab, which carries the waters of the Uphrates and the Tigris rivers, where the east bank is held by Iran.
In 550 BC, the Achaemenid Empire established the first Persian Empire in Pars (Persis, or modern Fars) in the southwestern region of the Iranian plateau. Consequently in the Greek sources, the body of water that bordered this province came to be known as the Persian Gulf.
Considering the historical background of the name Persian Gulf, Sir Arnold Wilson mentions in a book, published in 1928 that:
“ No water channel has been so significant as Persian Gulf to the geologists, archaeologists, geographers, merchants, politicians, excursionists, and scholars whether in past or in present. This water channel which separates the Iran Plateau from the Arabia Plate, has enjoyed an Iranian Identity since at least 2200 years ago. ”
No written deed has remained since the era before the Persian Empire, but in the oral history and culture, the Iranians have called the southern waters: "Jam Sea", "Iran Sea", and "Pars Sea".
During the years: 550 to 330 BC coinciding with sovereignty of the first Persian Empire on the Middle East area, especially the whole part of the Persian Gulf and some parts of the Arabian Peninsula, the name of "Pars Sea" has been widely written in the compiled texts.
In the travel account of Pythagoras, several chapters are related to description of his travels accompanied by Darius the Great, to Susa and Persepolis, and the area is described. From among the writings of others in the same period, there is the inscription and engraving of Darius the great, installed at junction of waters of Red Sea (also called "Arabian Gulf" or "Ahmar Sea") and the Nile river and the Rome river (current Mediterranean) which belongs to the 5th century BC where, Darius the Great, the king of the Achaemenid Empire has named the Persian Gulf Water Channel: Pars Sea (Persian Sea).
In the 5th century BC, Darius the Great of the Achaemenid dynasty called the Persian Gulf "Draya; tya; haca; parsa: Aitiy", meaning, "The sea which goes from Persian." In this era, some of the Greek writers also called it "Persikonkaitas", meaning the Persian Gulf. Claudius Ptolemaues, the celebrated Greco-Egyptian mathematician/astronomer in the 2nd century called it "Persicus Sinus" or Persian Gulf. In the 1st century AD, Quintus Curtius Rufus, the Roman historian, designated it "Aquarius Persico" – the Persian Sea. Flavius Arrianus, another Greek historian, called it "Persiconkaitas" (Persian Gulf).
During the Sassanian dynasty and the time of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad and the 4 caliphs, the name invariably used was the "Persian Sea." This was continued by the Ummayyads and Abbassids, while during the time of the Ottoman empire, both "Persian Gulf" or "Persian Sea" were used, and occasionally Ottomans utilized the term "Khalij of Basra" or "Basra Kurfuzi" to refer to Persian Gulf, meaning the Gulf of Basra.
Among historians, travellers and geographers of the Islamic era, many of them writing in Arabic from the 9th to the 17th century, Ibn Khordadbeh, Ibn al-Faqih, Ibn Rustah, Sohrab, Ramhormozi, Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn Muhammad al-Farisi al Istakhri, Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn al-Husayn ibn Ali al-Mas'udi, Al-Mutahhar ibn Tahir al-Maqdisi(d. 966), Ibn Hawqal, Al-Muqaddasi, Ibn Khaldun, Mohammad ibn Najub Bekiran, Abu Rayhan Biruni, Muhammad al-Idrisi, Yaqut al-Hamawi, Zakariya al-Qazwini, Abu'l-Fida, Al-Dimashqi, Hamdollah Mostowfi, Ibn al-Wardi, Al-Nuwayri, Ibn Batutta, Katip Çelebi and other sources have used the terms "Bahr-i-Fars", "Daryaye-i-Fars", "Khalij al-'Ajami" and "Khalij-i Fars" (all of which translate into "Persian Gulf" or "Persian Sea").
Until the 1960s Arab countries used the term "Persian Gulf" as well, however with the rise of Arab nationalism (Pan-Arabism) in the 1960s, most Arab states started adopting the term "Arabian Gulf" (Arabic: الخلیج العربي, al-Khalīj al-‘Arabī) to refer to the waterway. However, this naming has not found much acceptance outside of the Arab world, and is not recognized by the United Nations or any other international organization.
The United Nations Secretariat on many occasions has requested that only the term "Persian Gulf" be used as the official and standard geographical designation for the body of water. Historically, "Arabian Gulf" has been a term used to indicate the Red Sea. At the same time, the historical veracity of the usage of "Persian Gulf" can be established from the works of many medieval historians.
At the Twenty-third session of the United Nations in March–April 2006, the name "Persian Gulf" was confirmed again as the legitimate and official term to be used by members of the United Nations.
For most of the early history of the settlements in the Persian Gulf the southern shores have been ruled by a series of nomadic tribes. During the end of the fourth millennium BC the southern part of the Persian Gulf was dominated by the Dilmun civilization. For a long time the most important settlement on the southern coast of the Persian Gulf was Gerrha. In the 2nd century the Lakhum tribe, who lived in what is now Yemen, migrated north and founded the Lakhmid Kingdom along the southern coast. Occasional ancient battles took place along the Persian Gulf coastlines, between the Sassanid Persian empire and the Lakhmid Kingdom, the most prominent of which was the invasion led by Shapur II against the Lakhmids, leading to Lackhmids' defeat, and advancement into Arabia, along the southern shore lines. During the 7th century the Sassanid Persian empire conquered the whole of the Persian Gulf, including southern and northern shores.
Between 625 BC and 226 AD the northern side was dominated by a succession of Persian empires including the Median, Achaemenid, Seleucid and Parthian empires. Under the leadership of the Achaemenid king Darius the Great (Darius I), Persian ships found their way to the Persian Gulf. Persian naval forces laid the foundation for a strong Persian maritime presence in Persian Gulf, that started with Darius I and existed until the arrival of the British East India Company, and the Royal Navy by mid-19th century AD. Persians were not only stationed on islands of the Persian Gulf, but also had ships often of 100 to 200 capacity patrolling empire's various rivers including Shatt-al-Arab, Tigris, and the Nile in the west, as well as Sind waterway, in India.
The Achaemenid high naval command had established major naval bases located along Shatt al-Arab river, Bahrain, Oman, and Yemen. The Persian fleet would soon not only be used for peacekeeping purposes along the Shatt al-Arab but would also open the door to trade with India via Persian Gulf.
Following the fall of Achaemenid Empire, and after the fall of the Parthian Empire, the Sassanid empire ruled the northern half and at times the southern half of the Persian Gulf. The Persian Gulf, along with the Silk Road were important trade routes in the Sassanid empire. Many of the trading ports of the Persian empires were located in or around Persian Gulf. Siraf, an ancient Sassanid port that was located on the northern shore of the gulf, located in what is now the Iranian province of Bushehr, is an example of such commercial port. Siraf, was also significant in that it had a flourishing commercial trade with China by the 4th century, having first established connection with the far east in 185 AD.
Portuguese expansion into the Indian Ocean in the early 16th century following Vasco da Gama's voyages of exploration saw them battle the Ottomans up the coast of the Persian Gulf. In 1521, a Portuguese force led by commander Antonio Correia invaded Bahrain to take control of the wealth created by its pearl industry. On April 29 of 1602, Shāh Abbās, the Persian emperor of the Safavid Persian Empire expelled the Portuguese from Bahrain, and that date is commemorated as National Persian Gulf day in Iran. With the support of the British fleet, in 1622 'Abbās took the island of Hormuz from the Portuguese; much of the trade was diverted to the town of Bandar 'Abbās which he had taken from the Portuguese in 1615 and had named after himself. The Persian Gulf was therefore opened by Persians to a flourishing commerce with the Portuguese, Dutch, French, Spanish and the British merchants, who were granted particular privileges.
In World War II, the Western Allies used Iran as a conduit to transport military and industrial supply to Russia (USSR), through a pathway known historically as the "Persian Corridor". This path would utilize the Trans-Iranian Railway, but in order for the supply to be transported to Iran, Britain utitlized the Persian Gulf as the entry point for the supply chain. Persian Gulf therefore became a critical maritime path through which the Allies transported equipment, to Russia against the Nazi invasion.
From 1763 until 1971, the British Empire maintained varying degrees of political control over some of the Persian Gulf states, including the United Arab Emirates (originally called the "Trucial Coast States") and at various times Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, and Qatar through the British Residency of the Persian Gulf. United Kingdom maintains a high profile in the region to date; in 2006 alone, over 1 million British nationals visited Dubai.
Persian Gulf is home to many small islands. Bahrain an island in the Persian Gulf, is itself a Persian Gulf Arab state. Geographically the biggest island in the Persian Gulf is Qeshm island located in the Strait of Hormuz and belonging to Iran. Other significant islands in the Persian Gulf include Greater Tunb, Lesser Tunb and Kish administered by Iran, Bubiyan administered by Kuwait, Tarout administered by Saudi Arabia, and Dalma administered by UAE. In recent years, there has also been addition of artificial islands, often created by Arab states such as UAE for commercial reasons or as tourist resorts. Although very small, these artificial islands have had a negative impact on the mangrove habitats upon which they are built, often causing unpredicted environmental issues. Persian Gulf islands are often also historically significant having been used in the past by colonial powers such as the Portuguese and the British in their trade or as acquisitions for their empires.
Wildlife of the Persian Gulf is diverse, and entirely unique due to the gulf's geographic distribution and its isolation from the international waters only breached by the narrow Strait of Hormuz. Persian Gulf has hosted some of the most magnificent marine fauna and flora, some of which are near extinction or at serious environmental risk. From corals, to dugongs, Persian Gulf is a diverse cradle for many species many of which depend on each other for survival.
A great example of this symbiosis are the mangroves in the gulf, which require tidal flow and a combination of fresh and salt water for growth, and act as nurseries for many crabs, small fish, and insects; these fish and insects, are the source of food for many of the marine birds that feed on them. Mangroves are a diverse group of shrubs and trees belonging to the genus Avicennia or Rhizophora that flourish in the salt water shallows of the gulf, and are the most important habitats for small crustaceans that dwell in them. They are as crucial an indicator of biological health on the surface of the water, as the corals are to biological health of the gulf in deeper waters. Mangrove's ability to survive the salt water through intricate molecular mechanisms, its unique reproductive cycle, and its ability to grow in the most oxygen deprived waters has allowed them extensive growth in hostile areas of the gulf. Unfortunately however, with the advent of artificial island development, most of their habitat is destroyed, or occupied by man-made structures. This has had a negative impact on the crustaceans that rely on the mangrove, and in return on the species that feed on them.
One of the most unique marine mammals living in the Persian Gulf is Dugong dugon, commonly referred to as the dugong, or the "sea cow". Called "sea cows" for their grazing habits, their mild manner and resemblance of the livestock, dugongs have a life expectancy similar to that of humans and can reach lengths of up to 3 meters. These are gentle mammals that feed on the sea grass, and genetically resemble the land mammals more than the dolphins and the whales. Despite the simplicity of their grass diet, new developments along the Persian Gulf coastline, particularly artificial island development in Arab states, pollution particularly by oil spills caused during the "Persian Gulf war" and also due to occasional oil spills, and uncontrolled hunting has had a negative impact on the survival of the dugongs. After Australian waters with some 80,000 dugong inhabitants, waters of Qatar, Bahrain, UAE, and Saudi Arabia have some 7,500 dugongs remaining, making the Persian Gulf the second most important habitat for the species. Dugong's current number is dwindling and it is not clear as of now how many are currently alive or what their reproductive trend is. Unfortunately, ambitious and uncalculated construction schemes, political unrest and an ever present international conflict, and presence of the most lucrative world supply of oil, along with lack of cooperation between Arab states and Iran, has had a negative impact on the survival of many marine species, including dugongs.
Coral is another important inhabitant of the Persian Gulf waters. Corals are vital ecosystems that support multitude of marine species, and whose health directly reflects the health of the gulf. Recent years have seen a drastic decline in the coral population in the gulf, partially owing to global warming but majorly due to irresponsible dumping by Arab states like UAE and Bahrain. Construction garbage such as tires, cement, and chemical by products have found their way to the Persian Gulf in recent years. Aside from direct damage to the coral, the construction waste creates "traps" for marine life in which they are trapped and die. The end result has been a dwindling population of the coral, and as a result a decrease in number of species that rely on the corals for their survival.
The Persian Gulf is also home to many migratory and local birds. There is great variation in color, size, and type of the bird species that call the gulf home. One bird in particular, the kalbaensis, a sub-species of the kingfishers is at the brink of extinction due to real state development by cities such a Dubai and countries such as Oman. Estimates at 2006, showed that only three viable nesting sites were available for this ancient bird, one located 80 miles from Dubai, and two smaller sites in Oman, all of which are in the process of becoming real estate developments. Such expansion would prove devastating and can cause this species to be extinct. Unfortunately for the kingfisher, a U.N. plan to protect the mangroves as a biological reserve was blatantly ignored by the emirate of Sharjah, which allowed the dredging of a channel that bisects the wetland and construction of an adjacent concrete walkway. Environmental watchdogs in Arabia are few, and those that do advocate the wildlife are often silenced or ignored by developers of real estate, most of whom have royal family connections and huge energy profits to invest. The end result has been sacrifice of a beautiful yet delicate ecology that has been in harmony for hundreds of years, for structures that are erected only a few years, yet will have a lasting detrimental effect.
Almost no species in the Persian Gulf is spared from the real estate development of UAE and Oman, including the hawksbill turtle, the flamingo, and the booted warblers, mainly due to destruction of the mangrove habitats to make way for towers, hotels, and luxury resorts. Even dolphins that frequent the gulf in northern waters, around Iran are at serious risk. Recent statistics and observations show that dolphins are at danger of entrapment in purse seine fishing nets and exposure to chemical pollutants; perhaps the most alarming sign is the "mass suicides" committed by dolphins off Iran's Hormozgan province, which are not well understood, but are suspected to be linked with a deteriorating marine environment from water pollution from oil, sewage, and industrial run offs.
The Persian Gulf is also home to over 700 species of fish, most of which are native to the gulf. Of these 700 species, more than 80% are coral reef associated, and directly or indirectly depend on the coral reef for their survival. Overall, the wild life of the Persian Gulf is endangered from both global factors, and regional, local negligence. Most pollution is from ships; land generated pollution counts as the second most common source of pollution, ranging from mercury, to acidic or basic toxins.
One variant of the kingfisher bird group.
Dolphins off the southern shore of Iran, around Hengam Island.
- ^ a b c d e f g United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names Working Paper No. 61, 23rd Session, Vienna, 28 March – 4 April 2006. accessed October 9, 2010
- ^ Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). "The World Fact Book". https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ir.html. Retrieved 2010-12-04.
- ^ nationsonline.org. "Political Map of Iran". http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/map/iran_map.htm. Retrieved 2010-12-04.
- ^ United Nations. "United Nations Cartographic Section (Middle East Map)". http://www.un.org/Depts/Cartographic/english/htmain.htm.
- ^ a b c d e Niusha Boghrati, Omission of 'Persian Gulf' Name Angers Iran, World Press.com, December 28, 2006
- ^ a b "Limits of Oceans and Seas, 3rd edition". International Hydrographic Organization. 1953. http://www.iho-ohi.net/iho_pubs/standard/S-23/S23_1953.pdf. Retrieved 7 February 2010.
- ^ Persian Gulf Online. "Persian Gulf Oil and Gas Exports Fact Sheet (U.S. Department of Energy)". http://www.persiangulfonline.org/interestgroups/oilfacts.htm. Retrieved March 4, 2011.
- ^ U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA). "Persian Gulf Oil and Gas Export Fact Sheet". EIA/DOE (Energey Information Administration/Department of Energy). http://www.eia.doe.gov/cabs/pgulf2.html.
- ^ Touraj Daryaee (2003). "The Persian Gulf Trade in Late Antiquity". Journal of World History 14 (1). http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/jwh/14.1/daryaee.html.
- ^ K Darbandi (Oct. 27th 2007). "Gulf renamed in aversion to 'Persian'". Asia Times. http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Middle_East/IJ27Ak01.html. Retrieved 2010-11-30.
- ^ Mahan Abedin (Dec. 9th 2004). "All at sea over 'the Gulf'". Asia Times. http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Middle_East/FL09Ak03.html. Retrieved 2010-11-30.
- ^ Roland G. Kent (1942). "Old Persian Texts". Journal of Near Eastern Studies 1 (4): 415–423. JSTOR 542476.
- ^ Geography of Claudius Ptolemy translated by Edward L. Stevenson; also sited in Sir Arnold T. Wilson, "The Persian Gulf", (London: 1928), pp. 3, 43
- ^ Histoire d’Alexandre le Grand par Quinte Curce, traduction en Francais, Tom II (Paris: 1834), p. 184
- ^ Flavius Arrianus, "History of Alexandre and Indica" with an English translation by E. Lliff Robinson (London: 1949), the Loeb Classical Library vol. II, pp. 414–417
- ^ a b c Mehr, Farhang (1997), "A colonial legacy: The dispute over the islands of Abu Musa, and the Greater and Lesser Tumbs", University Press of America
- ^ "Al-Massalek wa al-Mamalek", Leiden edition, 1889. p. 233
- ^ The abrdiged "Al-Buldan", Leiden, 1885, p. 8
- ^ Ibn Rustah, Kitāb al-A'lāk an-Nafīsa, ed. M. J. De Goeje, Bibliotheca Geographorum Arabicorum [BGA], Leiden, E. J. Brill, 1891/1892. p. 81
- ^ Ajayeb al-Aqalim al-Saba ila Nehayate al-Mara, (Vienne: 1929), p. 59. He was a Persian geographer who lived in the 9th century AD.
- ^ Nakhoda Bozorg ibn Shahriyar Ramhormozi was another Persian geographer of the classical Islamic era, "Ajayeb al-Hind", ed: M. Davis, Leiden 1886, p. 41
- ^ "Massalek al-Mamalek", ed.: De M.J. Goeje, Leiden 1927, p. 28
- ^ "Muruj adh-dhahab wa ma'adin al-jawhar (The Meadows of Gold and Mines of Gems)", English Translation by Aloys Sprenger, Vol I, (London: 1841), p. 259
- ^ al-Bad’ wa-l Tarikh, (Paris: 1907) Tom IV, p. 58.
- ^ "The Oriental Geography of Ebn Hawkal", Translated by Sir Williams Ouseley (London: 1800) p. 62; "Surat al-Arḍ"(Leiden 1938), Vol I, p. 42.
- ^ Ahsan al-Taqasim fi Ma’rifat al-Aqalim. Ed: De A.J. Goeje, (Leiden 1906), p. 17.
- ^ "Jahan Nama", quoted by Mohammad Javad Mashkoor in an article titled "Nam-i Khalij Fars" in the proceeding of the "Seminar on Khalij-e-Fars" (Tehran: 1964), Vol I. p. 44. Bekiran lived in the 11th century A.D.
- ^ "Al-Tafhim le-awa’el Sena al-Tanjim" ed.: Jalal al-Din Homai (Tehran: 1318 Hijri Sola Calendar), p. 167. Also in "Qanun Masudi"(Heydarabad, 1955), Vol. II. p. 558.
- ^ "Geographic d’Edirisi" traduite de l’Arabe en Francais par P. Amedee Jaulert (Recueil des voyages et des memoires publiees par la Societe de Geographie), (Paris: 1840), Vols. VI and VI. "Nuzhat al-Mushtaq fi Ikhtraq al-Afar", (Rome : 1878). p. 9
- ^ "mu’jam al-Buldan",(Cairo: 1906), Vol. 2, p. 68.
- ^ "Athar al-Bilad" (Gutingen: 1848), p. 104.
- ^ "Taqwim al-Buldan", Geographie d’Aboulfeda traduite de l’Arab par M. Reinaud, 2 Vols. (Paris: 1848), Vol 1, p. 23.
- ^ a b Quoted also in Mohammad Javad Mashkoor in an article titled "Nam-i Khalij Fars" in the proceeding of the "Seminar on Khalij-e-Fars" (Tehran: 1964). p. 46.
- ^ "Nuzhat al-Qolub", ed: Mohammad Dabir Sayaqi, (Tehran: 1336 Hijri Solar Year), p. 164.
- ^ "Kharida al-Ajayeb", Quoted also in Mohammad Javad Mashkoor in an article titled "Nam-i Khalij Fars" in the proceeding of the "Seminar on Khalij-e-Fars" (Tehran: 1964). p. 47.
- ^ "The Travels of Ibn Babutta", translated from the abrdiged Arabic MMS of Cambridge by the Rev. Samuel Lee(Cambridgde: 1824), p. 56
- ^ Picture of Gamal Abdel Nasser's handwritten letter, using the term Persian Gulf
- ^ Picture of 1952 Saudi Arabian ARAMCO map using the name Persian Gulf
- ^ Gary Sick; Lawrence G. Potter (31 August 1997). The Persian Gulf at the millennium: essays in politics, economy, security, and religion. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 8–. ISBN 978-0-312-17567-2. http://books.google.com/books?id=2MTly52x35QC&pg=PA8. Retrieved 9 October 2011. "As recognized by the United States Board on Geographic names, the name of the body of water that lies between Iran and the Arab states of the Gulf Cooperation Council is the Persian Gulf. For political reasons, Arabs often refer to it as the Arab or Arabian Gulf"
- ^ Eilts, Hermann F (1980). "Security Considerations in the Persian Gulf". International Security 5 (2): 79–113. doi:10.2307/2538446. JSTOR 2538446. "The Arab-Iranian nomenclatural controversy over the Gulf, which was so bitter in the late 50s and early 60s, was a by-product of the late President Nasser of Egypt's brand of Arab nationalism ... 'Arabian Gulf' is in fact a recent Arab appellation for that body of water..."
- ^ Bosworth, C. Edmund. "The Nomenclature of the Persian Gulf." pp. xvii–xxxvi in Alvin J. Cottrell (ed.), The Persian Gulf States: A General Survey. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1980.) (p. xxxiii): "Not until the early 1960s does a major new development occur with the adoption by the Arab states bordering on the Gulf of the expression al-Khalij al-Arabi as weapon in the psychological war with Iran for political influence in the Gulf; but the story of these events belongs to a subsequent chapter on modern political and diplomatic history of the Gulf."
- ^ UN Map (LINK)
- ^ UN Map of Iran()
- ^ UN Map of Western Asia, ()
- ^ . The Persian Gulf at the Millennium: Essays in Politics, Economy, Security, and Religion edited by Gary G. Sick, Lawrence G. Potter, p. 8
- ^ Hecataeus (472 to 509 BC) can be stated where Persian Gulf and Arabian Gulf (Red Sea) have been clearly shown.
- ^ Also a map has remained from Herodotus, the great Greek historian (425–484 BC) which introduces Red Sea as the Arabian Gulf
- ^ In the world map of Diseark (285–347 BC) too, Persian Gulf and Arabian Gulf have been clearly distinct.
- ^ Many maps and deeds prepared up to the 8th century by the historians such as Arrian, Hecataeus, Herodotus, Hiparek, Claudius Batlamious, Krats Malous.
- ^ Arriann, "Alexander Fleet in the Persian Gulf", in Anabasis Alexandri: Book VIII (INDICA)
- ^ In the Islamic period, Khwārizmī, Abou Yousef Eshagh Kandi, Ibn Khordadbeh, Batani (Harrani), Mas'udi, Balkhi, Estakhri, Ibn Houghal, Aboureyhan Birouni and others, mention that there is a wide sea at south of Iran named "Pars Sea", "Pars Gulf", "Fars Sea", "Fars Gulf", "Bahre Fars", "Sinus Persicus" and "Mare Persicum" and so on.
- ^ In a book, named "Persilus Aryateria", the Greek traveller of the 1st century A.D. has called the Red Sea as Arabian gulf; the Indian ocean has been named Aryateria Sea; the waters at Oman Coast is called Pars Sea; Barbarus region (between Oman and Yemen coast are called belonging to Pars, and the Gulf located at south side of Iran is named: Persian Gulf. By describing the water body, the life of Persians living at both sides have also been confirmed.
- ^ M. Th. Houtsma (1993). E.J. Brill's first encyclopaedia of Islam 1913–1936. ISBN 9789004097964. http://books.google.com/books?id=sP_hVmik-QYC&pg=PA179. Retrieved 2010-11-26.
- ^ Pierre Briant (2006). From Cyrus to Alexander: A History of the Persian Empire. Eisenbrauns. pp. 761. ISBN 9781575061207. http://books.google.com/books?id=lxQ9W6F1oSYC&pg=PA761.
- ^ British Institute of Persian Studies. "Siraf". http://www.bips.ac.uk/sites/siraf. Retrieved 2010-11-24.
- ^ [dead link]
- ^ Martin Blumenson, Robert W. Coakley, Stetson Conn, Byron Fairchild, Richard M. Leighton, Charles V.P. von Luttichau, Martin Blumenson, Robert W. Coakley, Stetson Conn, Byron Fairchild, Richard M. Leighton, Charles V.P. von Luttichau, Charles B. MacDonald, Sidney T. Mathews, Maurice Matloff, Ralph S. Mavrogordato, Leo J. Meyer, John Miller, Jr., Louis Morton, Forrest C. Pogue, Roland G. Ruppenthal, Robert Ross Smith, Earl F. Ziemke. Command Decisions. Government Printing Office. p. 225. http://books.google.com/books?id=XIxWWhu9ARoC&pg=PA225.
- ^ T. H. Vail Motter (1952). The Persian Corridor and aid to Russia, Volume 7, Part 1. Office of the Chief of Military History, Dept. of the Army. http://books.google.com/books?id=t3QGAQAAIAAJ.
- ^ "Trucial states". LookLex Encyclopedia. http://looklex.com/e.o/trucial_states.htm. Retrieved 2010-11-19.
- ^ Trucial States. Donald Hawley. 1970. p. 172. ISBN 9780049530058. http://books.google.com/books?id=OnhCBuXmeWYC&pg=PA172. Retrieved 2010-11-19.
- ^ Peter Beaumont, "Blair was dangerously off target in his condemnation of Iran", The Guardian, December 24, 2006.
- ^ Marco Ramerini. "Portuguese in the Arabia and the Persian Gulf". http://www.colonialvoyage.com/eng/asia/persian_gulf/index.html. Retrieved 2010-11-27.
- ^ a b c d e f Jim Krane (2006-07-03). "Development in Persian Gulf Threatens Wildlife". Discovery Channel. http://dsc.discovery.com/news/2006/07/03/gulfwildlife_pla.html?category=earth&guid=20060703160030. Retrieved 30 June 2008.
- ^ SunySB. "Mangals". http://life.bio.sunysb.edu/marinebio/mangal.html. Retrieved 2010-11-23.
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- Persian Gulf, Encyclopedia Iranica
- The Persian Gulf, Information, history and resources of the Persian Gulf
- The Portuguese in the Arabian peninsula and in the Persian Gulf
- Persian Gulf Studies Website
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